ҚАЗАҚСТАН РЕСПУБЛИКАСЫ БІЛІМ ЖӘНЕ ҒЫЛЫМ МИНИСТРЛІГІ
«НАЗАРБАЕВ ЗИЯТКЕРЛІК МЕКТЕПТЕРІ» ДББҰ
ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ШЕБЕРЛІК ОРТАЛЫҒЫ
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН
АОО «НАЗАРБАЕВ ИНТЕЛЛЕКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ШКОЛЫ»
ЦЕНТР ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКОГО МАСТЕРСТВА
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN
AEO «NAZARBAYEV INTELLECTUAL SCHOOLS»
CENTER OF EXCELLENCE
ХАЛЫҚАРАЛЫҚ ҒЫЛЫМИ-ТӘЖІРИБЕЛІК КОНФЕРЕНЦИЯ
МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ НАУЧНО-ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЯ
«ВЫСОКОЕ КАЧЕСТВО И ЛИДЕРСТВО В ОБРАЗОВАНИИ – 2013»
INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH-TO-PRACTICE CONFERENCE
Педагогикалық шеберлік орталығының
Әдістемелік кеңесі ұсынған
Рекомендован к печати Методическим советом
Центра педагогического мастерства
АОО «Назарбаев Интеллектуальные школы»
Recommended for publishing by Methodological Council of
Center of Excellence
AEO «Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools»
Баяндамалар жинағын баспаға «Назарбаев Зияткерлік мектептері» ДББҰ дайындады
Сборник докладов подготовлен к публикации АОО «Назарбаев Интеллектуальные школы»
A collection of reports published by AEO «Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools»
Рецензенттер: педагогика ғылымының докторы, профессор Шалғынбаева К.К.
педагогикадан PhD докторы Сағынов Қ.М.
доктор PhD по педагогике Сагинов К.М.
PhD in Education, Dr. Saginov K.M.
Білім берудегі жоғары сапа және көшбасшылық – 2013
П 84 Халықар. ғыл.-тәж. конф. баянд. жинағы (Астана қ., 13-15 қараша, 2013 жыл).
– Астана: «Назарбаев Зияткерлік мектептері» ДББҰ, 2013.
Высокое качество и лидерство в образовании – 2013
П 84 Сб. докл. Междунар. науч.-практ. конф. (г. Астана, 13-15 ноября 2013 года).
– Астана: АОО «Назарбаев Интеллектуальные школы», 2013.
Excellence and leadership in education – 2013
– Astana: AEO «Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools», 2013.
Т.3. – 464 б.
«Білім берудегі жоғары сапа және көшбасшылық – 2013» Халықаралық ғылыми-тәжірибелік
конференцияның баяндамалар жинағы білім берудің басым бағыттарының бірі «Мұғалімнің кәсіби да-
муы: дәстүрлері мен өзгерістері» тақырыбына арналған. Баяндамалар мазмұны қазақстандық және шетел
ғалымдарының, мұғалімдердің мұғалімнің кәсіби дамуының түрлі аспектілері: әлемдік озық тәжірибелерді
қорытындылау; мұғалімнің жұмысындағы инновациялар және оның үздіксіз кәсіби дамуы; педагогтардың
желілік қоғамдастығының мүмкіндіктері және т.б. ашып көрсетеді. Басылым орта, жоғары және жоғары
оқу орнынан кейінгі білім беру ұйымдарына, ғалымдарға, магистранттарға, докторанттарға арналады.
Т.3. – 464 с.
Настоящий сборник докладов Международной научно-практической конференции «Высокое
качество и лидерство в образовании – 2013» посвящен одному из ее приоритетных направлений –
«Профессиональное развитие учителя: традиции и перемены». Содержание докладов отражает лучший
теоретико-практический опыт казахстанских и зарубежных ученых, учителей-практиков по актуальным
аспектам профессионального развития учителя: обобщение лучшего мирового опыта; инновации в работе
учителя и его непрерывное профессиональное развитие; возможности сетевого сообщества педагогов и
др. Издание рекомендовано для организаций среднего, высшего и послевузовского образования, ученых,
V.3. – 464 p.
This collection of reports of the International research-to-practice conference «Excellence and leadership in
education – 2013» is devoted to one of the most strategic areas – «Teacher professional development: traditions
and changes». The content of the reports reflects the best theoretical and practical experience of Kazakhstani
and international scholars, teachers on important aspects of professional development: the world best practice,
innovations in teacher practice and continuous professional development, capacity of teacher network and etc.
