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Theoretical significance. The art of public speaking in English is one of the needs of modern society. In addition, a special place is occupied by the development of speech skills in language classes. Therefore, information about this importance and the skill of public speaking in English and comparative linguistics and stylistic analysis methods was presented.
The scientific novelty of the research is to identify the most critical points of teaching speech in the language class; to identify and suggest comparative linguistics and stylistic analysis methods to develop the features of public speaking skills in English.
Work structure. The dissertation work includes theoretical and methodological data. In addition, research was conducted to develop students ' public speaking skills. 70 students in the 11th grade took part in the study. 35 students were taken as an experimental group, 35 students were considered a control group. A pre-test was taken to determine the level of English vocabulary of both groups and determine the degree of public speaking skills. Analysis was carried out based on the results of the pre-test. In teaching students of Group A, obtained as an experimental group, a specially developed textbook was used for research work, and critical thinking techniques, comparative linguistics method were used in performing exercises. In addition, tasks were given to develop creative abilities. At the end of the research, a post-test was taken from both groups to identify the results of using techniques.
Key words: public speech, comparative linguistics, critical thinking techniques, speaking skills, experimental group, control group.

MAIN PART

Comparative linguistics is the branch of linguistics related to the ponder of phonology, syntactic, grammar and semantic changes, the reproduction of prior stages of dialects, and the disclosure and application of the strategies by which hereditary connections among dialects can be illustrated. It tries to restructure an earlier protolanguage and allows linguists to determine the history of a language family.
Comparative linguistics is a branch that deals with identifying and comparing the historical kinship of languages. It has been called comparative-historical linguistics and even comparative philology. One of the main directions of comparative linguistics is the creation of language families, the transformation of protolanguages, and the specification of changes in documented languages. It also determines the degree of kinship of languages, studies diachronic processes in the language groups background, the etymology of words. This field of linguistics became a priority in the 19th century. The part that deals with the problems of distant linguistic kinship is called macro compatibility.
History of comparative linguistics: the quit of the 18th century as much as the center of the nineteenth century, the start of comparative research. The quit of the nineteenth century turned into neogrammarian research while evaluating residing languages. The starting of the 20 th century is the length of structural and useful tactics to Language.
Comparative linguistics studies language from a relative point of view. Based on the synchronic description of language. Saussure gave the terms synchronic and diachronic. It describes a stage of language at a given time and the changes that occur over time. The synchronic description is non-historical. Involves comparing and classifying relevant and defining features of the shared languages. Language can be organized and compared according to genetic, typological, and areal principles.
Linguistics is the study of the comparative typology of two or more languages (English and Uzbek, English, Uzbek and Russian, English and Russian, English and Karakalpak, German and Karakalpak, French, Uzbek, and Russian, etc.). In addition, although typology has been studied since the beginning of the twentieth century, its history goes back into the distant past. Comparative linguistics is called comparative linguistics or comparative linguistics. In addition to these terms, individual linguists studied "Linguistics of Equality" (PN Denisov), "Method of Equations (AA Reformatsky, VN Yartseva)," Linguistic Equation "(R.Yu. Barsuk)," Method comparative equations "(Yu.V.Rozhdestvensky), B.А. Uspensky), "The grammar of opposition" (AE Suprun, OV Zarova), "Comparative typology" (YB Buranov), "Analogue study of languages" (FM Berezin), "Comparative grammar" (Ulrich Engel).R.Yu. While Badger associates with five factors, Professor Zh.B. Buranov identifies eight factors.
Branches of comparative linguistics:
• Phonetical
• Lexical
• Morphological and syntactic
Aspects of comparative phonetics: synchronical and diachronic. Viable points of comparative etymology: interpretation hone; compiling lexicons; educating remote languages.
A common language is the color of communication in a particular language. For this reason, using the learned vocabulary and speaking plays an essential role in learning another language. It is necessary to practice the most learned word in language classes. It is because language is measured in terms of speech ability. Therefore, it is needed to create conditions for students to speak in the classroom. The moment when the opportunity is not made in the school, the desire to learn runs away, and the interest in learning the language disappears. In this regard, the role of the teacher is very high. When teaching English in the classroom, it is necessary to organize the lesson in such a way that it is interesting, attracts students’ attention, and turns it into a fun place for students.
Speech lessons in language classes require special care and control. New teachers with little experience feel insecure when faced with large classrooms. For the task to be excellent in older classes, it is necessary to establish a good relationship between the teacher and students to feel freedom and a positive mood in language classes. Many educational institutions pay attention to reading and writing but do not devote time to listening and speaking. Therefore, many students face difficulties when it comes to speaking English. Consequently, it is advisable to introduce particular subjects to develop speech skills in the education system. Issues for these conversational skills are essential for students [37, p.74].
Oral speech in the classroom is an activity that requires immediate feedback. Students are not given the same time as tasks for writing skills. Many students find it difficult to speak if they have studied English for years. It is because, over the years, you have only completed tasks for reading and writing skills. Therefore, introducing a subject designed explicitly for speaking English in the education system will contribute to achieving practical results.
Public speaking is the speaker's official speech in front of a group, regardless of the size of the audience. The main goal here is to convey information to listeners in the audience, convince them of a particular world, or cheer them up. For this reason, students who speak publicly are required to have comprehensive experience and training. The peculiarity of public speaking is that it requires more physical activity and mental activity than regular conversations. The primary abilities needed for the speaker are the versatility of the components of public speaking, the accuracy of expressive information and presentation, and the presence of experience. Preparation of public speech material, pronunciation of necessary messages, and the company of feedback from the audience are components of public speaking. In addition, it is essential to preserve the cultural context, that is, to protect social ideas within a particular group. A speaker with these abilities is considered an advantage over other speakers, showing developed communication skills.
It is necessary to promptly identify the problems that arise in students’ public speaking in English and strengthen their work with such students. During the lesson, it is required to divide into small groups and monitor the active participation of all students in the class.
Proper formation and development of Public Speaking skills in English show positive results through appropriate communication between teachers and students. In addition, some work should be done to develop public speaking skills. The ability to interest students in the curriculum, practical methods and the correct choice of tasks demonstrate the teacher's skill. The teacher is responsible for providing maximum support in finding positive solutions to problems that arise in students in teaching public speaking. In addition, to develop general speaking skills in English lessons, it is necessary to create favorable conditions for students to use the language in planned classes. Then the work done on developing students ' public speaking skills will be effective and will give a positive result. After all, a student who has developed the skills of public speaking in English can succeed in modern society.
This chapter covers the experience of the conducted research. In the course of the study, a mixed research method was used. Since the primary goal of the research work is to develop public speaking skills in English using comparative linguistics and stylistic analysis methods, methods recognized as effective were used. In addition, tasks for forming critical thinking skills and creative ability in schoolchildren were covered. The study included 70 students studying in the 11th grade. 35 students were taken as an experimental group, and 35 were taken as a control group. In the course of teaching students of Group A, obtained as an experimental group, a teaching manual was used, and critical thinking techniques were performed to implement tasks in conjunction with comparative linguistics. In addition, pre-test and post-test tests were taken from both groups participating in the study. The tests were divided into 3 sections and consisted of 15 questions.
Public speaking skills in English are among the most popular skills in modern society. Students who have developed public speaking skills in English are particularly likely to succeed. It is essential for forming and developing students’ skills in speaking English. Informing this skill, critical thinking methods in the training programs are considered adequate. It is because critical thinking allows students to think freely. They will have their views on a particular issue and offer several options for solving it. In the formation and development of speech skills before multi-language, such methods of critical thinking as "Brainstorming", "Picture describing", "KWL chart", "Mind map", "Sinkwine", "Insert", "5-W" method, "Thin and thick question", "Storytelling", "Roleplay".
The methods of critical thinking used in the study have a positive impact on the development of students ' public speaking skills. The use of critical thinking methods in education will develop students’ critical thinking, the ability to express their views on a particular case (figure – 1).

