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One of the most difﬁ cult problems in teaching L2 is how to teach essay writing effectively and properly.
Writing is a language skill, which is productive. It involves using writing sub skills. Moreover, writing is the main
tool of communication for human beings. Most maintain that students will have problems to cope with the task
because of its complexity. For this reason, it would be better to focus on a collaborative activity. The ﬁ rst cause
is to conduct students essay writing effectively through various writing stages; pre-writing, drafting, peer review.
It would help them to work with the given task efﬁ ciently and to consider the procedure of putting together a
good piece of work, because knowing different stages and using them develops learner autonomy and conﬁ dence
in learners writing. There have been many works concerned with teaching writing to nonnative speakers about
English from different perspectives. Writing can be maintained as a productive language skill. It can be said using
writing skills that are cognates to accuracy, which means using the correct forms of language [15, p. 37].
Another reason to share the basic problems of prewriting in the writing classroom students can encourage
broader skills of cooperation and make a contribution to the development of their further writing through
collaborative working. And to wake up unmotivated students` and making essay writing more interesting to make
better learner needs, worldview and students’ background knowledge is the next argument in my article. Can you
recommend me good methods of teaching essay writing? Where would one search for the right answer?
This was my dilemma at the advent of this piece of work into teaching discursive writing essay using technique
like the use of group work following the stages of process approach. Furthermore, process writing can refer to
an approach where the teacher gives the learners opportunities to work through stages in the writing process.
Planning, drafting, revising, editing, and proofreading, re- drafting all conveys writing stages. These stages can be
deﬁ ned as a process of writing in which fact begins before we put pen to paper. Most state that many activities exist
to help learners practice accuracy in writing, such as coherence and cohesion. “Good writing does not just happen.
The best writers spend a great deal of time thinking, planning, writing, and editing.’’(Elizabeth West)
The purpose of this analysis is to the writing process step by step. The main emphasis of the project is to
provide an overview of collaboration writing in working with others and communicating their thoughts and ideas.
In addition discussing the beneﬁ ts of the process approach to essay writing, this masterpiece will illustrate how
teachers can take advantages of using some of the latest collaborative method in Kazakhstan. In addition: to
central issue writing essay is a process wheel. The interview made by Kazakhstani Foreign Language teachers
ﬁ nds this problem more relevant to teaching philosophy of English language.
The use of English in writing is increasing since the reign of Henry V (1413-1422). It states that English
begins adopted in writing around the 1425[1, p.155].If mankind can be looked back to last 100, 000 years ago,
every human activity of writing had a growth in the evaluation of both sexes. The earliest writing was found so
far dates from about 5,500 years ago. Since that time many different writing systems have evolved in the world.
(Harmer, 2003) Looking back for a daunting forecast English Foreign Language can now draw on a wide range
of approaches to teaching writing. Another step, writing can be deﬁ ned as a sequence of sentences arranged in
a particular order and linked together in certain ways. There has been much discussion late about numbers of
different approaches to the practice of writing skills both in and outside of the classroom.
There are three principal approaches to teaching writing. It has been debated for the last two decades process and
product approaches have dominated teaching writing that happens in the English Foreign Language classroom.
[9,p. 54]. Harmer (2011) is accurate saying that there are three major approaches to the practice of writing: the
product, the process, genre approach. Finally, it may be said that last ten years, genre approach has gained adherents.
Genre approaches are equivalent new situation to English Language Teaching. It represents a group of texts,
which can be shared in a communicative purpose. First, genre began existing in the early1980.Product and process
approaches that were popular in writing class at that time. However, there are contrasts with product approaches,
somewhat genre approaches is regarded as an extension of product approach. Genre represents the norms of
different kinds of writing. [9, p.327] Swale supports this view and says that the important aspect of the situation
is the purpose. Genre deﬁ ned as members of sharing set of communicative purpose. [As cited in Millar, 1990].
Although, genres are organizational structures, which are goal-oriented; are used to get things done socially.
(Ibid). In addition, Martin, Christie, and Rothery (1987) maintain genres are staged. According to Ferris and
Hedgcock (2005,8) “as a transactional activity, writing represents a process that must be undertaken with the
reader’s background knowledge, needs, interests and ideologies in mind.” [5p.26]
Harmer (2011) suggests that for genre analyzers, the central attitude of the situation is the aspect. Different
genres are used to carry out different aims. In order to form part of the pre-writing phase, it would be better let
students to look at typical models of written work before starting to compose their own work. If we want to write
newspaper articles, we have them study real examples to discover facts about construction and speciﬁ c language
use which are common to the target language. To conclude, written genres should include scaffolding instruction.
