среднего поколения Грузия - воображаемая родина, родина предков, и они согласны
рассматривать возможность переезда туда только в том случае, если будут даны
политические, социальные и экономические гарантии.
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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERSTITION KINDS, GOOD AND BAD LUCK
IN ENGLISH, KAZAKH AND RUSSIAN CULTURES
Жанузакова А., Берденова С.Л.
(ТарГУ им. М.Х.Дулати)
This article - the result of research superstitions in English, Kazakh and Russian
cultures. The subjects of this study are represented by the most known superstitions of
England, Kazakhstan and Russia, as well as by the experiments related to people's
superstitions and their psychological addiction for superstitions based on believe in higher
forces. The Human's desire to protect itself from the unknown forces or create the good
fortune for themselves led to the creation of thousands of superstitions around the world.
Today, despite the advances in technology, science and culture, such concepts as
"superstition" and "luck" are still prevalent in our World today. Life is unpredictable, but
sometimes a person notices weird coincidences or some events, followed by a series of
fortunate or unfortunate outcomes. All this leads to the belief that our fates are predetermined,
and that something way, beyond the laws of logic sends us signs, referred to as omens.
Superstitions are reflected in the subculture of society (customs, traditions, beliefs) and
come in the form of superstition (magic, astrology, a pseudo - religious practices) or as
paganism, etc. Superstition embraces such effects as values, relationships, anxiety, intra-
My personal interest in superstition is due to the fact that it makes me frustrated when
people do things that do not make sense. It scares me because people are hoping to get lucky
when then they write tests or go through examinations instead of preparing in a proper
manner to know what they must know. I want to know why people in certain situations are
even ready to harm themselves physically just for the sake of their superstition would come
1-people use superstition to take control over uncertainty;
2- reduce their feelings of helplessness;
3- it is easier to rely on superstition than to think about the strategy to overcome the
"People sometimes refer back to superstition as a countervailing force." "Superstition - is a
parachute that will save them, they think"
Humans are always looking for explanations for a particular occasion, are afraid of
something, or dream of something. Exposure to psychological dependence, manipulation of
consciousness leads to superstitions. The real life is unpredictable; it contains a set of laws,
principles and rules: the knowledge of one's past, of traditions, values, national culture, and
Superstitions and omens are not a unique topic for the research. Signs, customs are
encountered in our life time constantly. Every day, every hour, every minute, we face a
choice. And the result determines not just our future, but sometimes the future loved ones, as
well as of complete strangers. After all, sometimes a tiny thing can turn a person's life inside
out. And it does not matter, whether one believes in superstitions or not.
The study of superstitions in English, Kazakh and Russian cultures is of a great interest to us
because of the specific laws of preservation and passing on from a generation to the next.
The problem of superstition is ambiguous and causes a lot of controversy, because the essence
of these issues addresses such topics as religion, psychology, cultural and spiritual life of the
people, the issues of predestination of fate and evil spirits. But, anyway, it is undeniable that
the signs and superstition play a huge role in our lives. This was proven by the survey among
people of all ages, starting from five years of age. I asked the following question: “Do you
believe in omens?”
82% believe in omens and selectively follow the rules, but always follow the customs
and traditions that are associated with the holidays, which is also a manifestation of
15% strongly believe in omens and always follow the rules associated with superstition
3% don’t believe in omens
Forms of superstition
In fact superstitions include several branches:
1) Superstitions themselves
5) The customs and rituals
9) Pseudo sciences
Speaking of tradition, it is, perhaps, the very common form of manifestation the
superstitions. Almost everyone follows the traditions, whether the tradition of large scale or a
certain tradition of the collective. Traditions always have historical origins, especially when it
comes to the traditions of a country. Most often the traditions are related to holidays.
Magic, in its original sense, was associated with spells, charms and supernatural powers to
make "miracles." In ancient times, priests and doctors of Egypt, Greece and Rome, as a rule,
were believed to have some magical powers. Each religion has its own customs and beliefs.
Not surprising that people of different religions have different beliefs.
Omens and superstitions in the UK, Kazakhstan and Russia are also different.
