Кафедра английского языка
Составитель: Гариян А.А.
There are different types of mass media that we are accustomed to in this
day and age. Whether it's children, young people, or adults, we've all had our share
of media-related exposure every day. Learn more about what the media comprises
in our modern-day world.
Mass media refers to communication devices, which can be used to
communicate and interact with a large number of audiences in different languages.
Be it the pictorial messages of the early ages, or the high-technology media that are
available today, one thing that we all agree upon, is that mass media are an
inseparable part of our lives. Entertainment and media always go hand in hand, but
in addition to entertainment, mass media also remains to be an effective means of
communication, spreading information, advertising, marketing, and in general, of
expressing and sharing views, opinions, and ideas.
There are several types of Mass Media:
•Booklets and Brochures
New Age Media:
Print media encompasses mass communication through printed material. It
includes newspapers, magazines, booklets and brochures, house magazines,
periodicals or newsletters, direct mailers, handbills or flyers, billboards, press
releases, and books.
Newspapers: Newspapers enjoyed the position of the most preferred medium
to reach a wider audience until electronic communication emerged on the media
scene. In the early days, newspapers were the only medium that masses at large
depended on, for daily news. A newspaper carries all kinds of communication
related to a variety of topics like politics, current affairs, entertainment, finance,
stocks, etc. Apart from this, it also includes topics which are in lighter vein like
cartoons, crosswords, Sudoku, movie reviews, book reviews, puzzles, crosswords,
etc. This captivates the imagination and interests of readers from all age groups.
Newspapers are an important platform of mass communication as they reach every
nook and corner of the world where electronic media fails to reach. It plays a
updating the knowledge of the reader, and serves as a good platform for advertisers
to promote their products. However, with the emergence of the Internet, which
updates information every second and is just a click away, the popularity of
newspapers has reduced.
Magazines: Magazines are another type of popular culture print media. They
usually cater to a specific type of audience who are looking for information based
on a particular subject. Magazines cover a plethora of topics like current affairs,
business, finance, consumers, gadgets, self-help, luxury, lifestyle, beauty, fashion,
entertainment, travel, etc. Magazines like TIME and Reader's Digest include
information which is all-pervasive. The frequency of magazines can be weekly,
fortnightly, bi-monthly, quarterly, half-yearly, or yearly. These magazines are the
best forum for advertisers as they have a niche readership. The readers look for a
specific type of information; say for example, a camera ad in a Gadget magazine
will definitely have a direct brand impact on the reader who wants to buy a camera.
Also, the shelf life and brand recall of magazines is far better than newspapers
which have a short life span.
literature of a product, or an organization. There are two types of booklets and
•Pre-buying promotion: Usually in malls and stores, promotional literature is
profitable). For example, a free booklet about cosmetics will include information
about the products, latest trends, contents, the benefits of using them, the available
range, or colors, discount coupons, etc. This, will most likely, have a positive
impact on your decision-making.
•Post-buying promotion: These booklets and brochures are usually given
must have observed when you buy any new item that it is usually accompanied
with a small booklet giving details about the benefits of using the product, usage
directions, cleaning and storage instructions. The guidelines are usually followed
by a series of 'how to' images which facilitate easy information about the product.
These booklets may also include ‘Other offerings’ section. Organizations also have
their own profiles in the form of brochures which they give to their stakeholders to
create a favorable image. It highlights the information about the company, its
capacity and capability, services and solutions offered milestone achievements,
sustainability, innovation, awards, etc. In this case people "do judge the book by its
cover", and hence, these booklets and brochures are designed in an attractive
format using colors and photos.
Billboards: Billboards are huge advertisements that are put up at a height in
strategic locations to draw more attention. They usually attract the target audience
by their bold colors, attention-grabbing headlines, creativity, designs, special
effects, etc. Initially, billboards started by hand painting huge boards, and
eventually graduated to putting up printed sheets. Later came a trend for
incorporating neon signs, videos, and cut-outs which extend out from the boards,
3D rubber, or plastic balloon objects, etc. Such billboards are called bulletins. They
command the best customer exposure. Communication in these types of billboards
should be in minimum words. The images should speak louder than the words.
