Источники: 1. Феликс Шамхалов, Философия бизнеса, издательство «экономика», 2010, сс. 300- 305
2. Ф.А. Кузин, Культура делового общения, практическое пособие, 2000, Москва, сс. 6- 32.
Be cultural chameleon to succeed in life and business In our modern life, the Internet and satellites
have allowed us to communicate with various
cultures and countries within seconds. Also,
communication in the globalized world plays a
significant role today. And the purpose of my
research work is to provide an overview of the
impact of global communication on international
relations in the scientific, educational, and cultural
As we know, there are many different countries
in the world. And all of them have their own
traditions and customs which differ greatly from
country to country. Consequently, the awareness
of those differences could make or break
communication with people in other countries
whatever it could be - either business or just
holiday. Working on my project, I have interviewed
my pen-friends from different countries to find
out more about their lifestyle. Among them are
Iranians, British, Americans, Malaysian people.
It is well-known that Iran is a big country which
has many states from the north to the south and
from the east to the west. Their traditional clothing in the north is simple and is mostly oriented for
winter because in that region the weather is cold.
Eastern states of Iran has the Persian traditional
clothes and etiquette but with a bit mixture of
Afghani and Pakistan traditional. Their clothes
are different than in northern and western states
because the climate there is dry and hot in summer
and cold in winter.
Iranian traditional food is mostly the same
all over Iran but surely the climate and the
geographical location affect the culture of food.
In general Kebab (BBQ) is the most famous Iranian
food which could be a beef, chicken and even fish.
Kebab can be served with hot bread or rice with
saffron to give the rice and food good look and
The pure Iranian etiquette is Persian etiquette
which is known through centuries in the world as
the first world Empire and its traditions and culture
has stayed alive for long times. Equality between
men and women was one of the significant
things in Iran, and Iranian ladies take care of their
children or work in their own gardens. Respect for
old people, especially fathers and mothers, is very
important for people in Iran and they get to know
that since their childhood.
Persians usually celebrate their weddings and
parties in the bosom of their family and friends,
far from the center of the city in the open air, with
national music. The most important holiday for
all Persians is Novrouz – the Oriental New Year.
It starts on the first day of spring and lasts for
13 days, they believe that the earth has refreshed
itself again and the nature is getting kind to people.
of the first month is Iranian calendar for
going out home. Most people goes out of their
home and usually sit in the gardens or enjoy their
moments till sunset. After that they go back to
Due to its strategic location, the Malaysian
culture is brilliantly diverse. Some customs and
traditions are rooted to the Hindu and Buddhist
culture, while others are European and Japanese in
nature. However, the major core of the Malaysian
way of life is still the ancient Malay culture. Some
of the huge festivals in the country are based from
the beliefs of the Malay people, for instance, The
Prophet Muhammad Birthday, which is celebrated
on the 9
of March every year. Today, despite
the claims of cultural heritage theft against the
country, Malaysia’s culture remains to be one of
the numerous tourist magnets of the country.
Tourists should be considerate of the local
culture in Malaysia by not wearing short shorts
and dresses that may offend the local population.
You’ll generally find you get better service if
you are dressed relatively conservatively: long,
comparatively loose pants, particularly for women,
shirts with sleeves. Sometimes you can’t just dress
for comfort. Modesty is a considerably higher
value in this country than in majority of other
While communicating or doing business with
local people in this country, do not ask for things
with a condescending or arrogant attitude. Ask
respectfully and with kindness. You also should use
the proper chain of command. Don’t ask a national
worker to do something that should come from
their supervisor, or that you can do, like changing
As we know, how many nations and so many
traditions, as well as languages people speak in
different countries. In order to communicate
successfully people are supposed to choose
the common language. Nowadays, one of the
international and intercultural languages is
English. So, it makes sense to talk about customs
British customs and traditions are well-known
all over the world. When people think of Britain
they often imagine of people who drink tea at
ZholymT.K IAB, «Accounting», 1st year, Almaty Scientific adviser:
Karimova G.I., Docent of IAB
five o’clock, eat fish and chips and wear bowler
hats, but there is more to Britain than just those
things. We know about English traditions in sport,
music, food and many other things. There are lots
of notable special days in Britain. Among them
I would like to tell you about Bank holiday and
In the United Kingdom and Ireland a bank holiday is a public holiday, when banks and
many other businesses are closed for the day.
