значительные, чем Абаем... Однако, учениками
они были», – деген /10,119/ пікірінен артық Абай
мектебі, Абай шәкірттері деген ұғымға
анықтаманың қажеті шамалы.
Елуінші жылдары «Абайдың әдеби мектебі»
концепциясының зиянды деп танылып, әдебиет
тарихынан аластатылуының бір себебі, міне
диссертациясының тақырыбы ғана емес, жалпы
«Абай мектебі» деген атау түп-тамырымен
өзгертіліп, Абайдың ұстаздық қасиеті
1959 жылы қазақ әдебиетінің негізгі
проблемаларына арналған 5 күндік ғылыми-
теориялық конференция өтті. Сөз арасында
айтайық, әлгіндей кең көлемде әдебиетке
арналған конференция бұған дейін де, кейін де
болмағанын ескерсеңіз сол кездегі әдебиетке
деген назардың қаншалықты салмақты болғанын
байқай беріңіз. «Об основных тенденциях и
направлении казахской литературы 80-90-х
годов ХІХ века» деген тақырыпта баяндама
жасаған М.Сильченко «Абай мектебі» туралы
былай дейді: «Неясным, вызывающим
разноречивые толки, остается до сих пор вопрос
о так называемых «абаевских традициях» в
казахской литературе. В дискуссии 1951 года
была отвергнута концепция поэтической школы
Из-за неясности и неразрешенности
проблем традиции и влияния, понятий о школах
и направлениях в общесоюзной науке, и у нас
возникают затруднения в трактовке этих
проблем. Есть неоспоримые факты, которые, тем
не менее, трудно обьяснить научно. Бесспросно,
что Абай имел много последователей», – деп
Абай шәкірттеріне тоқтала келіп: «Нам надо
отказаться схоластических толков и споров по
этому вопросу уже потому, что в истории нет и
не было такого случая, чтобы литературное
направление или школа объединяли писателей,
поэтов совершенно идентичных по своим
общественно-эстетическим воззрениям и
тво рческой манере», - деп Абай мектебі
өкілдерінің шығармашылық мұралары батыс пен
орыстың әдеби бағыт, әдеби мектепке қоятын
талабына, дәлірек айтқанда «аға ұлт өкілдері»
шығарған анықтамаға сай келмейтіндігін тілге
Жалпы болмысты, соның ішінде әдебиетті
белгілі бір қалыпқа салып үйренген әпербақан
кеңестік жүйе әдебиетіміздің ұлттық ерекшеліктері
мен Абайдай дарынның оқшау қасиеттерін
ескермеген-ді. Сөйтіп, Сильченко мырза:
«Отказывались от термина «школа Абая», мы
ввели понятие поэтического окружение Абая.
Следует прямо сказать, что оно не соответствует
действительному положению вещей. Ведь для
истории литературы важны не пассивные
отношение, а творческо е взаимодействие
по этов, писателей одного исторического
периода, единого в своей основе направления.
Поэтому разрешите предложить на обсуждение
понятие, принято е и в истории русской
литературы, - «поэзия (или поэты) абаевской
поры» /11,128-129/. Зерттеуші сөзіне түсінік
берудің қажеті жоқ сияқты.
Сөйтіп, «Абай мектебі» тақырыбы бір жола
құрдымға кетпей, не даңғыл жолға түспей
жербауырлап жылжи берді. Ал, Абай мектебінің
нағыз зерттелу кезеңі тәуелсіздікпен бірге келіп,
енді ғана Хәкім Абайдың ұстаздық құдіреті
туралы толымды пікір айтуға жарыдық.
ӘДЕБИЕТ 1 Мұқанов С. Абайдың шәкірттері туралы
// Абай.1992. №4.
2 Мұхамедханов Қ. Мұхтар кешкен қилы
заман. Абай. 1992. №3.
3 Ахметов З. Эпопеяның туу тарихынан //
кітапта: Мұхтар Әуезов тағылымы. – Алматы:
Жазушы. 1987. -432 бет.
4 Сахиев Ж. Ақын аға // Абай.
Энциклопедия. Алматы: Атамұра, 1995. -720-
5 Әуезов М. Шығармаларының елу томдық
толық жинағы. 26-т. –Алматы: Жібек жолы, 2007.
- 408 бет. 406-бет.
6 М.О.Әуезовтің қолжазба мұрасы. –
Алматы: Ғылым, 1977. -791 бет.