Figure – 1 - Benefits of critical thinking techniques for students’ public speaking skills

The study, conducted for 2 months, covered 70 students from the 11th grade. Of these, 35 students were in an experimental group, and 35 were taken as a control group. Students of Group a, taken as an experimental group, were given an additional lesson in extracurricular activities 2 times a week on a textbook explicitly developed for research work. Critical thinking techniques were used in an extra study organized to develop students’ public speaking skills during the class.
The content of the teaching manual "Adequacy and Power in Public speaking", written specifically for the research work, consisted of 15 units (table - 1). In addition, each unit included 10 tasks related to a different sphere. The tasks were divided into 3 levels (light, medium and complex) and had 4 English language skills (reading, listening, writing and speaking). In addition, the manual used a QR scanner, one of the innovative learning technologies. The YouTube channel "Public speech" has been opened for listening tasks. The teaching manual, which was used in the course of the research, allows students to improve their knowledge in various fields. In addition, in public speaking in English, they can enhance their knowledge by touching on topics in any area. At the same time, since the 11th grade is the final class, the teaching manual used to select professions will help you get information on various fields.

Table - 1. The name of units of the teaching manual



Unit 1

Education

Unit 2

Law

Unit 3

Medicine

Unit 4

Scholars

Unit 5

Politics

Unit 6

Administration

Unit 7

Celebrities

Unit 8

Marketing

Unit 9

Tourist guide

Unit 10

Police

Unit 11

Mentorship

Unit 12

TED talk

Unit 13

Psychology

Unit 14

Service

Unit 15

Beauty industry

As a result of the pre-test obtained from the experimental and control groups, both groups showed an indicator of the average score scale. The average score of Group A was 6 and the average score of the control group was 7 points. Generally, the English vocabulary of students of the experimental and control groups is not enough to cover any topic. In addition, there may be difficulties in public speaking and obstacles in answering the questions raised (figure - 2).



