МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
БАШКИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
КОГНИТИВНЫЙ И КОММУНИКАТИВНЫЙ АСПЕКТЫ ДИСКУРСИВНОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ Материалы Международной научно-практической конференции 11-12 декабря 2012 г. Том 1
Издание осуществлено при финансовой поддержке Националь-
ного фонда подготовки кадров, грант № 14.B37.21.1000
Редакционная коллегия: доктор филол.наук, проф. Ф.Г.Фаткуллина (отв. редактор) доктор филол.наук, проф. Н.П. Пешкова (зам.отв. редактора) доктор филол.наук, проф. А.Р. Мухтаруллина доктор филол.наук, проф. Л.А. Калимуллина канд.филол.наук, доцент Р.А. Салахов канд.филол.наук Б.В. Орехов технические секретари: А.Р. Ахметзянова Р.М. Гайбадуллин И.Р. Саитбатталов
Когнитивный и коммуникативный аспекты дискурсивной дея- тельности: Материалы Международной научно-практической кон-
ференции 11-12 декабря 2012., Том 1., г.Уфа / отв.ред.
Ф.Г.Фаткуллина. - Уфа, 2012. – 348 с.
DR. PARIKSHAT SINGH MANHAS University of Jammu, J&K, India Brand Building through Quality Service in Higher Education: A Case study of Tourism and Hospitality Education in India
I. Introduction and Rationale of the study With the time advent, academic activities and research collaborations are
increased on the global level. According to Altbach & Knight (2007), the interna-
tional activities of universities dramatically expanded in volume, scope and com-
plexity during the past two decades. These activities range from traditional study-
abroad programs to upgrading the international perspectives and skills of students,
enhancing foreign language programs and providing cross-cultural understanding.
There is increasing demand not only for hospitality-related businesses
themselves but also for services providing education and training to meet the de-
mands of the tourism industry for human resources (United Nations World Tour-
ism Organization, 2010). Furthermore, the study by Kuo, Chang & Lai (2011)
focused on the point that the overall development of the industry with its multip-
licity of structures, the hospitality and tourism industry needs to provide relevant
higher education programmes.
This is further suggested by the studies of Bosselman (1996) and Wilson et
al. (1997) that the growth in tourism programs has created high expectations with-
in the tourism and travel industry that higher-quality educational programme will
emerge to match the industry‘s structural changes and increases in consumer de-
mand. It has also brought about an increase in the quality of teaching in tourism
majors. Thus, as suggested by Horng et al. (2009), the need to evaluate HTLPs
(hospitality, tourism and leisure related programmes) accurately has become ever
Therefore, Kuo, Chang & Lai (2011) concluded that HTLPs should design
to meet the expectations and requirements of the tourism industry and it should
include the highest level of quality to train specialist personnel. Hence, improving
service quality and increasing customer satisfaction are the main focus in HTLPs.
The term ―Quality‖ in an educational context as explained by Tan & Kek
(2004) should depends on whether the education provided meets students‘ actual
needs and expectations. Henceforth, Heck & Johnsrud (2000) studied that in these
terms, higher education is facing pressure globally to improve the quality of the
educational services provided. Consumers value most of those service providers
who can provide the highest level of quality. This is true in both profit and non-
profit service industries.
The significance of the term ―Service Quality‖ and its related dimensions
has already proved the subject of interest for many service marketers as well as
researchers. However, only a few studies (e.g. Dabholkar, Shepherd & Thorpe,
2000; Gounaris et al., 2003) have focused attention on the antecedents to service
quality in the context of commercial service sectors.
―Service Quality‖ research in higher education sector is new, at least, com-
pared to that of commercial sector. The current literature on service quality in
higher education context attempted to measure functional performances of educa-
tional services in Indian Context. A review of several research studies, since
1960s to the present scenario were showed that the dimensions of service quality
in higher education context varied widely (Abdullah 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c;
Angell, Heffernan & Megicks 2008; Gatfield, Barker & Graham 1999; Joseph &
Joseph 1997; Kwan & Ng, 1999; Li & Kaye, 1998; LeBlanc & Nguyen, 1997;
Rojas-Me´ndez et al. 2009; Sultan & Wong, 2010; Stodnick & Rogers, 2008;
Smith, Smith & Clarke, 2007). Moreover, close listening to students is necessary
in order to understand their views and to achieve the educational success that
brings competitive advantage in tourism education. Thus, the present study was
identified the critical educational elements of HTLPs and then boost student satis-
faction by making targeted improvements.