The publication is recommended to secondary, high and potsgraduate educational organizations, scholars, master
and PhD students.
ISBN 978-601-7417-16-1 (3 том) © «Назарбаев Зияткерлік мектептері» ДББҰ, 2013
ISBN 978-601-7417-13-0 (жалпы)
ISBN 978-601-7417-16-1 (3 том) © АОО «Назарбаев Интеллектуальные школы», 2013
ISBN 978-601-7417-13-0 (общий)
ISBN 978-601-7417-16-1 (Volume 3) © AEO «Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools», 2013
ISBN 978-601-7417-13-0 (general)
Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge
Center of Excellence AEO «Nazarbayev Intellectual schools»
Мақалада мұғалімнің кәсіби дамуында Action Research мәні мен рөлі, сондай-ақ «Назарбаев Зияткерлік
мектептері» ДББҰ Педагогикалық шеберлік орталығы Кембридж университетінің Білім беру факультетімен
бірлесіп әзірлеген Қазақстан Республикасы педагог қызметкерлерінің біліктілігін арттыру деңгейлі бағдарламалары
шеңберінде мұғалімдердің зерделілік білімдері мен машықтарын қалыптастыру зерттеледі.
В статье исследуется сущность и роль Action Research в профессиональном развитии учителя, а так же фор-
мирование исследовательских знаний и навыков в рамках уровневых программ повышения квалификации педагоги-
ческих работников Республики Казахстан, разработанных Центром педагогического мастерства АОО «Назарбаев
интеллектуальные школы» и Факультетом Образования Кембриджского университета.
The article explores the nature of Action Research, its role within the teacher professional development and development
of research knowledge and skills within the multi-level in-service training programme for the pedagogic staff of the Republic
of Kazakhstan, developed by Center of Excellence of AEO “Nazarbayev Intellectual schools” and Faculty of Education,
University of Cambridge.
We are living in a world of rapid changes and improvements where teachers, as well as other professionals,
have to meet requirements in order to be up-to- date and to attain certain goals with high standards of
professional practice. Consequently, there is an immense need for professional development, which can be
achieved by various kinds of activities, such as long and short term courses with accreditation, attendance
to conferences, reading professional journals, and discussions with colleagues. However, at the centre of
teachers’ professional development there is reflection on professional practice (Wallace, 1998). He suggests
that it is a “reflective cycle” which gives an impetus for professional development.
It is generally accepted, that there are different kinds of activities which can be effective in the way of
achieving professional development, and all of them help us to reflect on our practice. However, with the
aim to solve particular problems, concerning professional practice, teachers do need “structured reflection”,
the form of which is Action Research (Wallace, 1998). Here, it should be relevant to present essential types
of reflection, within the action research, such as reflection-in-action, reflection-on-action, reflection-about-
action and reflection-for action (Schön, 1983; Zeichner, 1993). Reflection-in-action means thinking about
doing something in the process of doing it while reflection-on-action occurs after the action with the aim to
improve. Reflection-about-action gives us broader knowledge as it implies thinking about the action as a
part of social, political, personal and emotional context, and as a consequence there is reflection-for-action
which involves planning for the future.
The origin of action research is considered to be the work of Lewin (1940) as, according to Anderson et
al. (2007), he was the first person to promote the theory, which is esteemed in the field of social science.
There have been many attempts to give a definition of action research and most of them give a precise
meaning. Bassey (1998) seems to give an appropriate definition:
Action research, as a scientific phenomenon, has characteristics which can be identified and distinguished
from other types of research. Carr and Kemmis (1986) identified seven main characteristics of action research.
Firstly, it is determined by the practitioner who feels the need. Secondly, it is participatory as it provides
collaboration. It has a cyclical form as it is a systematic enquiry with a constant reflection aimed towards
improvement in social practice.
As for the process of action research, Burns (1999) stresses that it should be seen as “flexible”, as
different researchers in various situations have to identify phases of their research in relation to changing
circumstances. This may result in the different types of research phases. Novice teacher-researchers may
choose an appropriate one or create their own, taking into consideration a basic one, which was presented
by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1988), who claimed that action research happens through a “dynamic” process,
with four “essential moments”:
Having identified the essential moments of the research phase, it must be pointed out that they can
recur in the spiral of activities, as the model of action research can consist of several cycles (see section 3,
According to Campbell et al (2004), professional development has considerably changed its context and
substance. These authors claim that, step by step, there is an understanding of the significance of research-
based professional development, as there has been a major change from an ordinary type of PD, such as
“courses and workshops to the workplace and professional learning community”.
