part of our graduate students still have temporary jobs without strong obligations towards their current
stakeholders. Thus Conferencing Gamesday is a unique opportunity to provide “tough, offline”
apprenticeship without sending the graduates to the stakeholders or arranging expensive international
events. Most successful and affordable way of organizing such “stakeholderless” Conferencing
Gamesday in the future is, in our opinion, the Skype Conferencing University Gamesday in the
country, regional, and international scales. Another perspective of “stakeholder” or “stakeholderless”,
thus universal form of graduate apprenticeships may be developed through regional or international
webinars with invitation of the most successful researchers, teachers and conference organizers
preferably teaching the courses of scientific reasoning or modern research design.
References 1. E. Moskowitz (2015). Game Theory: How play fosters real learning. LinkedIn Pulse.
2. N. Wyman (2015). Vocational Education is Smarter Than You Think. LinkedIn Pulse.
Kalimbetov E.A, Beisakhmet A.A., Bayburiyev R.M., Yessenov M.N. THE USE OF CASE-STUDY AS A METHOD OF INNOVATIVE TEACHING IN TOURISM The given article deals with the innovative teaching methods such as case-study method in teaching tourism courses. It is emphasized that the development of students' ability of logical thinking and the ability to apply obtained knowledge in independent decision-making is one of the main goals of education in Kazakhstan.
Key words: Innovative teaching methods, case-study method, managerial skills. In today’s competitive arena, the universities must use all possible means to give better
education so that the competence of graduates meets the demand of modern tourism business.
The education in Kazakhstan is “too theoretical”, and not based on the practical application of
the knowledge. Therefore, it is necessary to overcome this existing problem by introducing new
methods of teaching.
The development of students' ability of logical thinking and the ability to apply knowledge in
independent decision-making is one of the main goals of education in Kazakhstan.
The curricula of universities suffer due to the lack of applied courses and prevalence of
classroom activities, less individual work of students. Practical skills should be developed by active
training methods. The transition to such organization of education requires a psychological adjustment
of both teachers and students. Kazakhstani students, unlike the foreign ones, are afraid to make a
mistake, and require detailed comments to the assignment.
Therefore, professors should encourage greater autonomy of students; offer students an
independent analysis of the problem and independent development of options for resolving the
problem, and not the work of "a pattern" to obtain certain "correct" answer. The aspiration of
Kazakhstani students to get a high score became a final goal, so while studying the course they are
afraid to make a mistake and, thus, reduce the likelihood of obtaining a high final score.
Many students are more inductive than deductive reasoners, which means that they learn better
from examples than from logical development starting with basic principles. The use of case studies
can therefore be a very effective classroom method.
Case studies are have long been used in business schools, law schools, medical schools and the
social sciences, but they can be used in any discipline when instructors want students to explore how
what they have learned applies to real world situations. Cases come in many formats, from a simple
“What would you do in this situation?” question to a detailed description of a situation with
accompanying data to analyze. Whether to use a simple scenario-type case or a complex detailed one
depends on your course objectives.
Most case assignments require students to answer an open-ended question or develop a solution
to an open-ended problem with multiple potential solutions. Requirements can range from a one-
paragraph answer to a fully developed group action plan, proposal or decision.
Through the use of case studies students are exposed to real problems in a variety of scenarios.
They will develop their analytical skills, their flexibility of thinking, and their ability to apply
theoretical knowledge to practical situations.
Case method is a powerful student-centered teaching strategy that can impart students with
critical thinking, communication, and interpersonal skills.
Having students work through complex, ambiguous, real world problems engages students with
the course material, encouraging them to “see it from an action perspective, rather than analyze it from
a distance” . Case studies are, by their nature, multidisciplinary, and “allow the application of
theoretical concepts…bridging the gap between theory and practice” . Working on cases requires
students to research and evaluate multiple sources of data, fostering information literacy.
