1 Ревская Н.Е.Психология менеджмента. СПб.: Альфа, 2006.
2 Чандпер С.,Ричардсон С. 100 способов мотивации. –Минск,: Попурри,2014
3 Чекмарев О.П. Мотивация и стимулирование труда: учебнометодическое пособие. –
Ph.D. in Law, Senior Lecturer, L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University
Master of Management, Aktobe University named after S. Baishev, Aktobe, Kazakhstan
TYPES OF PERSONNEL’S MOTIVATION IN CRISIS CONDITIONS
Financial motivation includes monetary compensation and social transfers. Goodwill part involves
the use of a variety of organizational and other influences that affect the level of employee
motivation. Considered four stages of financial motivation. Given the significant list of intangible
Keywords: motivation, material and nonmotivation, CTS systems (labor force
participation rate), the KPI system (key performance indicators).
In conditions of economic crisis becomes relevant to analyze the division of motivation:
Material part, sometimes called compensation package, includes monetary compensation
and social transfers. Goodwill part involves the use of various organizational and other influences
that affect the level of employee motivation .Po our view, the mechanism for creating the
motivation system (MS) is as follows: formulation of the problem of creating MS; identification of
persons and entities responsible for the creation of MS; analysis of the needs of employees;
development of incentive schemes; development of nonmaterial stimulation system; resource
allocation; preparation of the necessary regulatory documentation; implementation of MS in the
personnel management system; monitoring and evaluation, correction.
Before designing a system of incentives to a particular company, you need to figure out the
structure of the staff needs to identify the most significant. Misdirection of motivational impact, at
best, leads to the ineffectiveness actions. The services of specialized agencies have recently
become widely used to determine the needs of staff. However, this work can be carried out on their
own with the help of interviews and questionnaires .
After such analysis of personnel it becomes clear for the management to what aspects of
motivational activity to pay more attention. Further it is necessary to be engaged directly in system
development of material and nonmaterial stimulation of personnel. However, we must bear in
mind that we cannot motivate absolutely all employees using a single method. The motivation
system as possible should wear targeted. As part of a small business to ensure this condition is
relatively easy, but when it comes to large enterprise, and then look for an approach to each
employee not only unreal, but also does not make economic sense. In this situation, the motivation
workers more globally .
Let's consider features of material and nonmaterial motivations in times of crisis.
Changing the material incentive system is an important anticrisis tool for many companies.
But there are often a number of difficulties. On the one hand, indicators that were important in the
stable period in the crisis lose their relevance, and this entails the need to adjust the entire system
of remuneration. On the other, the effective payment system must meet the following
requirements: encourage employees to perform the goals set by company’s management; be
1) employees must understand what constitutes their income, what actions they can affect to
increase their wages;
2) be "transparent" for the performers, in the system of incentives are often laid possibility of
independent calculation of the current employee earnings and forecasting the amount of their
salary for month;
3) balanced employee motivation system should be beneficial for both the company and the
It is obvious that a change in a complex system of material incentives requires the use one of
the scarcest resources in a crisis time. If the payroll company is automated, the use of information
system capabilities can significantly reduce the time to change the incentive schemes, the
introduction of new indicators .
The material motivation’s construction scheme is advantageously carried out in several
organization. At this stage, the analysis of all the available information to determine the optimal
size of worker’s wages. This takes into account the current practice, company’s possibilities, the
regional labor market’s price, workers' requests, sociological salary scale. To make a decision
about the size of wage analyzes characteristics of workers (their skills and work motivation),
analysis of work’s characteristics (types of work, duties and responsibilities, indicators and
standards, working conditions).
At the second stage, the constant part of development and justification of salary is carried
out. Salary scales and standard indicators’ results are determined or adjusted, qualification
allowances and additional payments for special working conditions are defined . For the
development of salary scales can be used a variety of methods, such as the ranking and
classification of jobs, factor comparison, the points score (rating).
In the third stage, a variable part of the salary is developed. At this stage, will be analyzed the
possibility of using the organization of various types of awards, such as the premium on individual
results, the prize for his contribution to the work unit, the target premium, the premium on the
overall results of the company. For each type of award will be developed formulas or techniques
that takes into account the specificities and the current practice of company’s awarding. In
addition, other pay system’s possibility of introducing will be analyzed, for example, tarifffree
system, chord system, management’s objectives system .