Teachers, should realise the importance of reflection in every-day practice as it provides them with
exclusive knowledge and understanding of the particular context (particular pupils). Hence, there is an
immense need for constant reflective practice and, as a consequence, in action research. What is more, as
a leading support of a beneficial effect of action research, Elliott and Adelman (1973) claims that [action
research leads to an improved quality of work – pupils of teachers who have engaged in action research
demonstrate superior performance in areas addressed in the research] (Elliott and Adelman, 1973 cited in
Zeichner, 1993: p. 206).
A central tenant of the CoE multi-level programme is that in order to improve the education of children in
Kazakhstan, teachers need to critically evaluate practice in the context of their own schools and classrooms.
This evaluation should be informed by critical reflection about present practice as well as new ideas and
supported by communication and collaboration with colleagues. Critical evaluation will inform changes to
practice which will themselves be evaluated by teachers so that development is sustained.
Critical evaluation of practice involves teachers in believing that they can make a difference and taking
on the responsibility for this. Therefore, the programme encourages teachers to see themselves as agents of
change within their own classrooms and schools. At level three, teachers are expected to evaluate and change
practice within their own classrooms. At level two, they support evaluation and change in the classrooms
of their colleagues through coaching and mentoring. At level one, teachers evaluate and influence practice
across whole schools through research-informed school development planning involving programmes of
coaching and mentoring.
In order to evaluate practice in ways that are valid and rigorous, teachers need knowledge and
understanding of research or enquiry methods. Therefore, an important strand running progressively
through the three levels of the CoE multi-level programme is the development of research skills. Participants
in the programme are teachers and the research or enquiry that they carry out is within their own professional
context and could therefore be described as a form of Action Research. Although, the activity expected
of participants does not meet all requirements of ‘pure’ Action Research (Stenhouse, 1975; Kemmis and
McTaggart, 1988) the knowledge and skills needed are those associated with this type of research. The
development of research knowledge and skills through the three levels of the programme is described
At level three teachers are exposed to ‘new ideas’ about pedagogy. They critically reflect on, and discuss,
these ideas in the context of their own practice. Teachers develop medium term plans which incorporate
ideas about pedagogy from seven substantive topics of the programme: learning how to learn; talk for
learning; critical thinking; teaching gifted and talented pupils; assessment for and of learning; age related
differences and the use of ICT. Teachers have to think about how ideas discussed in the programme might
be drawn upon to improve the learning of their particular pupils. During the school-based period these
plans are put into practice and critically evaluated in relation to pupil learning.
The programme aims to help teachers understand the value of classroom research or enquiry. In order
to prepare teachers to carry out critical evaluation of practice a number of research skills are addressed
during F2F1 of the programme. A key focus is on how to carry out rigorous and objective observation in
classrooms, for example, one session practices the use of various observation schedules. Another important
skill of practitioner-research is the ability to ask pupils their views about their learning in a way that is
likely to encourage authentic responses. The programme encourages teachers to consult with pupils and
various example of how this might be done effectively are considered. The central aim of the programme is
to make a positive difference to pupils’ learning. Therefore, the level three programme pays much attention
to ways of monitoring changes in classroom learning. ‘Lesson Study’ is introduced as a method for critical
evaluation of teaching through detailed analysis of individual pupil learning. The final sessions of F2F1
prepares teachers to evaluate what is happening during the intervention that they put into place during the
school-based period, i.e. the sequence of lessons incorporating ‘new’ ideas.
During the school-based period, teachers collect evidence about the impact of the sequence of lessons and
F2F2 focuses on analysis of this evidence. In F2F2 teachers produce an assessment portfolio relating to the
construction, implementation and evaluation of the sequence of lessons. This includes a ‘reflective account
of a lesson from the planning sequence to include evidence of pupil learning, i.e. photographs of pupil
activity, examples of pupil work and pupil assessment records. During F2F2 the ‘validity’ of the evidence
of pupil learning offered by teachers is critically discussed in order to develop teachers’ understanding
of data collection and analysis. The portfolio also includes a ‘reflection on the complete lesson sequences
demonstrating how changes to teaching and learning were led and managed.’ This section of the portfolio
helps teachers to reflect on how research or enquiry-based practice empowers them to lead change within
their own classrooms. They also address the challenges and limitations of bringing about change through
classroom research and consider how to improve.