Bank holidays are often assumed to be so called
because they are days upon which banks are shut,
but days that banks are shut are not always bank
holidays. For example: Good Friday and Christmas
Day are not bank holidays, they are common
holidays. The dates for bank holidays are set out in
statute or are proclaimed by royal decree.
Easter is one of the major Christian festivals
of the year. However, Easter celebration in Britain
began long before the arrival of Christianity. Many
theologians believe Easter itself is named after the
Anglo-Saxon goddess of the dawn and spring -
Easter. In Britain Easter occurs at a different time
each year. It is observed on the first Sunday after
the first full moon following the first day of spring
in the Northern Hemisphere. This means that the
festival can occur on any Sunday between March
22 and April 25. Not only is Easter the end of the
winter, it is also the end of Lent, traditionally a time
of fasting in the Christian calendar. It is therefore
often a time of fun and celebration.
The English are naturally polite and never
tired of saying Thank you and I am sorry. They
are generally disciplined; you never hear loud
talk in the street. In Britain you will find that most
people are kinder to you if you behave politely
respecting local people and customs. You may
sometimes upset people by things that you say
or do, even if these things seem perfectly normal
in your own culture. There are no strict etiquette
rules that you have to stick to when in the UK. I
think, it is advisable, however, to demonstrate
decent manners and respect to the local culture
English people are quite reserved when
greeting one another. A greeting can be a bright
‘Hello’ or ‘Good morning’, when you arrive at work
or at school. When being entertained at someone’s
home, it is nice to take a gift along for the host
and hostess. A bottle of wine or chocolates are
It is necessary for a business person to keep in
mind the following:
▪ A firm handshake is the norm; there are no
issues over gender in the UK.
▪ People shake hands upon meeting and
▪ Maintain eye contact during the greeting
but avoid anything prolonged.
▪ Most people use the courtesy titles Mister,
Missis or Miss and their surname.
▪ Wait until invited before moving to a first-
name basis. People under the age of 35 may
make this move more rapidly than older
▪ Business cards are exchanged at the initial
introduction without formal ritual.
▪ The business card may be put away with
only a cursory glance so don’t be offended
if not much attention is paid to it.
The English language is the tool to establish our
viewpoint. We can learn from other’s experience.
We can check the theories of foreigners against
our experience. As it was already mentioned,
English is means of communication for many
people in many countries. We would like to pay
attention to the most interesting part of any
language – idioms.
Idioms add color to the language, helping us to
emphasize meaning. Also, idioms are often used
in spoken language, in situations that range from
friendly conversations to business meetings. I
worked with a few books to analyze meanings of
idioms. There I found Idioms related to business, it
consisted 71 idioms.
There are a number of idioms according to
people’s names, problems, money, business
etc. And most of them are used in everyday
life. It means they are also very useful tools for
communicating a great deal of meaning in just a
few words. For instance, make an ass of yourself – to make something wrong, so that people think you are stupid; cut the cackle – used in order to tell someone to stop talking about unimportant thing.
But there is also idioms which have the same
meaning and translation in Kazakh language: to kill two birds with one stone – бір оқпен екі қоянды ату.So it means to achieve two things with one
As a result, I can say that idioms help people in
many ways of communication. For example, it will
help us to understand and to learn the language
better, also it makes language more interesting.
The ability to understand idioms is important to
successful communication. By using idioms we
can express our thoughts exactly and briefly. As
we know, every country or nation has got their
own idioms that are specific to their own culture.