7 Әуезов М. Абай жолы. 2-к. –Алматы:
Жазушы, 1990. -624 бет.
8 Нұрғалиев Р. Арқау. 2-т. Алматы: Ғылым,
9 Чернышевский Н.Т. Полное собран.
ҚАЙЫМ МҰХАМЕДХАНҰЛЫ - 100 ЖАС 2016 №1 (30)
Сочинение, том 3. 1947г.
10. Әуезов М. Абайтану дәрістерінің дерек
кездері. –Алматы: Санат, 1997. 448 бет.
11. Сильченко М. Об о сновных
тенденциях и направлении казахской
литературы 80-90 гг. ХІХ века. //кітапта: Әдеби
мұра және оны зерттеу. Алматы: ҚССР ҒА бас,
1961. – 375 бет.
Резюме Resume ҚАЙЫМ МҰХАМЕДХАНҰЛЫ - 100 ЖАС 2016 №1 (30) Автор статьи говорит о существенных изменениях в структуре диссертаций Каюма Мухамедханова, вышедших в 1951 году и в 1959 году в результате политической критики, а также в статье говорится о поэтической школе Абая. The author talks about significant changes in the structure of theses Kayum's Mukhamedkhanov's, published in 1951 and in 1959 as a result of political criticism, as well as in the article refers to the poetic school of Abai.
ҚАЙЫМ МҰХАМЕДХАНҰЛЫ - 100 ЖАС 2016 №1 (30) FATHER AND SON The
Mukhamedkhanov the ethalon of conscience.
Kayum Mukhamedkhanov became a legend in
his lifetime, a dignified citizen of Kazakhstan and a
profound scholar whose research is held in highest
regard in Kazakhstan. During the Stalin political
repression of the 1950-s my father and our family
suffered severely. He was condemned and imprisoned
for 25 years for the new research on the “Abai’s school
of followers” which was implemented under the
supervision of his teacher Mukhtar Auezov. Kayum was
sincerely devoted to his teacher Mukhtar Auezov for
life and despite physical and mental torture he had not
betray him. He did not betray his Teacher, thus, Kayum
did not betray his Motherland!
Kayum Mukhamedkhanov upheld as a supreme
life value a Dignity of every human being, high moral
principles, humane attitude that he himself demonstrated
in everything he did: in dealing with people, in writing,
in research, in revealing many names from the oblivion,
in teaching, in public meetings.
Kayum Muhamedhano v (05.01.1916-
ETHALON OF CONSCIENCE: KAYUM MUKHAMEDKHANOV’S LIFE AND FATE Independence is the greatest achievement of our country and the fate of independence is in hands of every citizen. Human qualities such as conscience, human dignity, citizen’s courage are essential for keeping the nation alive. They are the basis for cultural and spiritual sustainability which define the political, economic and social development. It is easy and hard at the same time to keep humane qualities - “to stay a human being in all situations”- as Kayum said. Today in the situation of global crisis and moral degradation of our society we all need real examples and cases of dignified behavior of our citizens in hard times of our history. This is especially significant for young people for them to find spiritual and ethical back up in life, in profession, in any dialogue on local, regional and global issues. 30.06.2004) is an outstanding researcher, the founder
of the scientific based study of Abai, the founder of the
research on textual analysis, a devoted student and a
follower of M.Auezov. He was admitted to the Writers'
Union in 1940. Kayum is the founder of the first museum
of Abai that he established in Semipalatinsk in 1940.
Kayum’s contribution to the creation of the first in history
of Kazakhstan state symbols is invaluable! He created
the verse for the National Anthem of the Kazakh Soviet
Socialist Republic in 1943 when he was 27 years old.
His verse won the competition. Encouraged by Kayum’s
majestic and inspirational verse of the anthem, Mukan
Tulebayev created a beautiful music. The composer was
30 years old at that time. The anthem was approved
and followed the state history for more than fifty years!
In the first lines Kayum wrote: "Er Kazakh ezhelden
erkіndіk Ansagan", which means "Courageous Kazakh
people since ancient times yearned for freedom."
The Soviet collective ideology did not let two
young people to be named full authors. On top of that
Communist Party was frightened to call their people
courageous. So, they added two more well known
senior writers and two more well known senior
composers. So, the collective of Anthem authors was
D.MUKHAMEDKHAN, PhD, professor, international expert, Director of the NGO "Center for Education and Culture named after Kayum Mukhamedkhanov" УДК 821.512.122
Keywords: K.Muhamedhanov, science, poetic school of Abai, Shakarim, Alash Orda.
