Ф. М. Достоевского education in great britain учебно-методическое пособие



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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации 

Омский государственный университет им. Ф.М. Достоевского 

 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN 

Учебно-методическое пособие 

 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

Изд-во 



Омск 

ОмГУ  


2004 

 

2



УДК 20 

ББК 81.2 

  Е25 

 

Рекомендовано к изданию редакционно-издательским советом ОмГУ 



2.07.2004 г. Протокол № 3 

 

Рецензенты:  



канд. филол. наук, доцент ОмА МВД России В.Г. Болотюк;  

преп. каф. ин. языков ОмГУ Ж.Ю. Шацкая 

 

 

Е25    Education in Great Britain: Учебно-методическое пособие 



/ Сост.: Е.И. Бояринцева, Т.П. Руденко. – Омск: Изд-во ОмГУ, 

2004. – 76 с. 



ISBN 5-7779-0511-0 

Пособие  составлено  на  основе  аутентичных  и  оригинальных 

материалов  (текстов  из  зарубежных  пособий,  журналов,  реклам-

ных  проспектов).  Текст  на  аудирование  был  записан  специально 

для этого пособия. 

Состоит  из 10 частей,  нацеленных  на  развитие  навыков  всех 

видов речевой деятельности и их отработку в системе разнообраз-

ных упражнений по заявленной теме. Разработано с учетом прин-

ципа  коммуникативной  направленности  и  соответствует  совре-

менным  требованиям,  предъявляемым  к  преподаванию  иностран-

ного языка в вузе. 

Предназначено для студентов факультета иностранных языков 

и студентов старших курсов неязыковых специальностей.

 

УДК 20 



ББК 81.2 

 

Авторы выражают признательность Шине Милн 



 за оказанную помощь и ценные рекомендации при подготовке пособия 

 

 



 

 

ISBN 5-7779-0511-0 



© Омский госуниверситет, 2004 

 

 



ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ 

 

Предлагаемое  учебно-методическое  пособие  составлено  в 



соответствии с Государственным стандартом высшего профессио-

нального образования и  предназначено  для студентов  факультета 

иностранных  языков  и  студентов  старших  курсов  неязыковых 

специальностей. 

Цель пособия – развитие и совершенствование навыков уст-

ной  речи  на  английском  языке.  При  составлении  пособия  авторы 

ориентировались на конечную цель обучения студентов и исходи-

ли  из  концепции  взаимосвязанного  обучения  основным  видам 

иноязычной речевой деятельности: навыкам чтения, аудирования, 

перевода,  интерпретации  неадаптированного  англоязычного  тек-

ста. 

Учебно-методическое  пособие  состоит  из  десяти  разделов, 



тексты  которых  многофункциональны.  Формирование  навыков  и 

умений диалогической и монологической речи осуществляется на 

материале  аутентичных  текстов  по  проблемам  образования  в  Ве-

ликобритании с последующей развернутой системой как лексиче-

ских  упражнений,  так  и  упражнений,  нацеленных  на  дальнейшее 

развитие  навыков  использования  структур  и  рассчитанных  на 

расширение знаний и навыков в новом лексическом окружении и 

в новых коммуникативных ситуациях. 

Речевые  упражнения  предусматривают  стимулирование  на-

выков  не  только  говорения,  но  и  письменной  речи,  а  также  спо-

собствуют  синтезу  всего  пройденного  лексико-грамматического 

материала. Тексты значительны по объему, что вызвано как мето-

дологической  направленностью  содержащегося  в  пособии  мате-

риала,  так  и  стремлением  дать  более  полное  представление  об 

английской системе высшего и "последующего" образования. 

Последний раздел пособия предоставляет возможность сту-

дентам  проверить  знания,  полученные  в  процессе  работы  над  те-

мой, выполнив разнообразные лексические упражнения.   

 

4

W A R M-U P 



 

Quiz "Education in Great Britain" 

 

How much do you know about British education? Answer the ques-

tions. Then check your answers with a partner. 

 

1.

 



In Britain you have to attend school between: 

a)

 



5 and 16 

b)

 



5 and 18 

c)

 



7 and 16 

 

2.