Learning the specific idioms related to a certain
culture helps you to learn more about the history
or customary beliefs of the country. That is why I
think that idioms is a part of the culture.
Language, so far as we know, is something
specific to humans, that is to say it is the basic
capacity that distinguishes humans from all other
living beings. This is a system for communication.
So, to communicate with each other we need
language of course. Appendix Meanings of idioms according to business: An albatross – a problem that prevents you
from succeeding; 
An unholy alliance – used about an agreement
between two people or organizations who would
not usually work together, when you think they
have joined together in order to do something
Take a bath- to lose a lot of money in business
or lose a lot of money you have invested; 
Be in bed with somebody – to join working with
another business company or political group, in
order to get a business or political advantage,
used especially when you disapprove of this ar-
Miss the boat – to fail to take an opportunity
that would give you an advantage, especially in
business or a competition; 
Brain drain – a situation in which people in a
particular business go abroad or to another indus-
try to work, because they will be paid more for
their work there; 
Dog eat dog – used in order to describe a situ-
ation, especially in business, in which people who
want to succeed are willing to do anything to get
what they want; 
Be at the sharp end (of something) – to be one
of the people in a business who deals directly with
customers, or one of the people in an organization
who deals with the people it is meant to help or
the problems it is meant to solve; 
In/on the front line – used in order to say that a
person or business is involved in or responsible for
all the latest developments in something; 
A smoke – filled room – used about a meeting
where a business or political decision is made se-
cretly or informally by a small group of people; 
Be dead in the water – used in order to say that
a business or plan has failed completely or has no
chance of succeeding; 
Sources: 1. Addison Wesley Longman, (2000) Longman Idioms Dictionary. Malaysia: Huntingdon,
2. Myrzakhanov T.A. Reference Book of English and American Idiomatic Expressions. Almaty (2012).
Metaphoriс process of economic terms In economics, as it is one of the most modern
spheres, installation of new terms is a common
process, which is similar to happen as Economics
itself is improving really sharply.
Scientific research is devoted to the learning of
economic terms and expressions in the process of
metaphorization. It aims to studying a metaphoric
model of economic terms
Metaphor is the word or phrase that is used
in a figurative meaning, based on the comparison
of an unnamed subject to any other on the basis
of their common feature. Metaphor plays an ex-
tremely great role in giving the idea of the object.
It determines the method and style of thinking
about it, too.
Relevance of the research is based on the sev-
eral facts: first, sub-language of economics and
finance affects the wide range of human-beings:
from business employees to radio and television
workers or just ordinary people; second, the ex-
pressions of economic sphere are important to
consider in metaphorical way; third, the descrip-
tion of metaphorical models of the economic
sphere is one of the most important directions of
As an example of business expressions we can
take the word “zombie”. The first meaning of the
word is a dead person, enlivened by magic, but
without their own will and spirit. In the sphere of
business it is used for specifying a company that is
going to be taken up by another one and it is on
the verge of bankruptcy. It means that the dead
company keeps on running like a zombie.
As Kalugina Y.E states, language is a culturally-
determined form of expressing the linguistic iden-
As to Maslova V.A “Human is a carrier of na-
tional mentality, which can be researched through
the language, being the most important thing of
It is known, that the reason of metaphorical
transfer is intellection, caused by national and
cultural features. List of metaphors are divided
into two groups, based on their metaphoric signs.
Some part of them may occur in several groups,
as it may have different classifications. First group
is terms formed by proper name; second group is
terms formed by common name. There are also
some subgroups of terms formed by proper name
Toponimical terms: Belgian dentist, Dutch dis- ease, New-York interest, Wall Street crash;
Anthroponimic terms: Dolly, Ginnie Mae, Lady Macbeth strategy, Tiffany list.