ҚАЙЫМ МҰХАМЕДХАНҰЛЫ - 100 ЖАС 2016 №1 (30) enlarged to six. There was a lame excuse for that - an
insignificant “change” made by the then ideologists: only
one word - the word “courageous” was substituted by
the word “we”.
Kayum’s life was completely and fully devoted
to the service of the Kazakh nation. Where does good
nature of a human being and love for people start? This
is the parental home.
If you put a white rose petal into a dirty vessel it
will soon wrinkle and begin to stink, - this is what the
Oriental wisdom says. As a little boy Kayum was
protected against this fate. Gifted by heavens with pure
soul and many talents he from early childhood turned
out to be in such a favorable atmosphere where there
was by definition no space for mediocre life and greedy
goals. Innate gifts and special family atmosphere of
nobility, high inner spirituality and love became that
bo wstring which propelled the arrow of
Mukhamedkhanov’s fate to higher and higher altitudes
even against great odd and terrible setbacks.
Mukhamedkhan Seit kulov was a vivid
representative of the spiritual elite of the Kazakh people
in the late 19-th – first decades of the 20-th century.
Neither his profound financial stability and well being
nor the chance of relaxing on the laurels of universal
respect affected his inner nobility, aspiration for
knowledge and worship of the arts. This is why everyone
in his house felt well, including his second child and the
first son in the family - Kayum. The little boy
remembered that time forever. The magnificent house
was located next to Tinybai mosque in the now Jana-
Semei district of Semipalatinsk. Before the revolution
this part of Semipalatinsk was called “Zarechnaya
slobodka” (a place beyond the river line). From 1917
until 1930 this part of the town was named “Alash”
(meaning all Kazakh people). As father wished the house
was designed and decorated by the Austrian craftsmen.
Stucco moulding of apples and other fruit, oil paints
used for decoration, elegant furniture of red wood, -
this all created an atmosphere of warmth and comfort.
The richest library in the whole town occupied a big
hall. It contained all world classics. The library attracted
many interesting people to Seitkulov’s house. One could
find here masterpieces of the Russian, European and
Oriental literature; the first publication of Abai’s poems,
poetry of Shakarim, the works of Baitursunov, Dulatov,
Jumabayev, Toraigirov; newspaper files of “Kazakh”,
‘Sari-Arka”, “Tarjiman” and “Dala ualayati”, magazines
“Aikap’, ‘Abai’, and the “Notes of the Emperor Russian
Geographical Society”, the Tatar magazine “Shura”,
newspaper ‘Uakit” and many more.
Kayum’s father - Mukhamedkhan Seitkulov
could read Kazakh, Russian, Tatar, Arabic, Persian
and other languages. He gave lessons in Islam at the
Tynybay mosque in Semipalatinsk town. Later he
served Imam at the mosque number six known as the
Mosque of Ahmed Riza. He was an educated person
who read in Arab, Kazakh, Tatar, Persian, Russian and
other languages. He was a well to do person, he loved
his people and understood the role of education and
culture for the nation’s development. He collected
traditional Kazakh folk poems. Mukhamedkhan
Seitkulov was a generous literary patron and Maecenas.
He funded the first issues of the magazine “Abai” which
was established and edited by Aimauitov and Auezov.
He also financed the newspaper “Sari-Arka”. His house
was open for both the mature writers and the talented
youth. He hosted heated discussions on history, culture
and literature, - the past and the future of the Kazakh
people. New thoughts and bright ideas were generated
here. Among frequent guests to this house were
Shakarim, Kokpai, Toraigyrov, Baizako v,
Kashaubayev, Aimauitov, Almagambet, Jumabayev,
Bukeikhanov, Turlikhanov, Tinishpayev, Dulatov, and
many other prominent figures of theatre and arts,
literature, research, social movement - in a word all
those people whose contribution to the history of our
motherland made golden pages in the chronicle of glory
and honor of Kazakhstan.
Mukhtar Auezov was a frequent guest in
Seitkulov’s house. At that time he was a student of the
Semipalatinsk Teacher’s college and he often stopped
at the house with his friends. Kayum was six years old
when he first saw Auezov in his father’s house. Since
that time their fates were interconnected for life.