In the fourth step, the social package’s analysis and study will be performed. At this stage,
principles of distribution of social benefits will be produced (equalization, on length of service,
hierarchical), its composition and valuation for different categories of employees will be
All stages’ serial passage of the above will provide a reasonable and take into account the
However, the use of the material incentive system in order to achieve the desired effect is not
enough. It should be supported by the immaterial motivation.
It is much more difficult to construct new system of nonmaterial motivation because the
methods applied within the last, not such obvious and are more personified.
An indicative list of nonmaterial motivation is as follows:
1) Oral gratitude.
2) Additional training is paid by the employer for professional development.
3) Title "Best Employee of the Month".
4) Putting the various records about the achievements of the employee in his personal file.
5) Certificates for lunch, on purchases in shops, on various services.
6) Granting big powers.
7) The choice of work schedule.
8) Providing a special place for car parking.
9) Putting employee’s photos and his achievements in the corporate newspaper publication.
10) Collective remuneration.
11) Images on the honor board with the names of those who are constantly performing goals.
12) The priority in the planning of work schedules and rest periods.
13) The establishment of special places for the information space, letters, pictures and etc.,
thanking employees and demonstrating their achievement.
14) Priorities in obtaining new equipment and tools.
15) Career development.
16) Delegation of authority during your absence.
17) Remunerations for work duration in the company.
18) The winners in the company.
19) Gifts to employees based on personal interests.
Selection of nonmaterial motivation methods is up to the head. Construction of the personnel
motivation system is quite timeconsuming process, but with the right approach, the results are not
long in coming. You cannot rest on our laurels, you must constantly develop and improve the
system built. Only such an approach can ensure continuous development of motivation system’s
vitality in the company.  While the situation of instability will not pass, manager’s and the
staff’s communication must be regular: weekly or monthly. It may be reporting the meeting, letters
from management, and company’s reports on the results for the period (on the basis of staff
reports). Doing this is not difficult, provided that the company has a reporting system. Regular
informing collective that crisis response measures and collaboration bring results, motivates people
on overcoming difficulties.
During the economic crisis, the media actively discuss the topic of staff reductions as the
main way to stabilize the company in crisis. In our view, such installations are more likely to
weaken the company than to contribute to its strengthening.
Firstly, strong experts are not dismissed even companies have found themselves on the "edge" of
the crisis. The crisis a temporary and final phenomenon, and weaken the company’s human
potential is to deprive her chance for a "breakthrough", when market conditions become more
favorable. First of all managers are seeking to reduce the staff, whose contribution to the
effectiveness of the company is not obvious. Of course, one of those market segments which are
significantly affected by the crisis (the financial sector, construction and development firms,
insurance companies) on the personnel market out by qualified personnel, ready to go to the
existing team to make them replace the fear that after the crisis, these employees will start looking
for their usual wages . In addition, the crisis was somehow forgotten that the current
demographic situation, namely, reducing the number of ablebodied population in the country,
remained at the same level. So count on a serious and longterm decline "personnel shortage" is
not necessary. Obviously, today one of the urgent tasks of the companies to despite all the
difficulties, it is the maximum preservation of efficient staff.
Second, we can divide into two basic strategies companies’ behaviors in crisis that directly
dependent on their financial stability. If the company has no resources which they can "ride out the
crisis" without significant losses, the only survival strategy for them becomes a total cost
reduction. But at the same number of managers tend not to cover development projects, they "
freeze", thus maintaining for the company the possibility to return for them in the future. For
companies that have a financial "cushion" crisis it is time to act, time to carry out innovative
changes that increase efficiency and reduce costs, but through optimization rather than liquidation
directions. The crisis in this context find paradoxical solutions, creating new directions,
increasing the efficiency of existing ones.
Again, there is a task to motivate people to look for solutions to improve enterprise performance.
Third, the real threat to the stability of the company is disoriented and demotivate staff. The stream
of negative information, a variety broadcast of media, the analysts’ forecasts and promises that
contribute the feeling of insecurity among company’s employees, and ultimately may affect their
productivity. The fear of uncertainty, fear of losing a job can destroy even a closeknit team.
Therefore, in a complex of anticrisis measures with the personnel motivation assigned one of the
What measures should be taken to the manager in order to prevent staff’s demotivation?
The complex of anticrisis measures work on two main motivation’s objectives: the staff’s
stabilization (morale) and the material incentive system’s change.