The United Kingdom, Russia and Kazakhstan like any country known are rich in culture,
traditions and folklore. First of all, we must remember that most people in our country are
Muslims, in Russia- Orthodox but most of the people living in the UK are Catholic. And this
is observed in the fact that a popular holiday in the UK which is Halloween is not celebrated
in our country and in Russia as well. You must also add that the similarities and differences of
superstition in Kazakhstan, Russia and the UK - they depend on how different the histories of
these countries are.
Similarities between English, Kazakh and Russian superstitions
Despite the fact that English and Russian cultures are very different from the Kazakh
our country took a different historical path, many omens and superstitions are the same.
These are the signs that are common throughout the world, such as, for example, the happy
and unhappy numbers, superstitions about mirrors and weather conditions, the ceremony on
general holidays and some signs related to animals.
1. Number 13
So, let's look at why and in Russian and in English, and even in the world's superstitions
the number 13 is so often mentioned as being unlucky. There are many superstitions
associated with nature, charms, spirits, objects, colors, accidents and so on. But probably no
other superstitious signs as the number 13, which is worldwide is believed to be unlucky.
Many hotels do not have floors numbered 13 - the account comes from the 12th straight to the
14. Many hotels do not have a room number 13. Strangely enough, but there is no single
universally accepted explanation for the origin of superstition associated with the number 13.
There are many different opinions on this matter. Some experts believe that the number 13
has become unpopular with the time when people began to learn to count. Using 10 fingers
and two feet as separate units, people were able to count just to 12. But then followed an
unknown number of 13, which frightened people.
2. Lucky and unlucky days
Superstitions about lucky and unlucky days of the week are also widely spread as the
superstitions about numbers, and most of them are associated with Friday. Neither Britain nor
Russia are no exception to this superstition.
Muslims say that Adam was created on Friday, and, according to legend, Adam and Eve
ate the forbidden fruit on Friday, as well as their end came on Friday.
Superstitious people believe that the combination of an unlucky number 13 with an unlucky
day - Friday result in a completely bad day!
As has already been said many of the superstitions in Kazakhstan, England and Russia
are related to mirrors. The most common sign says that if you break a mirror, seven years you
will be accompanied by setbacks. Verbatim in English it sounds like: «If you break a mirror,
you will have seven years bad luck». It is believed that if you break the mirror, the evil spirits
that live in Wonderland, will haunt the person who did this and take revenge for the fact that
they were "evicted from their homes." The Russians, the Kazakhs say it’s forbidden to look
in the mirror shards. If a dead man is the house, all the mirrors are covered with cloth.
Of particular importance in Kazakhstan, England and Russia play omens and
superstitions, dedicated to weddings. Very often good luck superstitions penetrate to different
Perhaps the most popular wedding superstition says that the girl who caught the bouquet
at a wedding is always next in turn to get married. Therefore, a young English woman,
Russian and Kazakh girls try to catch the bride's bouquet at a wedding.
Rice use – one of such symbols which contains centuries in marriage ceremony. In ancient
the husband and the wife, that is the joint food symbolizes joint life, and rice indicates local
In certain cases rice on wedding used not to bring together the groom and the bride, and
5. Animals, birds, insects
In all countries there are the signs connected with various animals, fishes, birds and
insects, not to mention plants.
a) swallow - a bird of happiness
-is considered a bird bringing good luck to the house
-swallow builds a nest under your roof - so luck will come to your house.
-if you kill swallow or destruct swallow's nest , it will carry misfortune in the house
b) ladybug brings good luck 
c) the horseshoe brings good luck. Almost each country has the legend or the tradition
connected with a horseshoe.
The differences between English, Kazakh and Russian superstitions
But, as we know, between Kazakh, English and Russian superstitions have many
a) a black cat
Perhaps one of the most important differences is the interpretation of omens, when
black cat runs across the road. If Kazakhstan and Russia this means failure, England black cat
symbolize just the opposite – the happiness and good fortune. Literally, this is a sign from the
point of view of the English is: "If a black cat crosses your path, you will have good luck." 