Seitkulov generously supported Mukhtar materially and
It is the historical fact that the first Kazakh theatre
was born in Seitkulov’s house in Semipalatinsk: in 1925
the generous house owner gave a chance to the young
writer Auezov to rehearse his plays “ Karakoz” and
However, such a cultural renaissance was destined not
to continue. Gusts of social storms that “ruined to the
root the old world” approached the Irtish river steppes.
First in 1921 the new power confiscated the house of
Seitkulov, permitting the family use of only two rooms.
The house was assigned to the Kazakh elementary
school number 20. Home became school for little
Kayum.Yes, rather coming to classes he came to his
Year 1928: one more gust of the proletariat
struggle with “exploiters’ class” burst on the scene.
Mukhamedkhan Seitkulov was arrested along with
hundreds of other including Abai’s son Michael.
Seitkulov was soon released, but the authorities
deprived him of all his valuables. Many years after this
his son Kayum will tell his children that he saw tears in
the horses’ eyes when ruthless whips forced them from
their home to alien stalls. Something essential was gone
forever. The blessed jailau (summer pasture time) in
Koken (the ancestors’ place) with happy dreams under
the arch of white yurts, the astringency of fresh kumis
(horse mare’s milk) would exist only in the past. The
family was forced out of the remaining two rooms of
their own house. The father bought a four room house
from Tinybai on the savings.
In 1928 Kayum finished the elementary school
but as the son of a “bai” (rich Kazak) it was unlikely he
would be permitted to continue his education. Two years
later the seven year secondary school was opened in
Semipalatinsk. Kayum hopelessly dreamed of entering
the school. One day an old friend of Mukhamedkhan
Seitkulov - Turlikhan Kasenov knocked at his family’s
“Mukhamedkhan-aga, the new school is opening
and I have been appointed its principal. I have come to
ask your advice about housing: I have no housing in
town,” he said. Could you imagine that this kind noble
man would ever refuse to the person whom he
considered to be a relative?
“You do not need to search for the house. There
is enough space for all in mine,” answered Seitkulov.
Soon after that Turlikhan moved from Ayagoz to
Semipalatinsk to live in Seitulovs’ house. His first child
Bolat was born here. (Bolat is the father of the famous
wrestler Daulet Turlikhanov). Kayum was admitted to
school. He would very often tell stories about his
favorite teacher who recited many of Abai’s and Arip’s
poetry and played the dombra, the Kazakh national
string instrument. Kayum’s father and the teacher were
his guides to the amazing world of poetry.
Again, this time in 1932 the Soviet authorities
seized the family’s house. The family moved into a small
house on Soldatskaya street in the center of
Semipalatinsk. It was clear enough that this was not
the last drop of bitterness in the family’s cup. Despite
all the hardships Seitkulov did not allow any thought
escaping from his native land.
After graduating from the seven year secondary
school Kayum worked in different places and studied
in the two year teachers’ courses, later at the
Pedagogical Institute. He would take any kind of job
to support his family. But even in hard times there were
happy days. At the courses of teaching Kazakh language
he met a beautiful, tactful, educated and wise young
woman. In 1936 Farkhinur, a daughter of the mullah of
the two-minaret Semipalatinsk mosque and Kayum
…November 24,1937 coincided with Ramadan
month. Mukhamedkhan Seitkulov’s family kept the fast
Oraza. The prayer was read, the food was tasted
before the daybreak in line with fast rules. All of a
sudden clatter of horses’ hoofs was heard and loud
knocks at the door. Three armed persons broke into
the house. They shouted at the head of the family: “Stand
up. You are arrested!” Mukhamedkhan Seitkulov was
seated near the cradle of the Kayum’s first baby. He
could not understand what was happening. He and his
son were arrested. Kayum was freed the next day. As
for the fate of Seitkulov the family knew nothing for a
long time. Some time after the arrest they were informed
in the “menacing office” that Mukhamedkhan Seitkulov
was condemned as a member of the anti-Soviet Muslim
clergy and that he was sent to Siberia for ten years with
no right for correspondence. (“ten years with no
correspondence right” meant immediate death in the
official language. This information was not known to
It was not until decades later; in the 1990s that
we learned that in three days after his arrest Sietkulov
was shot. His burial place remains unknown until now
and furthermore, the family has no other physical
momentos to remember him by, not even one picture
as everything was confiscated - the library, valuables,
furniture. The only “reward” for the decades of
obscurity and excruciating worry was the decision of
the commission on enacting the order of the Presidium
of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On additional
measures in restoring justice in relevance to the victims
of the political repression.” (April 25, 1989). The
document given to the family reads that Mukhamedkhan
ҚАЙЫМ МҰХАМЕДХАНҰЛЫ - 100 ЖАС 2016 №1 (30)
Seitkulov is fully rehabilitated. Seitkulov’s younger
brother was sent to “Belamor-Canal”, soon after he
This took place not long ago. But then in 1937
Kayum felt very quickly what it meant to be the son of
“an enemy of the nation”. He was expelled from the
Pedagogical Institute. Newspapers wrote about “the
son of the bai who had no right to be next to decent
people”. Kayum had to perform physical labor to
support his family as he could not get other job with the
label of “outcast”. He loaded coal in fire-boxes,
unloaded trucks and did any other work he could get.