Working on case studies requires good organizational and time management skills. Case method
increases student proficiency with written and oral communication, as well as collaboration and team-
work. “Case studies force students into real-life situations,” training them in managerial skills such as
“holding a meeting, negotiating a contract, giving a presentation, etc” .
Before choosing a case, it’s important to set your goals for the lesson. Have a clear set of
objectives and “be sure you know what you want to accomplish in the case, what facts, principles, and
viewpoints the students should cover” .
Good case studies focus on one issue or problem, and have a clear problem statement. Choose
case studies that match your course objectives, allowing students to apply what they learn in the
course to the scenario.
“Know all the issues involved in the case, prepare questions and prompts in advance, and
anticipate where students might run into problems” (Carnegie Mellon). Within the case “where is the
debate? You need to frame the fighting issues, because that’s where the action is” .
In his analysis of case discussion, C. Roland Christensen (Stanford University) argues that
student involvement develops on at least three distinct levels:
“At the first level, students explore a problem by sorting out relevant facts, developing logical
conclusions, and presenting them to fellow students and the instructor. The students discuss someone
else’s problem; their role is that of the commentator-observer in a traditional academic sense. On the
second level, students can be assigned roles in the case, and take on perspectives that require them to
argue for specific actions from a character’s point of view, given their interests and knowledge.
Finally, on the third level, students will take the initiative to become fully involved, so that topics are
no longer treated as abstract ideas, but become central to the student’s sense of self -of what they
would choose to do in a specific real world situation.”
In the words of Alfred North Whitehead, the case method rejects the doctrine that students first
learn passively, and then apply the knowledge.
A major advantage of teaching with case studies is that the students are actively engaged in
figuring out the principles by abstracting from the examples. Advantages of case study method:
1. Develops cooperation and interpersonal skills among students;
2. Facilitates analytical and communication skills of students;
3. Team work and presentation skills are developed;
4. Develops strong reading skills;
5. Develops logical thinking;
6. Develops strategic planning skills;
7. Facilitates learning regarding analysis of impact of decisions taken etc.
Consequences of student involvement with the case method:
1. Case analysis requires students to practice important managerial skills – diagnosis, making
decisions, observing, listening, and persuading – while preparing for a case discussion;
2. Case require students to relate analysis and action, to develop realistic and concrete actions
despite the complexity and partial knowledge characterizing the situation being studied;
3. Students must confront the intractability of reality-complete with absence of needed
information, an imbalance between needs and available resources, and conflicts among competing
4. Students develop a general managerial point of view – where responsibility is sensitive to
action in a diverse environmental context.
Case assignments can be done individually or in teams so that the students can brainstorm
solutions and share the work load.
An innovative approach to case analysis might be to have students role-play the part of the
people involved in the case). This not only actively engages students, but forces them to really
understand the perspectives of the case characters. Videos or even field trips showing the venue in
which the case is situated can help students to visualize the situation that they need to analyze.
Table 1. Teacher and Student Roles in a Regular Case Class
When Teacher Student Before class
Assigns case and often readings;
Prepares for class;
May consult colleagues.
Receives case and assignment;
Discusses case in small group.
Deals with readings;
Leads case discussion.
Raises questions regarding readings;
Participates in discussion.
Evaluates and records student
Evaluates materials and updates
Compares personal analysis with others’
Reviews class discussion for major
Source: Michiel R. Leeenders, Louise A. Mauffette-Launders and James Erskine, Writing Cases (Ivey Publishing 4 th edition)
Depending on the course objectives, the teacher may encourage students to follow a systematic
approach to their analysis. For example:
1. What is the issue?
2. What is the goal of the analysis?
3. What is the context of the problem?
4. What key facts should be considered?
5. What alternatives are available to the decision-maker?
6. What would you recommend — and why?
Case studies can be especially effective if they are paired with a reading
assignment that introduces or explains a concept or analytical method that applies to the case. The
amount of emphasis placed on the use of the reading during the case discussion depends on the
complexity of the concept or method. If it is straightforward, the focus of the discussion can be placed
on the use of the analytical results. If the method is more complex, the instructor may need to walk
students through its application and the interpretation of the results.