The next approach can be deﬁ ned as a linguistic knowledge, which is focused on the appropriate use of
vocabulary, syntax and cohesive devices. Furthermore product writing is interested in the aim of the task. It is
found to be as a ﬁ nished product [9, p.11-32]. Equal idea Pincas (as cited in ELT journal 2000, p.153) sees the
writing about linguistic knowledge, focusing the attention on the use of acceptable vocabulary, syntax adherent
For example, teachers give a general explanation of certain writing skills and alien the topic to students after
students ﬁ nish the task individually and hand in their work to receive the feedback from the teacher. Learning to
write has four stages of the product approach: familiarization, controlled writing, guided writing and free writing.
Familiarization stage aim points to make learners aware of certain features of a particular text. Controlled and
guided writing stages the learners’ practice the skills with increasing freedom until the students’ are ready for
the free writing stage [4, 2000]. To sum up, product approach can be deﬁ ned as a form focusing on imitation or
adaptation of a model.
The last writing approach can be taught as a process rather than to focus on product. In contrast to the product
approach to writing the process approach involves repeated steps. There are four elements of process: planning,
drafting, editing and ﬁ nal version [9, p.326]. An example for this, writing is a self-discovery, very complex, highly
individualized process. It asks learners to focus on the description of ideas: so the ideas should be seen as the most
important aspect of the writing. Zen strongly agree with the idea that the writing process advocates writing an idea
relatively through mental process of several stages pre-writing, drafting, revising and editing.
As Oshima states, writing is a process at creating, organizing, writing, and polishing. In addition, in the ﬁ rst
step of the process the writer should create ideas, after that organize ideas and then write rough draft and as a result
you polish your rough draft by editing and making revisions. (2006). Both Zen and Oshima are similar in that
various stages of process writing essay. One suggestion is that teachers should plan their instructions to include all
the stages of the writing process.
Furthermore, similar idea was given by Sprat, Pulverness, A., and Williams, M. (2011:39; 40) drafting, editing,
proofreading and re-drafting are stages which form part of the writing process. It gives the idea that writing in
fact begins before we put pen to paper. A process writing approach gives learners the opportunity to work through
stages in the writing process. It might be transfer planning to drafting, and then on to editing, re-drafting and
proofreading the work. It can be assumed that to focus on developing ideas at the planning stage, after organizing
them, further to ﬁ nd the language to express themselves at the drafting stage, and then editing, redrafting and
proofreading stages they focus on evaluating their ideas and the accuracy of their language.
According to Badger and White, G. (2000) writing can be deﬁ ned process approach which is seen as for the
most part to do linguistic skills, such as planning and drafting. On the other hand, it can be said that writing is
a cyclical process. Harmer (2004) contrasts with the above given stages to produce ﬁ nal version which is called
writing process. However, Harmer does not support the process of writing as a result time-consuming procedure.
Although Harmer contends that students will ﬁ nd difﬁ cult to give the time to the process. It can be said that there
are times, when process writing is not appropriate: because classroom time is limited. The writing process is at
least as important as the product.
In conclusion, we can easily see from these few examples the process writing focuses on the writer. The writing
skill takes into consideration with number of writing stages such as, planning, drafting, revising, editing, and
proofreading ,re- drafting.
As Flowers and Hayes (1981) have discovered and Zamel (1982) in her more recent research conﬁ rms,
planning is not a unitary stage, but a distinctive thinking process which writers use over and over again during
composition. As Zamel perceptively notes that the students spent a great deal of time thinking about the essay task,
trying to ﬁ nd out to proceed. For this case, an outline before the writer can be provided easy to write paragraph.
Another suggestion is, drafting is known as the rewritten successful papers (Robinson, 1988) .Besides, most
writers claim that it is very important get ideas down on paper.
In addition, editing commonly used and still has been use for reﬂ ecting and revising.
In Robinson’s view (1988) learning about some of the skills, which the good writer employs, all learners will
become a good writers. A further effect noted by Robinson keeping in mind that warning we need to turn to looking
at some of the procedures. However, above discussed planning, drafting, editing is not entirely satisfactory. It can
be deﬁ ned the process is not liner at all, but recursive (Raimes, 1991). As Smith cited in Robinson (1998) writing
involves discovery of meaning. Simultaneity, recursions are features of writing process. One suggestion is that
writers plan, draft, and edit but it might be re-done.