They are a successful medium of communication as they are good at captivating
and retaining customer’s attention.
Electronic media is the kind of media which requires the user to utilize an
electric connection to access it. It is also known as 'Broadcast Media'. It includes
television, radio, and new-age media like the Internet, computers, telephones, etc.
Television: Television appeals to both the auditory and visual senses, and
hence is an important communication device as it beholds the attention of the
audience. For many people, it is impossible to imagine a life without their
television sets, be it the daily news, or even the soap operas. Television has
become an advertising hub where advertisers are ready to spend huge amounts of
money for an ad of a few seconds, especially for programmes with high
viewership. An apt example would be Super Bowl Season. It offers various
programs to appeal to the masses of different age groups. It is a popular means of
communication which provides both information and entertainment. This category
also includes electronic media like movies, CDs and DVDs as well as the
Radio: Radio has a significant reach. A considerable number of Americans
with catchy jingles and phrases is a tried and tested means of communication.
Radio lost its popularity with the boom of television. But till day, radio remains
one of the favorite means of electronic communication. Moreover, it is an
interactive means of communication with all the dial-in programs which give the
listeners an opportunity to feature on radio.
New age Media: With the advent of the Internet, we are now enjoying the
benefits of high technology mass media, which is not only faster than the old
school mass media, but also has a widespread range. Mobile phones, computers,
and the Internet are often referred to as the new-age media. The Internet has
opened up several new opportunities for mass communication which include e-
mail, websites, podcasts, e-forums, e-books, blogging, Internet TV and many
others, which are booming today. The Internet has also started social networking
sites which have redefined mass communication all together. Sites like Facebook,
entertaining, interesting, and easier!
Mobile Phones: Mobile phones have become a boon to mankind. It has made
communication possible at any time, and from anywhere. Nowadays, a smart
device like a mobile phone is not only used for interaction, but also for other
technical utilities like operating pumps from remote locations, etc. You can also
get alerts of your monetary transactions on a mobile phone. About a decade ago,
who would have thought of having the Internet on mobiles? Today, we can stay in
touch with the whole world via the Internet on our mobile phones.
Computers: With the invention of computers the impossible has become
possible. We virtually get information about everything from pin to piano with the
help of computers. It has added speed and multimedia to the information which
was earlier available only in the print format. Also, anyone can voice their opinions
through computers. Computers have added a new breakthrough in the mass media
by combining human intelligence with the cutting edge technology.
discovery of the Internet can be called the biggest invention in mass media. In
earlier days, news used to reach people only with the morning newspaper. But
today, live updates reach us simultaneously as the events unfold. For example, the
royal wedding of Kate Middleton and Prince William was watched live on the
Internet by millions of people around the world. The Internet has inspired
interaction and connectivity through its social networking medium. It has become
one of the core means of mass communication. We cannot think of leading our
lives without it. Let us see how the Internet impacts mass communication through
the following mediums.
▫E-mails: e-mails or electronic mails have drastically reduced the time it
lesser usage of paper.
▫Websites: the Internet has a plethora of websites dedicated to various
of these websites is in providing information, search engines, downloads through
libraries, and interaction through the social networking sites. Due to these websites
carrying out e-commerce transactions has also become easy.
▫ Podcasts: Podcasts are mediums of mass communication that include short
portable media instruments. They are engaging devices of communication.
▫ E-Forums: E-Forums are bulletin boards on websites where people start
platforms to discuss a range of topics. People give their opinions and share their
experiences on various topics.
▫ E-Books: There are a number of websites which have hosted eBooks and
bulky books. You can read them on your eBook readers, mobiles, computer
screens, or other devices. You can even adjust the font size to suit your
▫ Blogging: A blog is a space on the Internet where a single person or a
interesting and free platform to talk about any topic. Interaction happens in the
form of comments or feedback.
▫ Internet TV: It is also known as online TV. It usually has an archive of
You can either view the programs directly from the host server, or download the
content on your computer. It is an effective means of communication.
▫ Facebook: It is the most popular social networking website. Facebook has
or make new ones. Advertisers also like this forum for communicating about their
▫ Twitter: It is also a famous social networking website. Twitter is a micro
a time when it was very popular among celebrities and individuals. Today, the
governments of various nations have understood the importance of "tweeting"
information to the public, and regularly share information through Twitter.