 

A comprehensive school is.... 

a)

 

a school of languages 



b)

 

a school for 5–11 year olds 



c)

 

a school for 11–16 year olds 



 

3.

 



"Public" schools like Eton are very expensive – it costs more 

than £15,000 a year to be educated at Eton, for example. What propor-

tion of British children attend "public" schools? 

a)

 



7 % 

b)

 



10 % 

c)

 



15 % 

 

4.



 

In 1989 a new National Curriculum was introduced into Brit-

ish schools. Ten subjects had to be studied. Three of these subjects 

called "core subjects" were chosen for special attention. Here are the 

ten subjects to be studied. Which do you think are the "core subjects"? 

a)

 



English 

 

f)   Mathematics 



b)

 

History 



 

g)  A Foreign Language 

c)

 

Geography   



h)  Design and Technology 

d)

 



Art Physical 

i)   Education 

e)

 

Science 



 

j)   Music 

 


 

5.



 

16-year-olds in Britain have to take the General Certificate of 

Secondary Education examinations. Girls have significantly better re-

sults than boys in three of the following GCSE subjects. Which three? 

a)  Mathematics 

d)  History  

b)  English 

e)  French 

c)  Biology 

f)  Chemistry 

 

6.

 



The average pupil-teacher ratio in British schools is....... 

a)  19 


c)  25 

b)  22 


d)  30 

 

6



R E A D I N G  

 

READING FOR DETAILED COMPREHENSION 

 

Text A.   Learn the vocabulary paying attention to explanatory notes, 

then read the text. While reading focus on the boldfaced 

words / collocations which you will need to do the following 

tasks 

 

General Profile of British System of Education 

 

further education – дальнейшее  образование,  дневное  и  ве-

чернее,  иногда  с  освобождением  от  работы.  Платное.  Основная 

цель – повышение квалификации. Возраст не ограничен. 

full-time – c отрывом от производства 

part-time – без отрыва от производства  

sandwich courses – курсы (в основном при техническом кол-

ледже), где занятия чередуются с работой на производстве 



block release courses – занятия  с  отрывом  от  производства 

на определенный срок 



an honours degree – диплом с отличием 

Bachelor's degree – диплом об окончании вуза в России 

Bachelor of Arts / B.A. (BA) – бакалавр искусств (по одной 

из  гуманитарных  или  математических  наук  в университете).  Ста-

вится после фамилии. 

Bachelor of Science / B.Sc. (BSc) – обладатель первой ученой 

степени  (first degree)  в  университетах.  В  Оксфорде – котируется 

выше (higher degree). 

Master's degrees: 

Master of Arts / M.A. (MA) – магистр искусств, обладатель 

второй  ученой  степени  (higher degree).  Выпускникам  Оксбриджа 

присваивается  без  экзамена  на  основании  определенных  сроков 

практической работы после окончания; от других требуется напи-

сание работы на основе проведенных исследований. Наблюдается 

тенденция присвоения после года практической работы. 



Master of Science  / M.S(c). (MSc) – магистр  естественных 

наук 


 



Master of Philosophy / M.Phil. (MPhil) – магистр философии 

(относится и к др. наукам). Присуждается за научную работу, час-

тично содержащую материал, разработанный автором. 



Doctor of Philosophy / Ph.D.  (PhD) – доктор  философии. 

Требуется написание самостоятельной работы на основе трехлет-

них (или более) исследований. 

lecturer / instructor (Am.) – преподаватель высшей школы 

tutor  преподаватель, ведущий практические занятия и вос-

питательную работу с определенной группой студентов 

 

Education in Great Britain and Wales is regulated by the 1944 



Education Act, the Department of Education and Skills being the cen-

tral authority established by law. Scotland and Northern Ireland have 

educational systems of their own basically similar to that of England 

and Wales, but differing considerably in detail. Education in the coun-

try has been undergoing  a series of  major reforms since 1988, in-

cluding the introduction of various forms of school curriculum; the 



testing and assessment of pupils’ progress and the provision of more 

information about school performance to parents. Education is the top 



priority of the Government. Policy is focused on raising standards in 

schools,  ensuring learning targets are achieved, tackling social ex-

clusion,  broadening access to further and higher education and en-

hancing the status and quality of the teaching profession.  