In summary, at level three teachers are helped to understand the need for teacher-led enquiry in order
to develop their practice in a contextually relevant way. Level three teachers are introduced to practice-
based research through the implementation and evaluation of a sequence of lessons incorporating ‘new’
ideas. They are taught basic skills of classroom observation, ways of consulting with pupils and how to
focus on pupil learning for evidence of substantial change. In reflecting on their research or enquiry activity
when evaluating the sequence of lessons, teachers begin to understand how to ensure rigour, reliability and
validity in practitioner research.
The level two programme includes the exposure to ‘new ideas’ about pedagogy that formed the basis of
level three. Teachers are also helped to introduce these ideas to colleagues through coaching and mentoring.
As in level three, the development of practitioner research skills begins with the critical reflection on,
and discussion of, pedagogical approaches in the context of teachers’ own practice. Level two teachers
are expected to carry out a small scale ‘Action Research’ project in their own classrooms. This involves
making some change to their classroom practice prompted by reflection on ‘new’ ideas introduced in the
programme in relation to their previous practice. The teachers collect evidence of the impact on pupils’
learning of these changes and analyse this evidence to determine the effectiveness of changes and further
changes to practice. In this way, during the programme, they complete one cycle of action research and
identify a further possible cycle. Level two teachers also carry out coaching and mentoring activity during
the school-based period and are involved in research activity in relation to this. In order to evaluate their
coaching sessions, teachers are required to collect and analyse evidence of what went well/not so well in the
coaching sessions and of teacher learning. Mentoring a colleague involves identification of mentee needs,
intervention (mentoring activity) and evaluation of the effectiveness of the mentoring activity.
In F2F1, teachers are prepared for their research activity during the school-based period. Skills taught in
the Level three programme are also integrated into the Level two programme. Such skills include classroom
observation, surveying and consulting pupils and how to evaluate lesson planning sequences. Level two
teachers are expected to carry out more substantial research which goes outside of their own classrooms.
Therefore, they are given more extensive research training during F2F1 than that given to level three teaches.
Training in classroom observation is extended to include observing pupil interactions using sociograms and
to include observations of teaching for the purpose of mentoring. Level two teachers are taught how to
identify areas for development not just in their own classroom, but in the wider school. They are introduced
to using video, pupils’ views and pupils’ work in order to identify the areas for development of individuals
and groups of colleagues. At level two, teachers are not only taught how to collect evidence of the impact
of changes to their own practice but also the impact of changes to the practice of colleagues. Professional
conversation is a key topic in the level two programme and introduces interviewing as a useful method for
collecting evidence in practitioner research. In particular, video-stimulated recall is introduced as a useful
tool for holding professional conversations with colleagues. Towards the end ofF2F1, level two teachers are
helped to plan their action research with particular emphasis on developing research questions and how to
During the school-based period, level two teachers carry out the small scale action research project,
at least two sessions of coaching with a group of colleagues and mentor one colleague. In addition to the
evidence relating to their action research project, teachers collect evidence of the effectiveness of their
coaching and mentoring. During F2F2, they are helped to evaluate this evidence and complete a portfolio
comprising an action research report and reflective accounts of their coaching and mentoring. This helps
to develop teachers’ analytical skills. Teachers are helped to write an action research report in which they
give a clear rationale for the research focus, a detailed account of changes to practice and justification for
the methods used to collect data. They are helped to consider the validity and reliability of evidence in
order to assess the effects of the intervention and to determine if improvement has occurred. Teachers are
also encouraged to consider what changes can be made to the interventions in order to elicit better results
in further cycles of action research. During F2F2, teachers are also helped to analyse evidence from their
coaching and mentoring in order to evaluate the impact these have on the practice of their colleagues.
Teachers are helped to critically examine the validity of their evidence. Such evidence includes observational
evidence (including video) as well as documentary evidence such as feedback given to mentees and the
work produced by colleagues during coaching sessions.
In summary, at level two teachers are helped to understand the importance of teacher-led enquiry in
order to develop their practice and the practice of their colleagues in a contextually relevant way. Level two
teachers are introduced to practice-based research through a small-scale action research project and through
evaluating the impact on practice of their coaching and mentoring of colleagues. They are taught more
complex skills of classroom observation and ways of consulting with pupils. In reflecting on the evidence
collected through their action research and their evaluation of the impact of their coaching and mentoring,
teachers develop their understanding of how to ensure rigour, reliability and validity in practitioner