The first necessary action, regardless of the chosen behavior strategy, aimed at staff’s stabilization.
It is open to inform employees about the current state of affairs in the company and planned anti
crisis measures. In a crisis situation, people need more than ever distinctness and confidence in the
fact that the management has an action plan. Even if it will have to announce "unpopular
measures", it is much better than the unknown. It is important to clarify in connection with which
these measures have been taken, what are the future prospects of the company. It is optimally
when this information comes from a firstperson of the enterprise. Submission forms of such
information may vary depending on the company’s size. If the company is small, it is appropriate
the head’s personal appeal to employees in the course of the general meeting. In large companies
they should use written requests. It is important to explain to employees the current situation,
identify what anticrisis measures are planned, as well as list the expectations staff’s management
in connection with the situation.
Development of motivation system with all the necessary requirements is difficult and
resourceintensive task. The main difficulties arise when they need for quick payment system’s
modification which consisted of a number of indicators.
As a rule, the remuneration system consists of two parts, a constant part (salary) and a variable part
(bonus). Due to the last, the system is "setting" to stimulate staff for achievement of significant
results for the company.
In some cases in the company the bonus fund can be allocated for division which the head
The most "delicate" setting material motivation is carried out through the development of a system
of key performance indicators (KPI)
KPI can be based both on the actual performance indicators, and on planned ratio of actual
performance. The complex motivation schemes include multiple targets, each of which is
determined by the allowable values and their weight, according to the company's goals.
When changing the company's goals need to reconfigure performance bonuses, for example, if
in a crisis situation, companies are restructuring the work system with clients and stop selling on
credit, such factors as the receivable amount or the number of debtors may no longer be relevant.
Or vice versa, if the company purposes of tightening control over the debts repayment, the debtors’
performance can acquire greater importance. Also, there may be new indicators, such as resource
conservation, the creation of new products or services.
In the first place nonfinancial motivation needs the company’s internal resources. If the
company is not possible to stimulate employees financially, they need to find ways to "inspire
them to great deeds" with maximum economy of material resources. Thus, we consider two ways:
Encourage and reward.
The essence of this direction is to bring to employees the idea of competition. Rules and evaluation
criteria, the competition’s results’ visibilities reflect should be clear to all. Disadvantages of first
way, there will be employees for whom this motivation method is inefficient (due to various
reasons – just acute need for money, reluctance to "expose themselves and their achievements on
display", and at last, just satiety to such stimulation). Secondly, often the criteria for evaluating the
employees’ performance biased or little worked, which entails a misunderstanding who, for what
and why reward.
Thus, with proper organization and proper determination of evaluation criteria, such way of
employee motivation will be effective and lowcost, that is important in a crisis.
Develop and nurture.
Another way to motivate staff is to give them the opportunity to improve their skills and acquire
new knowledge and skills within the company. This method has several advantages: the employee
has the opportunity to learn alongside normal operations (no extra time costs), in the ideal case the
employee does not pay for the training (or pay it partially), which means that material costs are
minimal for an employee. And finally the employee’s loyalty will be increased to the company
(which is not just interested in his candidacy, but also ready to invest in the further development of
their staff). The company will increase the skills of employees, and thus enhance their efficiency
and effectiveness, and secondly, will increase employee’s loyalty to the company. Important: in
order to effective learning, it is necessary to identify the employees’ needs. In addition, you need
to estimate how much the cost of training will pay off the staff’s work’s results after its passage.
Disadvantages: the requirements in the employees’ development often do not coincide with
the company's needs, so the formation of study program must be clearly observed by the "balance
of interests" for that the employer to receive the result, and the employee really needs for
knowledge and skills. If the needs identified incorrectly, such training (however may it cost
expensive) would not benefit, and therefore the company’s costs will not pay off. And finally,
development implies growth.