The system of public education in England and Wales is organ-



ized in three stages of Primary, Secondary and Further Education. The 

first 2 are compulsory for all children. Further education is volun-



tary. So children study at school from 5 to 16–18 years old. Then they 

can go to work, to further education or to university. 

All children and young people between the ages of 5 and 16 in 

England, Scotland and Wales, and 4 and 16 in Northern Ireland, must, 

by law, receive full-time education. Over 9.9 million children attend 

33,685 state and private schools in Britain. About 93 % receive free 



education financed from public funds, the rest attend fee-paying in-

dependent schools. Boys and girls are taught together in most schools. 

In England and Wales non-selective comprehensive education caters 

for children of all abilities (mixed-ability comprehensive schools). 

Nearly all pupils in Scotland attend non-selective schools. Secondary 

schools are largely selective in Northern Ireland, where a small number 

 

8



of integrated schools have been established at primary and secondary 

levels with the aim of providing education for Roman Catholic and 

Protestant children studying together.  

Most state school education in England, Scotland and Wales is 



provided by local government. In England and Wales a new structure 

of foundation, community and voluntary schools is being set up. The 

community category includes schools formerly owned by Local Educa-

tion Authorities, while the foundation category includes many grant-



maintained schools, which were outside local authority control. The 

voluntary category will include schools with a particular religious 



ethos.  

Parents  have a statutory right to express a preference for a 



school. National tables are published on the performance of all schools 

throughout Britain. All state schools have to give parents a written 



annual report on their child’s achievements. Parents are represented 

on school governing bodies, which appoint staff and manage school 

budgets. Each school is regularly inspected by independent inspectors, 

working to agreed national standards. 

Broadly based national curricula ensure that pupils study a bal-



anced range of  subjectsThe National Curriculum in England and 

Wales consists of statutory  subjects for 5- to 16-year-olds. Similar 



arrangements exist in Northern Ireland; in Scotland, content and man-

agement of the curriculum are not prescribed by statute. All state 

schools must provide religious education and all state secondary 

schools are required to provide sex education, although parents have 

the right to withdraw their children from  these  classes. All English 

primary schools are required to have a literacy and numeracy study 



hour each day. 

The main school examination, the General Certificate of Secon-

dary Education (GCSE), is taken in England, Wales and Northern Ire-

land at around age 16. A broadly similar exam system exists in Scot-

land.  

All qualifications offered to pupils in state schools in England 



and Wales must be approved by the Government. Associated sylla-

buses and assessment must comply with national guidelines

One of the government objectives is to help young people de-

velop economically relevant skills. It recognizes that school-business 

links can raise attainment levels and help pupils to see the relevance 


 



of what they learn at school. It supports Education–Business partner-

ships and aims to bring closer links between schools and industry so 

that young people develop skills to help them succeed in the  labour 



market. All young people in full-time education are entitled to ca-

reers information and guidance. In England and Wales pupils can take 



up work experience placements at any time in their last two years of 

compulsory schooling. In Scotland the Education for Work pro-

gramme also develops business-education links. 

Students who choose to continue their studies after 16 – about 

two-thirds – work for academic (i.e. study for examinations which 

lead to higher education) or vocational qualifications which are the 

main standard for entry to higher education or professional training. 

These include the General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ), 

mainly taken between the ages of 16 and 18, which is designed to pro-



vide a broad-based preparation for a range of occupations and higher 

education; the academic General Certificate of Education Advanced 

(A) level examination taken at the age of 18 or 19, and the Advanced 

Supplementary (AS) examination. 

 

Further Education and Training 

About 2.5 million students are enrolled in further education

much of which is work-related. Further education is for persons over 

compulsory school age, and consists of full-time and part-time educa-



tion. It comprises all forms of public education except secondary (be-

tween ages of 11 and 15), i.e. grammar, modern and comprehensive 

schools as well as independent / private schools, university education 

and teacher training. The main sub-divisions of vocational education 

are technical, commercial, art, agricultural and horticultural. Aca-

demic work and professional training differ from college to college. 