Perhaps this is why many famous British people choose the black cats as pets.
In Russia the same cats such coloring always feared. This religious superstition about
the black cat brings bad luck, there was many thousands of years ago. In the Middle Ages
believed that witches and sorcerers used a brain of a black cat for preparation of a mysterious
potion. Owing to all these associations the black cat in Russia and many other countries
became a failure symbol.
b) to scratch the left hand
There is also in England a superstition that if you scratch the left hand it to loss of
money.” If you scratch your left hand, you will give money away”. In Russia and
Kazakhstan- on the contrary, promises big wealth.
Also it is necessary to tell that in Kazakhstan and Russia spiders associated with
anything other, as with evil spirit and diseases. In England there is such superstition: «If you
see a small spider, you will get a lot of money» that is literally translated as: «If you see a
small spider, you will grow rich».
There are also many signs in Great Britain which have no analog in Kazakhstan, Russia.
For example, such sign: «If you walk under a ladder, you will have bad luck» that means that
if you will walk under a ladder, you will be accompanied by failures.
There mane mascots in England, Kazakhstan and Russia.
For example, in Great Britain it is considered that the rabbit pad brings good luck. The
rabbit is a symbol of kindness, a cosiness, gifts and protection.
In Kazakhstan – a wolf claw. Very often people have “tumar”. They usually triangular
shape, but meet also the square. Inside of “Tumar” people put Sura from the Koran or the
pinch of the Holy Land or salt.
In Russia it’s a claw of a bear. A bear – the king of the wood, evil ghosts are afraid of
it, and the person carrying a bear claw, takes itself force of this animal.
Ancient people tried to explain the world so to what they to themselves represented it. It
served as the reason of emergence of numerous superstitions and beliefs. And, in spite of the
fact that the majority of them truth practically doesn't contain, people continue to trust them
and so it and should be. The person can't know everything, so, it will continue to build
guesses and to put forward hypotheses how the world is arranged. All of us are a little
superstitious. It is put in us by the nature.
Having studied some of superstitions of Great Britain, Kazakhstan and Russia, I opened
for myself something new. The knowledge of culture, folklore, traditions and beliefs helps
us to get acquainted closer with customs of other country, with its history and spiritual life, to
enrich own outlook.
1. Шалаева Г.П. Серия энциклопедий «Все обо всем»: в 10-и т. Т. 1; 2; 5; 7; 8. – М.: «Слово», 1994.
2. Лаврова С.А. «Культура и традиции Великобритании». – М.: «Белый город», 2004.
3. Калашников В.И. «Энциклопедия религий и верований народов мира». – М.: «Престиж-бук», 2001.
4. Барбин А.В. «Приметы. Суеверия. Знаки» – М.: «Эксмо», 1999.
ПРОБЛЕМА СЛОЖНОГО ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ, ВЫРАЖАЮЩЕГО
В современном английском языке проблема сложного предложения,
выражающего целевые отношения заслуживает особого внимания лингвистов.
Целевые отношения часто рассматриваются как особый тип причинно- следственных
отношений. Так Л.Теньер писал что “придаточное цели, как и придаточное следствия,
представляет собой противоположность придаточного предложения причины” Целевые
отношения являются одной из форм языковой реализации причинно-следственных
Цель-это заранее мыслимый, ожидаемый и желаемый результат тех действий,
которые произойдут в будущем: для достижения этого результата необходима
активная, сознательная и преднамеренная деятельность человека. Сложные
предложения, выражающие целевые отношения в английском языке не были
предметом синтаксических конструкций и выявления специальных лингвистических
исследований основных способов выражения целевых отношений в английском языке.
Цель – как объект в философии есть предвосхищение в сознании результата, на
достижение которого направлены действия . В логике цель – это то, что представляется
в сознании и ожидается в результате определенным образом направленных действий .
Условие в логике – это среда, в которой пребывают и без которой не могут
существовать предметы, явления. Это то, от чего зависит другое; та часть условного
суждения, в которой выражается знание о том, от чего зависит что-нибудь другое. В