Омский государственный университет им. Ф.М. Достоевского
Рекомендовано к изданию редакционно-издательским советом ОмГУ
преп. каф. ин. языков ОмГУ Ж.Ю. Шацкая
Е25 Education in Great Britain: Учебно-методическое пособие
2004. – 76 с.
Пособие составлено на основе аутентичных и оригинальных
материалов (текстов из зарубежных пособий, журналов, реклам-
ных проспектов). Текст на аудирование был записан специально
для этого пособия.
Состоит из 10 частей, нацеленных на развитие навыков всех
видов речевой деятельности и их отработку в системе разнообраз-
ных упражнений по заявленной теме. Разработано с учетом прин-
ципа коммуникативной направленности и соответствует совре-
менным требованиям, предъявляемым к преподаванию иностран-
ного языка в вузе.
Предназначено для студентов факультета иностранных языков
и студентов старших курсов неязыковых специальностей.
Авторы выражают признательность Шине Милн
Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие составлено в
нального образования и предназначено для студентов факультета
иностранных языков и студентов старших курсов неязыковых
Цель пособия – развитие и совершенствование навыков уст-
ной речи на английском языке. При составлении пособия авторы
ориентировались на конечную цель обучения студентов и исходи-
ли из концепции взаимосвязанного обучения основным видам
иноязычной речевой деятельности: навыкам чтения, аудирования,
перевода, интерпретации неадаптированного англоязычного тек-
Учебно-методическое пособие состоит из десяти разделов,
умений диалогической и монологической речи осуществляется на
материале аутентичных текстов по проблемам образования в Ве-
ликобритании с последующей развернутой системой как лексиче-
ских упражнений, так и упражнений, нацеленных на дальнейшее
развитие навыков использования структур и рассчитанных на
расширение знаний и навыков в новом лексическом окружении и
в новых коммуникативных ситуациях.
Речевые упражнения предусматривают стимулирование на-
выков не только говорения, но и письменной речи, а также спо-
собствуют синтезу всего пройденного лексико-грамматического
материала. Тексты значительны по объему, что вызвано как мето-
дологической направленностью содержащегося в пособии мате-
риала, так и стремлением дать более полное представление об
английской системе высшего и "последующего" образования.
Последний раздел пособия предоставляет возможность сту-
дентам проверить знания, полученные в процессе работы над те-
мой, выполнив разнообразные лексические упражнения.
W A R M-U P
A comprehensive school is....
a school of languages
a school for 5–11 year olds
a school for 11–16 year olds
than £15,000 a year to be educated at Eton, for example. What propor-
tion of British children attend "public" schools?
In 1989 a new National Curriculum was introduced into Brit-
ish schools. Ten subjects had to be studied. Three of these subjects
called "core subjects" were chosen for special attention. Here are the
ten subjects to be studied. Which do you think are the "core subjects"?
g) A Foreign Language
16-year-olds in Britain have to take the General Certificate of
Secondary Education examinations. Girls have significantly better re-
sults than boys in three of the following GCSE subjects. Which three?
General Profile of British System of Education
further education – дальнейшее образование, дневное и ве-
чернее, иногда с освобождением от работы. Платное. Основная
цель – повышение квалификации. Возраст не ограничен.
full-time – c отрывом от производства
part-time – без отрыва от производства
sandwich courses – курсы (в основном при техническом кол-
ледже), где занятия чередуются с работой на производстве
на определенный срок
из гуманитарных или математических наук в университете). Ста-
вится после фамилии.
Bachelor of Science / B.Sc. (BSc) – обладатель первой ученой
степени (first degree) в университетах. В Оксфорде – котируется
выше (higher degree).
Master of Arts / M.A. (MA) – магистр искусств, обладатель
второй ученой степени (higher degree). Выпускникам Оксбриджа
присваивается без экзамена на основании определенных сроков
практической работы после окончания; от других требуется напи-
сание работы на основе проведенных исследований. Наблюдается
тенденция присвоения после года практической работы.
Master of Philosophy / M.Phil. (MPhil) – магистр философии
(относится и к др. наукам). Присуждается за научную работу, час-
тично содержащую материал, разработанный автором.