Some colleges provide "sandwich" courses or short full-time block 

release courses. There may be several patterns for sandwich courses: 6 

months in college and 6 months in industry / office; alternatives are 4/8 

and 6/10. Many students between 15 and 18 attend mainly part-time 

courses, either by day release or block release from employment, or 

evening courses. Part-time training also includes correspondence 

courses and distance learning as well as refresher courses

 

10



Courses are run by some 500 institutions of further education, 

many of which also offer higher education courses. 

A wide range of national vocational qualifications, designed 

mainly for people in work, are based on national standards that define 

the competence, knowledge and understanding that employers need.  

 

Higher Education 

Higher education, consisting of degree and equivalent courses

has experienced a dramatic expansion. Today one in three young peo-

ple enters higher education compared with one in six in 1989. Higher 

education is provided at universities, "the new universities" (former 



polytechnics which became known as "new universities" in the early 

nineties) and other establishments of higher and further education.  

There are some 170 universities and higher education institu-

tions, which enjoy  academic freedom.  First degree courses are 

mainly full time and usually last three years (four in Scotland), with 

longer courses in subjects such as medicine. Universities offer courses 

in a wide range of subjects. The oldest and best known universities are 

in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Liverpool, Durham, Edinburgh, Bris-

tol, Cardiff, Birmingham. A university consists of a number of facul-

ties:  divinity / theology, economics, engineering, agriculture, com-

merce and education. After three years of study, a student may proceed 

to a Bachelor’s degree and later to the degree of Master and Doctor. 

The Bachelor’s Degree (Bachelor of Commerce, Science or Music) is 



given to students who pass exams at the end of three to four years of 

study. Bachelors’ degrees are at two levels, Honours and Pass. In 

some cases the Honours Degree is  awarded for intensive study and 

examination in one, two or perhaps three related subjects, while the 

Pass (or General) degree may be somewhat broader. In some cases the 

Honours degree is given to the students who are more successful in 

their examination. 

The first post-graduate degree is that of Master, conferred for 

a thesis based on at least one year’s full-time work. Everywhere the 

degree of Doctor of Philosophy is awarded for a thesis which is an 



original contribution to knowledge

The British universities have their own way of life and traditions 

which are carefully preserved. For example, sometimes you can see 


 

11

students at Oxbridge wearing a cap and gown – it’s a custom from the 



time when students were clergymen. 

Academic life in universities is exciting and very busy. Students 

attend lectures given by professors and lecturers, have seminars and 

work on their own in universities’ libraries and laboratories. 

 Higher education is largely financed by public funds although 

students who have begun their studies since September 1998 are ex-

pected to make a contribution of up to £1,000 towards their tuition 



fees. This contribution is means-tested, so that tuition is free for stu-

dents from lower income families

 The maintenance grant has been replaced by a maintenance 



loan. The loan is partly means-tested, so that only students from lower 

income families are entitled to the full loan. 

 

12

TASKS 



 

1. For you to have an idea what the National Curriculum in 

Britain looks like, here is a part of a brochure prepared to inform 

parents about it 

 

How it works 

The National Curriculum subjects are: 

mathematics, science, English, technology, 

history, geography, a modern foreign lan-

guage, art, music and physical education. 

Religious education is also compulsory. 



All pupils will study all subjects. 

Key stages 

Your child's progression through educa-

tion will have four key stages and as-

sessment will take place at the end of 

each. 

 

Generally, each subject has ten levels and 



your child will progress through one level 

at a time. The top level is 10 – but not all 

pupils will reach this level. 

An average 16-year-old will attain level 

6 or 7 

 

It is unlikely that your 

child will attain the 

same level in all areas 

of study and the Na-

tional Curriculum has 

been devised so that 

pupils can forge ahead 

in their strong areas of 

study and get help with 

their weaker ones. 

Here is an example 

from the programme of 

study in English. 

 

Between the ages of 14 

and 16 pupils will: 

• achieve a readable, 

pleasing writing style 

• write effectively about 

demanding topics 

• learn to speak persua-

sively and clearly, and 

to use language appro-

priate to the situation, 

topic or purpose 

• read a wide variety of 

fiction, poetry and 

drama, including some 

pre-20th century works 

• interpret, evaluate and 

compare texts 



 

 

13

2. Complete the sentences using information from the text. You 



may need to change the form of the words where necessary 

1.