▫ YouTube: It is a website which uploads content in a video format. It houses
educational videos, you will find everything on YouTube.
Answer the following questions and discuss them with your partner.
of Mass Media? Name as many as possible.
What kind of New Age Media do you prefer most of all?
to be accompanied with
to appeal to
имеющийся в наличии, свободный
to be accustomed to
привыкший к чему-либо
легко запоминающиеся фразы
to dedicate to
to interact with
The earliest variation on a newspaper was a daily sheet published in 59 BC
in Rome called Acta Diurna (Daily Events), which Julius Caesar ordered to be
posted throughout the city. The earliest known printed newspaper was in Beijing in
In 1451, Johannes Gutenberg uses a press to print an old German poem, and
of print products, ushering in an era of newspapers, magazines, and books. By
1500, the genesis of a postal system can be seen in France, while book publishing
becomes popular throughout Europe and the first paper mill can be found
Zeitung (newspaper) is a news report published in Germany in 1502, while
1513. Germany's Avisa Relation oder Zeitung, in 1609, is the first regularly
published newspaper in Europe. Forty-four years after the first newspaper in
England, the Oxford Gazette is published, utilizing double columns for the first
time; the Oxford/London Gazette is the first true newspaper. The first North
American newspaper, Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestic, was
published in 1690 in Boston.
The 1700s was a century in which market elements were created that
encouraged the development of daily newspapers: rising literacy, the formation of
nation-states, a rising literary and philosophical tradition emphasizing democratic
involvement in government, and technologies that supported newspaper
production. In short, it was a great news century. The first daily newspaper was
the first four-column format. France's first daily newspaper appears in 1777,
In 1873, an illustrated daily newspaper can be seen in New York. In 1878
the first full-page newspaper advertisements appear, and in 1880 the first
photographs are seen in newspapers, using halftones.
With the basic technical groundwork for the modern newspaper in place by
the late 19th century, the story of newspapers in the 20th century was about
professional development and adaptation to changing consumer and media
markets. The story also involved an evolving business model that rode an ever-
growing wave of mass-market advertising.
Find the English equivalents in the text.
•поощрять развитие чего-либо;
•по всему городу;
•развитие модели бизнеса на растущей волне массовой рекламы;
•возвещающая об эре…;
•зарождение (возникновение) почтовой службы.
Answer the following questions.
1. What was the first regularly published newspaper in Europe?
2. In which newspaper were the double columns utilized for the first time?
3. When and where was the first North American newspaper published?
4. What were the market elements that encouraged the development of daily
newspaper in the 17th century?
5. What were the first daily newspapers in London, Paris and the US? When did
they come into circulation?
All newspapers in Britain can broadly be divided into the quality press
(“broadsheet”) and the popular press (“tabloid”).
The quality newspapers/ broadsheets are also known as “heavies” and they
usually deal with home and overseas news, with detailed and extensive coverage of
sports and cultural events. Besides they also carry financial reports, travel news
and book and film reviews.
Broadsheet is a size and format for newspapers and a descriptive term
applied to papers which use that format rather than the smaller tabloid format.
Historically, broadsheets were developed when in 1712 a tax was placed on British
newspapers based on the number of their pages. Broadsheet newspapers tend to be
more intellectual in content than their tabloid counterparts, examining stories in
more depth and carrying sensationalist celebrity stories less often. However, while
this distinction is widely used, some tabloid papers - particularly The Daily Mail
and The Daily Express - point out that the term "tabloid" strictly refers only to the
paper size, and often use phrases such as "broadsheet quality in a tabloid format".
The Times, The Financial Times, The Guardian, The Daily Telegraph, The
Independent, are known as quality papers or broadsheets. So, quality papers aim at
presenting the reader with a full and serious coverage of important home and
foreign events. They examine the subject more deeply and give more information
than the popular papers. All the quality papers use the large, full-scale broadsheet
format, their style is clear-cut and the language is straightforward, free from slang
Apart from a classification of style and ways of presentation there is also the
political parties, there are strong connections. The majority of papers– even those
which carry little serious news – are conservative in outlook. Of the six quality
dailies The Daily Telegraph (founded in 1855) is strongly conservative. It is a
broadsheet published on 28 pages with 5 per cent of the whole space given over to
of center political standpoint. It is liberal in outlook though it doesn’t represent the
official view of the Liberal Party. Note that Manchester Guardian was launched in
1821. The Guardian enjoys particular popularity among those readers who are
connected with the arts. The paper’s motto is “Facts are sacred, comment is free”.