Требуется написание самостоятельной работы на основе трехлет-
них (или более) исследований.
lecturer / instructor (Am.) – преподаватель высшей школы
tutor – преподаватель, ведущий практические занятия и вос-
питательную работу с определенной группой студентов
Education in Great Britain and Wales is regulated by the 1944
and Wales, but differing considerably in detail. Education in the coun-
try has been undergoing a series of major reforms since 1988, in-
cluding the introduction of various forms of school curriculum; the
information about school performance to parents. Education is the top
schools, ensuring learning targets are achieved, tackling social ex-
clusion, broadening access to further and higher education and en-
hancing the status and quality of the teaching profession.
The system of public education in England and Wales is organ-
first 2 are compulsory for all children. Further education is volun-
can go to work, to further education or to university.
All children and young people between the ages of 5 and 16 in
England, Scotland and Wales, and 4 and 16 in Northern Ireland, must,
by law, receive full-time education. Over 9.9 million children attend
33,685 state and private schools in Britain. About 93 % receive free
dependent schools. Boys and girls are taught together in most schools.
In England and Wales non-selective comprehensive education caters
for children of all abilities (mixed-ability comprehensive schools).
Nearly all pupils in Scotland attend non-selective schools. Secondary
schools are largely selective in Northern Ireland, where a small number
levels with the aim of providing education for Roman Catholic and
Protestant children studying together.
Most state school education in England, Scotland and Wales is
of foundation, community and voluntary schools is being set up. The
community category includes schools formerly owned by Local Educa-
tion Authorities, while the foundation category includes many grant-
voluntary category will include schools with a particular religious
Parents have a statutory right to express a preference for a
throughout Britain. All state schools have to give parents a written
Broadly based national curricula ensure that pupils study a bal-
Wales consists of statutory subjects for 5- to 16-year-olds. Similar
agement of the curriculum are not prescribed by statute. All state
schools must provide religious education and all state secondary
schools are required to provide sex education, although parents have
the right to withdraw their children from these classes. All English
primary schools are required to have a literacy and numeracy study
The main school examination, the General Certificate of Secon-
dary Education (GCSE), is taken in England, Wales and Northern Ire-
land at around age 16. A broadly similar exam system exists in Scot-
All qualifications offered to pupils in state schools in England
buses and assessment must comply with national guidelines.
One of the government objectives is to help young people de-
velop economically relevant skills. It recognizes that school-business
links can raise attainment levels and help pupils to see the relevance
of what they learn at school. It supports Education–Business partner-
ships and aims to bring closer links between schools and industry so
that young people develop skills to help them succeed in the labour
reers information and guidance. In England and Wales pupils can take
gramme also develops business-education links.
Students who choose to continue their studies after 16 – about
two-thirds – work for academic (i.e. study for examinations which
lead to higher education) or vocational qualifications which are the
main standard for entry to higher education or professional training.
These include the General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ),
mainly taken between the ages of 16 and 18, which is designed to pro-
education; the academic General Certificate of Education Advanced
(A) level examination taken at the age of 18 or 19, and the Advanced
Supplementary (AS) examination.
Further Education and Training
About 2.5 million students are enrolled in further education,
much of which is work-related. Further education is for persons over
compulsory school age, and consists of full-time and part-time educa-
tween ages of 11 and 15), i.e. grammar, modern and comprehensive
schools as well as independent / private schools, university education
and teacher training. The main sub-divisions of vocational education
are technical, commercial, art, agricultural and horticultural. Aca-
demic work and professional training differ from college to college.
Some colleges provide "sandwich" courses or short full-time block
release courses. There may be several patterns for sandwich courses: 6
months in college and 6 months in industry / office; alternatives are 4/8
and 6/10. Many students between 15 and 18 attend mainly part-time
courses, either by day release or block release from employment, or
evening courses. Part-time training also includes correspondence
courses and distance learning as well as refresher courses.
many of which also offer higher education courses.
A wide range of national vocational qualifications, designed
mainly for people in work, are based on national standards that define
the competence, knowledge and understanding that employers need.
Higher education, consisting of degree and equivalent courses,
has experienced a dramatic expansion. Today one in three young peo-
ple enters higher education compared with one in six in 1989. Higher
education is provided at universities, "the new universities" (former
nineties) and other establishments of higher and further education.
There are some 170 universities and higher education institu-
tions, which enjoy academic freedom. First degree courses are
mainly full time and usually last three years (four in Scotland), with
longer courses in subjects such as medicine. Universities offer courses
in a wide range of subjects. The oldest and best known universities are
in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Liverpool, Durham, Edinburgh, Bris-
tol, Cardiff, Birmingham. A university consists of a number of facul-
ties: divinity / theology, economics, engineering, agriculture, com-
merce and education. After three years of study, a student may proceed
to a Bachelor’s degree and later to the degree of Master and Doctor.