 



As a result of education _____________ since 1988, various 

forms of school curriculum and  ____________ of pupils’ progress 

have been ___________. 

2.

 



The government declares that its ____________ is education 

including ________ standards in schools and ___________ of the 

teaching profession. 

3.

 



Primary and secondary education are __________ while fur-

ther education is ________. 

4.

 

About 7 % attend __________ independent schools, the rest 



receive ________ financed from public funds. 

5.

 



In England and Wales they have _____________ schools, i.e. 

non-selective  comprehensive  schools which cater for children of all 

abilities.  

6.

 



Of late in Northern Ireland they _________ a small number of 

_________ at primary and secondary levels.  

7.

 

Being formerly outside ______, the foundation category in-



cludes ________ schools, while the voluntary category will include 

schools with a ___________.  

8.

 

In state schools parents have the right to be given_________ 



as well as to be represented___________, which __________.  

9.

 



Pupils studying __________ is ensured by broadly based na-

tional curricula which in England and Wales consists of ___________.  

10.

 

In state schools parents have the right __________ their chil-



dren from religious and sex education classes.  

11.


 

The government assumes that young people must ________ 

skills through _______ links which will help pupils to see _________.  

12.


 

In England and Wales pupils can __________ at any time in 

their last two years __________.  

13.


 

To be prepared for ___________ higher education or profes-

sional training students __________ (i.e. study for examinations which 

lead to higher education) or ________.  

14.

 

About 2.5 million students __________ in further education, 



which is mainly _________, and consists of _________ and 

_________ education. 

 

14

15.



 

Higher education, consisting of __________ 

courses__________  at universities and on  _________  at polytechnics 

and other establishments of higher and further education.  

16.

 

After three years of study, a student may _______ to a Bache-



lor's degree and later to the degree of Master which is __________ 

based on at least one year's full-time work and that of Doctor of Phi-

losophy which _________ for a thesis which must be _____________. 

 

3.  Answer the following questions 

1.

 

Is there a unified system of education in the United Kingdom? 



2.

 

What are recent reforms focused on? 



3.

 

What is the Government policy aimed at? 



4.

 

What stages does the system of public education in England 



and Wales include?  

5.

 



Which of them are compulsory and which are voluntary? 

6.

 



What age groups does compulsory schooling embrace? 

7.

 



Do the majority of British students receive free or fee-paying 

education? 

8.

 

In which parts of the country is education more selective? 



9.

 

What new categories of schools are being set up in Great Britain? 



10.

 

Define further education. Which education is included into 



further education and which is not? 

11.


 

What do you think about the rights that British parents (whose 

children study at state schools) have? 

12.


 

What role does the National Curriculum play? 

13.

 

Why does the government support Education–Business part-



nerships? 

14.


 

What can pupils in England and Wales take up  in their last 

two years of compulsory schooling?  

15.


 

Give a definition to vocational education. 

16.

 

What sub-divisions does vocational education fall into? 



17.

 

What kind of education is most popular among students be-



tween 15 and 18 years old? 

18.


 

Where can one get higher education in the UK? 

19.

 

What parts of the country are the best known British universi-



ties located? 

20.


 

What faculties (departments) does a typical British university 

consist of? 


 

15

21.



 

When and for what is Bachelor’s degree given? 

22.

 

What levels can Bachelor’s degree be? Explain the difference 



between these. 

23.


 

Who can earn Doctor’s degree? 

24.

 

Is the "tutorial" system characteristic of all British universities? 



25.

 

Are all students expected to make a contribution towards their 



tuition fees? 

26.


 

What does "means-tested contribution" mean? 

 

4. Look through the text again and point out the sentences 

(parts of sentences) containing key information which you could use 

later to make your presentation on the topic 

 

5. So the school leaving age in Britain is 16. Here is a flow chart 

showing the possibilities for young people in Britain from age 16. 

Study the flow chart and say whether a chart for your country would 

show many differences from this one? What are the main ones? 

 

 

16



6. Study the four statements about school leavers in the 1990s. 

Then look at the graph. The Title of Column 4 is: NO PLANS

Match each of the columns 1, 2 and 3 with one of these titles: 




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