This paper because of its very honest comment of news is very influential.
The Financial Times saw its appearance in 1888. At present it is no more
simply the commercial specialist paper it used to be and has become a major
The Times (1785) is the oldest of the existing papers. It has always been the
paper of the “Establishment” and has a good reputation for reliable and serious
comment on foreign and home affairs.
The popular daily papers are also called tabloids. A tabloid is both a paper
size and a term for the style of the newspapers that tend to use that format. Tabloid
is the smaller of the two standard newspaper sizes; the larger newspapers are called
broadsheets. The name seems to derive from a pharmaceutical trademark meaning
distinct uses of the term today. The more recent usage, actually deriving from the
original usage, is to refer to weekly or semi-weekly alternative papers in tabloid
format. Many of these are essentially straightforward newspapers, publishing in
What principally distinguishes these from the dailies, in addition to their
less-frequent publication, is the fact that they are usually free to the user, relying
on ad revenue, as well as the fact that they tend to concentrate more on local
entertainment scenes and issues. In its traditional sense, tabloids tend to emphasize
sensational stories and are reportedly prone to create their news. Such national
tabloids as The Sun, The Daily Mirror, The Daily Mail, The Daily Express, The
Daily Star, Today and others do not pay a great deal of attention to important
world events and when they do, the facts are often distorted in an effort to make
the news exciting and entertaining. Much space is devoted to crime, scandal, while
generally a small amount of information is on different topics. Sometimes opinions
take more space than “hard news”. Their front page news is presented in a
sensational manner, with banner headlines. Popular papers use more pictures and
cartoons. They deliberately employ slang and up to date expressions to give their
reports more vitality. The vocabulary is forceful, abounding in words and phrases
appealing to the readers’ emotions.
The Daily Mail devotes its space to commercial advertisements (ads), sports
notices, financial news, reviews, gossip, letters from the public, comic strips,
opinion and comment, horoscopes, topical cartoons, parliamentary reports and
the Labour Party. It can boast of the third mass circulation. It is one of the first
papers to use strip cartoons.
Most daily newspapers have no Sunday editions, but there are Sunday papers.
The latter are sometimes closely linked with national dailies either because they
are owned by the same proprietor or because “they are printed on the same
The Sunday press for a long time has been notorious for its extremes of good
and bad quality, and for enormous circulation of some of the more scandalous
papers. Much space in the Sundays is given to features, comment and leisure
The national quality Sundays are The Observer, The Sunday Times, The
Sunday Telegraph. They have smaller circulations than the popular Sunday papers.
Sunday papers devote much space to literature and the arts.
The popular Sunday papers (The News of the World, The Sunday Mirror,
The Sunday Express, The Mail on Sunday) are the newspapers with huge
circulation bringing reports of violence, crime and scandal. With the Sunday
quality and popular papers the differences between them are even more marked.
The classification of British newspapers:
Daily Broadsheet: The Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The
Independent, The Financial Times.
Daily Tabloid: Daily Mail, Daily Express, The Sun, The Mirror, The Star.
Sunday Broadsheet: Sunday Times, Sunday Telegraph, The Observer.
Sunday Tabloid: Mail on Sunday, Sunday Express, News of The World,
Sunday Mirror, Sunday People.
•иметь своей целью…;
•полное и серьезное освещение событий внутри страны и за рубежом;
•различные употребления данного понятия;
•намеренно использовать сленг и современные выражения;
newspapers divided according to the frequency of publication?
How are quality papers characterized in the text (coverage of the events,
What is special about tabloids’ vocabulary and headlines?
to aim at
стремиться к чему-то
обращенный к чему-то
to be devoted to
подчеркивать; делать упор на чем-то
to tend to