The Bachelor’s Degree (Bachelor of Commerce, Science or Music) is
study. Bachelors’ degrees are at two levels, Honours and Pass. In
some cases the Honours Degree is awarded for intensive study and
examination in one, two or perhaps three related subjects, while the
Pass (or General) degree may be somewhat broader. In some cases the
Honours degree is given to the students who are more successful in
The first post-graduate degree is that of Master, conferred for
a thesis based on at least one year’s full-time work. Everywhere the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy is awarded for a thesis which is an
The British universities have their own way of life and traditions
which are carefully preserved. For example, sometimes you can see
students at Oxbridge wearing a cap and gown – it’s a custom from the
Higher education is largely financed by public funds although
students who have begun their studies since September 1998 are ex-
pected to make a contribution of up to £1,000 towards their tuition
The maintenance grant has been replaced by a maintenance
income families are entitled to the full loan.
The National Curriculum subjects are:
mathematics, science, English, technology,
history, geography, a modern foreign lan-
guage, art, music and physical education.
Religious education is also compulsory.
Generally, each subject has ten levels and
at a time. The top level is 10 – but not all
pupils will reach this level.
An average 16-year-old will attain level
6 or 7
It is unlikely that your
child will attain the
same level in all areas
of study and the Na-
tional Curriculum has
been devised so that
pupils can forge ahead
in their strong areas of
study and get help with
their weaker ones.
Here is an example
from the programme of
study in English.
Between the ages of 14
and 16 pupils will:
• achieve a readable,
pleasing writing style
• write effectively about
• learn to speak persua-
sively and clearly, and
to use language appro-
priate to the situation,
topic or purpose
• read a wide variety of
fiction, poetry and
drama, including some
pre-20th century works
• interpret, evaluate and
2. Complete the sentences using information from the text. You
forms of school curriculum and ____________ of pupils’ progress
have been ___________.
including ________ standards in schools and ___________ of the
ther education is ________.
About 7 % attend __________ independent schools, the rest
non-selective comprehensive schools which cater for children of all
_________ at primary and secondary levels.
Being formerly outside ______, the foundation category in-
schools with a ___________.
In state schools parents have the right to be given_________
tional curricula which in England and Wales consists of ___________.
In state schools parents have the right __________ their chil-
The government assumes that young people must ________
skills through _______ links which will help pupils to see _________.
In England and Wales pupils can __________ at any time in
their last two years __________.
To be prepared for ___________ higher education or profes-
sional training students __________ (i.e. study for examinations which
lead to higher education) or ________.
About 2.5 million students __________ in further education,
Higher education, consisting of __________
courses__________ at universities and on _________ at polytechnics
and other establishments of higher and further education.
After three years of study, a student may _______ to a Bache-
based on at least one year's full-time work and that of Doctor of Phi-
losophy which _________ for a thesis which must be _____________.
3. Answer the following questions
Is there a unified system of education in the United Kingdom?
What are recent reforms focused on?
What is the Government policy aimed at?
What stages does the system of public education in England
In which parts of the country is education more selective?
What new categories of schools are being set up in Great Britain?
Define further education. Which education is included into
What do you think about the rights that British parents (whose
children study at state schools) have?
What role does the National Curriculum play?
Why does the government support Education–Business part-
What can pupils in England and Wales take up in their last
two years of compulsory schooling?
Give a definition to vocational education.
What sub-divisions does vocational education fall into?
What kind of education is most popular among students be-
Where can one get higher education in the UK?
What parts of the country are the best known British universi-
What faculties (departments) does a typical British university
When and for what is Bachelor’s degree given?
What levels can Bachelor’s degree be? Explain the difference
Who can earn Doctor’s degree?
Is the "tutorial" system characteristic of all British universities?
Are all students expected to make a contribution towards their
What does "means-tested contribution" mean?
4. Look through the text again and point out the sentences
(parts of sentences) containing key information which you could use
later to make your presentation on the topic
5. So the school leaving age in Britain is 16. Here is a flow chart
showing the possibilities for young people in Britain from age 16.
Study the flow chart and say whether a chart for your country would
show many differences from this one? What are the main ones?