Figure – 2 - An average score of A group and B groups’ pre-test



According to the results of the pre-Test passed by the experimental group and the control group, no significant differences are observed. In the test section for finding the meaning of words, Group A showed 43%, and Group B showed 45%. In part 2 of the test, there was a difference between Group A and Group B, only 2% in the level of knowledge of finding phrases that specialists in various fields often use. In the 3rd section, which is excerpted from situational dialogues conducted in different areas, the results of Group A students showed 51%, and Group B students showed 49%. It means that students in the experimental and control groups have approximately the same level of knowledge in English in different areas. In addition, when speaking publicly in English, there may be difficulties in providing information on various sites. At the same time, it turned out that students’ critical thinking abilities do not have a significant positive result (figure - 3).

Figure – 3 - Results of a pre-test



If we compare the average post-test scores of the experimental group and control groups, Group A is 5 points higher than Group B. Thanks to the methods and manuals used by the experimental group of students in the course of research work, their vocabulary in English has expanded, and their knowledge in any field has increased. In addition, he can speak confidently in public speaking; he has developed public speaking skills. It can offer an adequate answer to any question asked by the audience and find effective solutions to the problems. They can talk about a specific topic and provide several solutions to problems. They had a lot of information about the areas where he used the English language and a lot of phrases that he often used. They think critically about the tasks set and make several suggestions and optimal decisions. Students of Group B, taken as a control group, have an average level of vocabulary knowledge in English. However, there is a need to develop a vocabulary in the field in which English is used. The public may encounter obstacles when addressing a topic in any area. Also, you can offer a few options for solutions when completing your questions and tasks. It means that some work needs to be done to develop critical thinking skills in Group B students (figure - 4).

Figure – 4 - An average score of A group and B groups’ post-test



According to the results obtained after testing groups, A and B received at the end of a lesson organized to develop students ' public speaking skills in English, the difference in the indicators of the two groups is very high. The knowledge gained by Group A students as an experimental group increased after the end of the lesson compared to Group B. That is, students in Group A developed public speaking skills and critical thinking skills. The post showed a 40% difference in Group A and Group B results in the section on finding the meanings of words given in the test. Students of the experimental Group know and can use the definitions of dictionaries found in English in any field. In the second part of the test, a group showed 93%, and the B group showed 55%. It means that group B students have little information about phrases, and it has become clear that there is a lot of work to be done. The students of the experimental group increased their knowledge of words. He can raise topics and answer questions in any field in public speaking. In the continuation of the excerpt from the dialogues given in the third section, the experimental Group is 43% higher than the control group, with an indicator of 90%. In other words, students of Group A have developed critical thinking skills and develop creative abilities. Although the essential abilities of Group B students have been formed, they still need development work (figure - 5).

Figure – 5 - Results of a post-test



Comparing the pre-test result and the post-test result of Group a, taken as an experimental group, we can see that a reasonably high result was achieved. The main goal of bringing the pre-test from Group A was to determine the degree of students' vocabulary in English, assess their knowledge of the most commonly used phrases and phrases in any field, and select the degree of critical thinking skills students. As a result of the pre-test, a study was conducted on the indicator shown. Critical thinking techniques were used to positively impact the set goals, a specially developed textbook was used, and tasks were given to develop creative thinking skills. As part of this work, additional classes were organized with students of experimental groups. To see the results of the conducted research, the level of knowledge of Group A was increased in the post-test. In particular, the vocabulary has expanded, public speaking skills have been developed, and the audience can raise topics in any field. The answers to the questions were expressed with confidence, and some suggestions were made as solutions to the problems. In addition, through the tasks for developing creative abilities used in the research, students developed creative skills and expanded their horizons. He proposed solutions that are most effective in the given situations in any industry. The post-test result indicates that the goals set during the study were achieved (figure - 6).

Figure – 6 - Results of pre-test and post-test of an experimental group
In the course of the study, it can be seen that the students of Group a, taken as an experimental group, showed significant differences in the knowledge determined by the pre-test and post-test, and positive results were achieved. The methods used in critical thinking have positively impacted students ' public speaking skills. In addition, with the help of the manual, knowledge in any field has been improved, and the vocabulary in English has been expanded. In addition, the tasks for the formation of creative thinking skills were sufficient for students and showed positive results. The methods of critical thinking and comparative linguistics used in completing tasks in the English-language manual contributed to the development of various skills of students. In other words, teaching students by comparing words in Kazakh and English, which are their native languages, helped them quickly learn new words and understand their meanings. Knowledge of English has been developed, and public speaking skills have been improved (figure - 7).In addition, in the course of the study, it was noted that students of the 11th grade became more confident in public speaking as their knowledge increased with each lesson. In the manual, they improved their public speaking skills through role-playing tasks given in each section.




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