From all above it becomes clear that in rare instances the companies, during an economic
crisis, will manage without additional motivation of employees. What way will the company's
management choose for themselves material or immaterial, is not so important. Both of them are
1 Kuznetsova M.I. "Motivation activities", St. Petersburg.: Firm, Publ., 2005
2 Revskaya N.E. "Psychology of management", course of lectures, St. Petersburg "Alpha" Publ.,
3 Baryshev A., Kikteva E. Motivation. The experience of the leading Russian companies. SPb .:
4 Hasanov R. 67 secrets to develop motivational system. RostovnaDonu ,: Phoenix, Publ., 2013.
5 Motivation of labor activity. Edited by Pugachev V.P. M.: InfaM Publ., 2014.
6 Tracy B. Motivatsiya [Motivation] M: Mann, Publ., 2015.
7 Chandper S., Richardson S. "100 ways to motivate". Minsk ,: Potpourri Publ., 2014
8 Chekmarev O.P. Motivation and stimulation of labor: a teaching aid. St. Petersburg, Publ.,
2013. – 343p.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ СУДЕБНЫХ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЙ ПО ГРАЖДАНСКИМ ДЕЛАМ
determination, provides requires, imposed by the legislation to it’s content. Helds comparative
analys about contents with court’s decision.
Key words. definition, court of first instance, acts of court, judicial acts.
Определения суда первой инстанции – акты правосудия, выносимые в установленном
законом порядке по вопросам, возникающим в процессе осуществления правосудия, и не
разрешающие дело по существу.
По содержанию определения суда первой инстанции весьма разнообразны, т.к. в
процессе своей деятельности суду приходится разрешать многочисленные вопросы,
оказывающие различное влияние на возникновение, развитие и прекращение процесса.
Таким образом, определения суда первой инстанции в гражданском процессе
– акты правосудия;
– процессуальные акты;
– акты, создающие, изменяющие и прекращающие гражданские процессуальные
Определениями называются оперативнораспорядительные процессуальные акты,
выносимые судом первой инстанции по вопросам начала, развития и прекращения
производства по гражданскому делу, исполнения решения и другим вопросам, а также в
связи с выявлением существенных недостатков в работе организаций либо нарушением
законов отдельными должностными лицами или гражданами .
В силу того, что судебное определение может быть вынесено в виде резолюции судьи,
процессуального документа, форма судебных определений может быть различна.
Определение, оформленное в виде резолюции судьи или в виде записи в протоколе
судебного заседания, не имеет какойлибо строго определенной формы.
Согласно ч.1 ст. 269 Гражданского процессуального кодекса Республики Казахстан в
определении, выносимом судом в совещательной комнате, должны быть указаны: дата и
место вынесения определения; наименование суда, вынесшего определение, фамилии и
инициалы судьи и секретаря судебного заседания; лица, участвующие в деле, предмет спора
или заявленное требование; вопрос, по которому выносится определение; мотивы, по
которым суд пришел к своим выводам, и ссылка на законы, которыми суд
руководствовался; процессуальное решение суда; порядок и срок обжалования определения,
если оно подлежит обжалованию.
Определения, занесенные в протокол судебного заседания, не подлежат обжалованию
отдельно от решения, поэтому не указывается порядок и срок их обжалования.
Определение, которое выносится в виде специального процессуального документа, так
же как и судебное решение, должно состоять из 4 частей: вводной, описательной,
мотивировочной и резолютивной .
Указание времени и места вынесения определения дает возможность вышестоящему
суду проверить, своевременно ли рассмотрен тот или иной вопрос судом первой инстанции,
не пропущен ли срок на подачу частной жалобы, если закон допускает обжалование
определения отдельно от решения (например, определение об обеспечении иска, о
разъяснении решения и др.).
Точное указание наименования суда, вынесшего определение, состава суда, секретаря
судебного заседания, лиц, участвующих в деле, предмета спора и вопроса, по которому
выносится определение, необходимо для решения вопроса о законности состава суда, его
правомочности, правомерности заявлений и ходатайств и т.д.
Судебное определение, как и судебное решение, должно быть законным и
обоснованным. Это положение прямо вытекает из требования ст.224 Гражданского
процессуального кодекса Республики Казахстан.
Решение суда, в котором допущено нарушение предъявленных к нему требований,
может быть исправлено вынесшим его судом путем:
– разъяснения решения;
– исправления описок и явных арифметических ошибок;
– вынесения дополнительного решения .
В мотивировочной части определения необходимо отразить мнение лиц, участвующих
в деле, выводы суда о том, как должен быть разрешен рассматриваемый вопрос, и какими
нормами материального или процессуального права руководствовался суд при его
разрешении. Именно эта часть судебного определения дает возможность вышестоящему
суду проверить правильность действий нижестоящего суда.
Резолютивная часть определения содержит постановление суда, указание порядка и
срока его обжалования. Однако не все определения суда первой инстанции могут быть
обжалованы или опротестованы отдельно от решения суда путем подачи частной жалобы
или протеста .