Decision cases are more interesting than descriptive ones. In order to start the discussion in
class, the teacher can start with an easy, noncontroversial question that all the students should be able
to answer readily. However, some of the best case discussions start by forcing the students to take a
stand. Some instructors will ask a student to do a formal “open” of the case, outlining his or her entire
analysis. Others may choose to guide discussion with questions that move students from problem
identification to solutions. A skilled teacher steers questions and discussion to keep the class on track
and moving at a reasonable pace.
In order to motivate the students to complete the assignment before class as well as to stimulate
attentiveness during the class, the teacher should grade the participation - quantity and especially
quality - during the discussion of the case. This might be a simple check, check-plus, check-minus or
zero. The teacher should involve as many students as possible. In order to engage all the students, the
teacher can divide them into groups, give each group several minutes to discuss how to answer a
question related to the case, and then ask a randomly selected person in each group to present the
group’s answer and reasoning. Random selection can be accomplished through rolling of dice,
shuffled index cards, each with one student’s name, etc.
Case Method vs Lectures – The Case for Active Learning The advantages of incorporating the case method in a fully lecture-based course are best
understood as part of the bigger case for active learning techniques in general. It is useful to highlight
some main components of the argument:
Active learning methods appeal to students in the affective domain, motivating them to
engage with the material even when it is quite challenging
Students learn the material more deeply, and work with it at a higher level, when they are
active generators rather than passive recipients of knowledge
Students retain more of the material they do than material they simply read, hear or see
The most important element of an interactive method of teaching is the classroom discussion.
When teaching on the basis of cases, the following formats of discussion can be used:
1. Teacher-student: Cross-examination.
Discussion between teacher and student. The statement of the student or recommendation will
be considered by a number of issues. The logic of statements of student is exposed to careful study, so
students need to be very careful.
2. Teacher-student: The Devil's Advocate.
This is usually a discussion between a teacher and a student, but sometimes it may involve other
students. The teacher takes on the losing role and asks the student (and possibly others) to occupy the
position of a lawyer. Students should actively think and reason, have the facts in a certain order, a
conceptual or theoretical information, personal experience.
3. Teacher-student: Hypothetical format.
Similar to the previous one, but there is one difference: the teacher will pose a hypothetical
situation that goes beyond the position of the student or his recommendations. Opponent will be asked
to assess this hypothetical situation. During the discussion, the student must be prepared for changing
4. Student-student: confrontation and / or cooperation.
The discussion is conducted among students. It may be both cooperation and confrontation. For
example, students can challenge the position of students by providing new information. The student
will try to reflect the challenge .
The function of the teacher in the course of the debate is mainly initiating the discussion and
In Western business schools, case studies are given 30-40% of study time. The University of
Chicago Booth School of Business, at a fraction of cases accounted for 25% of the time in business
school at Columbia University - 30%. Leader in the number of hours devoted to case studies is
Harvard Business School. The HBS student studies 700 cases during his/her study .
It is concluded that such active teaching methods in teaching tourism courses help to improve
the quality of education.
Bibliography 1. Angelo, T & Boehrer, J. (2002). Case learning: How does it work? Why is it effective? Case Method
Website: How to Teach with Cases, University of California, Santa Barbara.