It took time to be reinstated at the Institute.
At the age of 16 Kayum started his teaching
career at the courses of the Kazakh language, but he
earned his first salary at the age of 14. Knowledge of
several languages, professional skills in seeing the value
of literary work, his own poetic and playwright talent
molded Mukhamedkhanov into a good translator. It
was translation that was a pass for the future man of
letters. One day his father’s frequent guest, Idris
Mustambayev (a prominent representative of the
Kazakhs intelligentsia) asked Kayum to come to his
home. He showed him a thick manuscript in Arabic
language and asked him to read it .
“I read it all well, “– recollected Kayum many
-And can you translate it and rewrite it from the
Arab script into the Latin one? What would you say?
-Well, aga, I will try. (note: “aga” means respectful
address to elders). With these words I took the
manuscript home. I sat day and night for twenty days
to complete the assignment.
When I brought the work to Mustambayev he
said: “You did the work well and accurately.” He shook
my hand and gave me a hug. I was about to leave when
Mustambayev gave me some money. I was perplexed
and did not want to take it
- This will not do, he said. This is your hard work
and excellent result. Any work should be rewarded.
“So, this is how I first earned money”, - Kayum
In 1930-s Kayum created a number of verses
and poems. As it was mentioned his poetic talent was
vividly revealed in the verse of the State Anthem.
A GREAT TEACHER AND A GREAT STUDENT Kayum’s research path started at the end of
1930-s under the guidance of Auezov who supported
Kayum morally after his father’s arrest. Mukhtar Auezov
called Kayum “My young talented brother”. He fully
trusted Kayum in any assignment he gave to him. A
great teacher – Mukhtar Auezov created great tasks
for his student and follower Kayum Mukhamedkhanov.
He set forward three main tasks to Kayum:
1. To start the new research path – the literary
school of Abai’s followers and students
2. To prepare the basis and establish the first
ever museum of Abai in Semipalatinsk
3. To find, restore and keep purity of Abai’s
original verses and poems by means of conducting
scrupulous text analysis
Three great tasks were given by the great teacher
Mukhtar to a student Kayum which he implemented
with excellence and high professionalism. The
contribution to the nation and dignified behavior and
deeds of Kayum give us the right to call Kayum the
great student of Auezov – the great teacher.
When Kayum was a student of the Philology
Department at the Pedagogical Institute he under
Mukhtar’s guidance began the titanic work on studying
and preserving Abai’s heritage. Kayum took Auezov’s
class in the Kazakh literature. On Mukhtar Auezov’s
advice he began a research study on the creative
activities of Abai’s followers: Akilbai, Magavya, Aubakir,
Arip, Turagul, Kakitai, Kokpai, Aset and others. He
also did scrupulous text analysis of their literary works
that were fast disappearing. He wrote down their
creative biographies by collecting in small pieces
evidence of their life. Mathematically accurate work
on texts analysis helped Kayum to reveal their poetic
and literary works, to identify which works belong to
what poets to preserve them for generations. At that
time Kayum made a research grounded argument for
the very notion of “Literary school of Abai”. Thirteen
research articles on this topic were published by him
when he was a student!
It was not only teacher-student relationship that
was est ablished bet ween Auezov
Mukhamedkhanov, the researchers of life and creative
activity of Abai, two men of literature. It was the souls’
ҚАЙЫМ МҰХАМЕДХАНҰЛЫ - 100 ЖАС