The majority of ideas are alike and they stress the collaboration. Nowadays there are numerous deﬁ nitions of
collaborative working. Myers (1996) deﬁ nes that the dictionary deﬁ nitions of “collaboration”, derived from its
Latin root. It can be attributed to the process of group work. Collaborative Learning (CL) had had British roots,
based on the work of English teachers exploring ways to help learners individually (As cited in Panitz, 1996). First
of all, collaborative writing group work was started in the early 70s (Newman, 1992).Another example of this, Ede
and Lunsford lends support to CL that group work includes any writing done in collaboration. As a result it has
followed written brainstorming, outlining, drafting, revising and editing .In addition, collaborative learning (CL)
is known as the philosophy of the interaction. A prime example of this is a sharing of authority and acceptance of
responsibility among group members for the group actions. It can be applied for CL practitioners in the classroom.
This process occurred as a result of student centered method (Panitz, 1996).Also, writing is an idea-formation
process which involves communicating with readers. This approach encourages group work or peer work which
would involve a lot of collaboration and cooperation between learners (Nunan, 1991).In addition, teacher’s role
is to help students develop viable strategies for getting started (Kroll1997, 15). It can be reﬂ ected the fact that
writing includes commonness between the writer and his audience that produces an awareness of an authentic
social situations and an afﬁ nity to collaborative with the others (ibid).
Although cooperative learning, team learning, group learning, and peer –assisted learning all part of CL
(Dahley, 1994). Another reason, the use of group work techniques has been found better to enlarge the self-
conﬁ dences of students. Because, every learner even weaker ones need to work taking an important role in a
helpful situation. Writing can be ﬁ nd as a medium, where there is time to keep, to re-think and to use language to
think. The purpose of this overview students need to see the consequence of drafting, revising and editing to obtain
the best expression( Crystal 2007, p.139) To sum up, at the end of the process learners have such a good command
of language and is based on a personal voice.
The central issue in writing is the social audience which is based in learning and involves repeated steps
(Boas 2011:26). As Andy Gillett insightfully states that in academic writing learners are expected to produce
logically structured ideas with well-argued, sustained points, taking into consideration different opinions. This
paper describes and analyses one of the genres of academic writing is essay writing which is a learner centered
method. Another thing is that Boas says: The process approach is a student –centered teaching that makes learning
relevant to students and their social realities results in greater interest, involvement, and conﬁ dence in language
learning. It can be claimed that the writer is the center of attention – someone engaged in the discovery and
expression of meaning, is not preoccupied with form (Kroll 1997).
Ferris and Hedgcock ( as cited in Villas Boas 2011:26)stresses the idea student centered teaching that makes
learning relevant to students and their social realities results in greater interest, involvement, conﬁ dence in language
learning. Finally, CL is another area of learning, changing, improving together that ﬁ ts today’s globalised world
Learning is based on the needs, worldview, and sociocultural background of the learner. It could make better
successful results. In this case, student centered teaching makes learning permanent to students. On the other
hand, their social realities results in greater interest, involvement and conﬁ dence in language learning. It can
be said that group work or peer work is more interesting and effective to use than they were twenty years ago.
These developments have led to an increase in collaborative methods of teaching Foreign Language Teaching in
Kazakhstan now. This article considers various elements required in academic writing from word to sentence,
from sentence to a text. It can be said that planning and drafting very important during the lesson. According to
the above said authors view to use planning strategies has shown positive result in improving the quantity of
writing in my own experience. In addition teachers need to listen to students needs and motivate them to improve
essay writing. If teachers try to make the lesson light moving from easier to the difﬁ cult task, the lesson will
be enjoyable for the learners. To sum up ﬁ rst, dramatically increases the number of talking opportunities for
individual students. Secondly, promotion in learner autonomy and variety of activities will make collaboration
among students. If teachers practice learner centered method, as result students will be happy. Finally, sharing
ideas working in groups can be deﬁ ned promotion for developing collaborative work. It is a good activity than
to work individually. In conclusion, a good example of group work and achievement of the lesson aim will be
feedback from the learners and observes. It also can be greatly motivating for students. All in all it can describe a
speciﬁ c kind of relationship between learners.