2. Davis, C. & Wilcock, E. Teaching materials using case studies. UK Centre for Materials Education,
Higher Education Academy. http://www.materials.ac.uk/guides/casestudies.asp
3. Daly, P. (2002). Methodology for using case studies in the business English language classroom.
Internet TESL Journal. 8(11). http://Daly, 2002/Techniques/Daly-CaseStudies/
4. Herreid, C.F. (2001). Don’t! What not to do in teaching cases. Journal of College Science Teaching.
30(5), 292-294. http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/pdfs/Dont-XXX-5.pdf
5. Garvin, D. (2004). Participant-centered learning and the case method: A Case study teacher in action.
Harvard Business School. http://Garvin, 2004/multimedia/pcl/pcl_1/start.html
6. Кларин М. В. Инновационные модели обучения в зарубежных педагогических поисках. - М.:
Mukanova G.K., Alimzanova A.B. THE EXPERIENCE OF CHINESE TECHNIQUE OF TRAINING FUTURE JOURNALISTS
Abstract. The relevance of knowledge about the practice of the media in the neighboring
Republic of Kazakhstan states everlasting arms. How often a student audience of this area is a
mystery, "seven seals," and for this there is good reason. About China and the Chinese tradition of
hieroglyphic writing in terms of intercultural communication left curious opinion of classic Russian
literature. Modern radical changes in the technology of information retrieval, processing and
presentation often leave no room for the expression of national character, mentality. The article
focuses on the presentation of a technique of studying the experience of Kazakhstan and China for the
preparation of media professionals - more precisely predict convergent journalism Asia.
Key words: method, China, convergent journalism, internet, media, law, limit, OSCE, Central
Резюме. Актуальность знаний о практике подготовки кадров для медиа, в соседних с
Республикой Казахстан государствах, непреходяща. Студенческая аудитория представляет эту
область тайной «за семью печатями», и для этого имеются все основания. О Китае и традиции
китайского иероглифического письма, в плане межкультурной коммуникации, оставили
любопытные мнения классики литературы. Современные кардинальные изменения в
технологии поиска информации, ее обработке и презентации порой не оставляют места для
выражения национального характера, ментальности. Статья нацелена на изложение методики
изучения и применения опыта КНР по подготовке работников средств массовой информации, и
на прогнозирование развития конвергентной журналистики Центральной Азии.
Түйіндеме. Қазақстан Республикасымен көрші елдерде бұқаралық ақпарат құралдарының
тәжірибесі туралы білудің маңызы зор. Білім беру саласында көршілес ел аудиториясын
зерттеу арқылы нәтижелі тұжырымдар жасауға болады. Қытай елін зерттеу мәдениетаралық
қарым-қатынас тұрғысынан көптеген орыс ғалымдарын да қызықтырған. Ақпаратты іздеу,
өңдеу және технологияның қазіргі заманғы түбегейлі өзгерістері ұлттық сипаттағы, мента-
литетті білдіруде ешқандай қатысы болмайтыны анықталды. Демек жаңа медиатехнологиялар
адамзатқа ортақ құндылық болып табылады. Дәлірек айтқанда, мақалада Азия елдеріндегі
конвергентті журналистиканың тағдырын болжау арқылы БАҚ мамандарын дайындаудың
Кілтті сөздер: әдіс, Қытай, конвергентті журналистика, Интернет, медиа, құқық, ЕҚЫҰ,
To the untrained human specificity of Chinese writing is an insurmountable wall. Unfortunately,
the Internet resources about the realities of the political life of the Middle Kingdom accessible to us
only indirectly, through arrangements of Russian scientists: political scientists, Sinologists. When
training the media and public relations is important to see the whole picture of intercultural
communication from ancient times to the present.
If you delve into the history, the Chinese court has long been practiced in the entering of paper-
based content of international agreements. The Russian foreign policy, it was known from the
beginning of the 17th century (the diplomatic mission of Petlin). Kazakh steppe rulers exchanged gifts
with China, as recorded in the written reports of the border guard.
Meanwhile, it was very convenient: with time conditions intercourse nobody can change
everything. Hence, apparently, went the expression "Chinese puzzle" that there is something inscribed
forever. The Russian written and spoken language, this expression has acquired over time, because of
the difficulty of development of characters, sarcastic sense of "incomprehensible", "confused",
"intricate." "I have my whole life never write reviews, for me it is - Chinese grammar" (Anton
Chekhov). "For the book since childhood, but boredom, he felt nothing, a Chinese puzzle - science, art
- nonsense believed" (N. Nekrasov, The parable of the "Kisel").