And subgroups of terms formed by common
▪ Terms, fundamentally formed by terms that
were taken from zoological concepts: Alli- gator property, African lion, American eagle, bear market, dove, rat trading, dog and pony show, yellow dog contract, black Swan; ▪ Terms, based on botanical concepts: carrot equity, daisy chain, lemon, lemon laws; ▪ Terms, shaped by metaphors connected
with mythological stories: act of God, Alad- din bonds, Santa Clause rally, angel, phan- tom competition, pirate issue, Christmas tree, Sleeping Beauty, zombies; ▪ Terms, based on familial relations: aunt Mil- lie, mother Hubbard clause, Granny bonds, junior bond, mom-and-pop store, married put, marrying price, problem child, seven sis- ters, twin shares, weak sister; ▪ Terms, shaped by metaphors connected
with people’s parts of body: ankle biter, arm’s length transaction, face interest rate, face value, footloose industries, head and shoulders, lifting a leg; ▪ Terms, formed by metaphorical transfer of
days of the week and months: May Day, black Monday, Monday effect, black Friday, Marlboro Friday, Saturday night, weekend ef- fect; ▪ Terms, based on color indications: blue list, green investing, green washing, green revo- lution, golden share, golden handshakes, golden handcuffs, grey list, grey market, pink sheets, orange goods; ▪ Terms, formed by items of food, kitchen
supplies and cooking: eating stock, finan- cial menu, falling knife, pie chart, oil scandal, sandwich generation; ▪ Terms, shaped by metaphors, using military
and marine concepts: anchor capital, shot- gun approach, golden parachute, gun jump- ing, radar alert, camouflage compensation, trigger price, price war; ▪ Terms, based on sport metaphors: soccer mom indicator, hockey stick bidding, job- hunting, headhunt. ▪ Terms, formed by metaphors, found by
concepts, showing unique national fea-
ture: gentleman’s agreement, Chinese Walls, Samurai bond, Geisha bond, Hara-kiri swap. Kuzembayeva S.N. IAB, «Regional studies», 1 course, Almaty Scientific adviser:
▪ Metaphors function as a mediator between
culture and the human mind, by which we
deepen our understanding of the world
and create new hypotheses. By using meta-
phors, people use more closer and clear
ideas and concepts.
▪ Anthroponimical terms commonly show
culturally-specific indicators. For instance,
“sleeping beauty”, this term is used in the
sphere of business for identifying a com-
pany with large assets and capital facilities
that is attractive to be taken up by another
firm. This expression is well-associated with
a fantastic story about sleeping beauty.
“Lady Macbeth strategy” is tactics of taking
over of the company, being a “white knight”
and then joining the sphere of enemy ex-
pectants to take up the company. Undoubt-
edly, this metaphor shows a plot of Shake-
speare where Lady Macbeth is evil.
Metaphoric term lets inform of awareness of
the process or an object. Among metaphors it is
possible to pick out following groups:
▪ Members of an economical processes ▪ Angels are industrialists, providing risky
capital. Dove is an economic advisor of
monetary actions. His goal is to keep per-
cent rate low.
▪ Activities of an economic members ▪ Capitulation is associated with the losses of
prices in market, as investors sell shares try-
ing to “leave the market” in order to turn to
less risky investments.
▪ Activities themselves ▪ Hiccup is used for marking short break-
downs and disruptions of the plans. Terms
may be used in the descriptions of the func-
tions of certain companies, firms and fab-
▪ Objects and tools of economic activity ▪ Lemon is investments with a little return.
Cushion is money put aside for rainy day.
As a conclusion, it is easy to mention that lan-
guage is a determined form in the expression of
culture and nation. Language shows the process of
becoming a nation. The appearance of metaphors
is the result of intellectual efforts of human-being.
As to J.Kalugina “Metaphor is not just for decora-
tion of the speech, it plays more important role. It
serves for necessity of thinking” .
Sources: 1. Калугина Ю.Е «О некоторых особенностях процесса метафоризации экономических терми-
нов» Лингвистика, №2, 2009 - Вестник МГОУ
2. Маслова В.А. Лингвокультуроллогия. М.: Академия, 2004. 208 с.