In the 21st century, "Chinese letters" could be called texts written interview for the post-Soviet
media. They deliberately placed on the website of the Chinese Embassy for a review, and often
contain assurances of friendship and the development of relations.  Meanwhile, the entry of certain
provisions is nothing else but a clear fixation, which is extremely useful in the practice of external
relations. In fact, it is important to monitor the quality of the translation from Chinese into another
language (for example, Russian or English) in order to notice possible changes in the statute of the
actors or the implication of and emphasis.
Celestial differs in the international policy of rigor comments from diplomats, as well as the
almost complete absence of independent media. The Chinese government has indisputably falls under
fire from international organizations for the protection of journalists, the OSCE observers. 
"China has always been the center of criticism of Western media and political systems. If all
countries of the world community, the US government could easily dictate my opinion, with regard to
China, things get more complicated. This country has a nuclear capability and a serious military
power. In addition, the number of China's population, slightly frightening the United States, therefore,
the only way to put pressure on China - the press. In business there are all the arguments and views,
from the fact that in China there is no freedom of speech, ending with the fact that the freedom of the
people is completely limited. " 
The best known media of China remain "Zhenmin Zhibao - People's Daily" and materials
information agency "Xinhua".  In these information sources often refer to political analysts. The
process of creating news in China resembles that practiced in the former Soviet Union: total
censorship and filtering. Today, a democratic state is impossible without a free press. Restriction of
freedom of speech means the restriction of democracy. Democracy is the most efficient form of
government, and the only acceptable system for the states - members of the Organization for Security
and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). One of the advantages of democracy is that democratic
governments are under the scrutiny of free media. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (ISHR)
articulated freedom of expression as a cornerstone on which to base the very existence of a democratic
According to ISHR, freedom of expression is essential for the formation of public opinion, is a
prerequisite for the development of political parties, trade unions, scientific and cultural associations
and all those organizations that want to influence society.  On March 1, 2015 in China came into
effect a ban on the use of avatars (status), nicknames, aliases individuals and organizations in
registering new accounts in the online services, such as blogs, chat rooms, social networks. It is
reported by news agency Reuters referring to the administration of China's Internet space. In other
countries, social networks are blocked, too: Turkey: Twitter, YouTube; Iran: Facebook, Twitter,
YouTube; Pakistan: YouTube; Vietnam: Facebook; North Korea: Facebook, Twitter, YouTube.  In
the light of recent events in Paris and other reports of recruitment into the ranks of ISIL, the data about
the cover of malware are perceived almost as good ...
Experts give a curious etymology of Chinese literature and hieroglyphic symbols. Thus, for
example, the "composition of the first paper in the world at present not fully clarified, but there is
speculation that the feedstock used including noil produced during manufacture silk wool. Perhaps this
is why in character "zhi" ("paper") the left part means "the thread of silk." Later, for the manufacture
of these products began to be used, and young stems of bamboo. "  It is possible to develop this
assumption, since the associative array is born: silk - silk thread - paper - communication - the Great
Silk Road. Path, which actually is a prototype, and the epitome of intercultural communication!
Experts in the field of journalism and PR in Kazakhstan pay attention to problematic issues in
the era of globalization. Professor of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University L.S.Ahmetova frequent
speaker and publications on topical theme.  It would be useful to discuss the topic in the forums and
create best practices in the designated angle for government agencies, taking into account international
experience and the individual regions. 
The basis of the dispute in the future it would be possible to take the etymology of the language,
the genesis of civilizations and the consequences of migration. A big help will be the history of
Kazakh journalism, as a regional one hand, and passed through the school of ideology, in the Union -
on the other.  It is important to future journalists versed in the latest discoveries of our scientists-
orientalists, to establish a civilized dialogue with China. It was in China, deposited manuscripts and
other artifacts - evidence of contacts between the regions, the rulers and the people.