II. Objectives of the Study The main objective of the research study was to identify and analyze the
antecedents of service quality that relevant in context of tourism and hospitality
education according to the Indian scenario.
III. Review of Literature The review of literature has been divided into the main keywords studied
in this paper as explained below:
i. Service Quality The term ―Service Quality‖ was well explained by Dyson et al., (1996) and
according to them the service quality is so called the better and standardized out-
put delivered by a service.
The several definitions were given by the researchers which majorly fo-
cused on described the various traits involved in service quality and service deli-
very. The service quality, basically, linked with the expectations of the customers
as concluded by Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry (1985). Furthermore, Sasser,
Olsen & Wyckoff (1978) given the broad justifications of the concept of service
quality and Gronroos (1991) focused on three dimensions viz. technical, function-
al and company image related to service quality. While the other researchers de-
scribed several dimensions which impact the delivery and maintenance of service
quality during service encounters vis-à-vis with the customers (Lehtinen, 1982;
Johnson et al., 1990; Dabholkar, 2000).
There were various tools used to measure and analyzed the service quality
and delivery but majorly two instruments SERVQUAL (Parasuraman, Zeithaml &
Berry, 1990) and SERVPREF (Cronin & Taylor, 1992, 1994) were effectively
contributed in knowing the actual impact of service quality.
ii. Service Quality in Higher Education The role and contribution of Service Quality even in Higher Education has
shown its impact especially from the last two decades. Some researches focused
on dimensions of service quality in higher education context which varies widely
across country, institution and culture (Abdullah 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c; An-
gell, Heffernan & Megicks, 2008; Gatfield, Barker & Graham, 1999; Joseph &
Joseph, 1997; Kwan & Ng, 1999; Li & Kaye, 1998; LeBlanc & Nguyen, 1997;
Rojas-Me´ndez et al., 2009; Sultan & Wong, 2010; Stodnick & Rogers, 2008;
Smith, Smith & Clarke, 2007) while Gounaris et al. (2003) and Kangis & Passa
(1997) concluded that customers' perception of service quality are affected by
several factors like communications from salespeople, social referrals, various
types of information collected & credence consumers develop towards a service
organization. While one study majorly focused on service quality in higher educa-
tion like Gatfield et al. (1999) developed 26 attributes comes under four aspects /
dimensions viz. Academic Instructions, Campus Life, Recognition and Guidance.
Moreover, Hill (1995) focused on student‘s expectations because student
as a primary customer of higher education services should focus on expectations
from the academic institutions. Even, Waugh (2002) also viewing student as cus-
tomer created some tensions in universities by making universities seem to be too
aligned with businesses.
According to Jain et al. (2011) that in a pursuit of excellence, it is increa-
singly important to identify customer values and demands and therefore, service
quality has been identified as one such demand. And their study concluded that
service quality in a higher education consists of two primary dimensions like pro-
gram quality which includes curriculum, industry interaction, input quality, aca-
demic facilities and quality of life which includes non-academic processes, sup-
port facilities, campus and interaction quality.
iii. Indian scenario of Service Quality in Higher Education Approximately from the last two decades the scenario of higher education
in India is completely shifted to positive side. The one most prominent factor is
the enrollment for higher education and hence it becomes one of the largest sys-
tems of its kind in the world.
The literature review of the studies on Indian higher education presented
the actual scenario. Like Krishnan (2011) highlighted that the Indian higher edu-
cation system has been grappling with several problems like funds crunch, equity,
reorientation of programmes, ethics, value associated to delivering education,
teaching learning process, assessment and accreditation of institutions, academic
standards of the students, quality of research, innovativeness and creativity. Such
factors directly or indirectly affect the student‘s academic productivity in the edu-
While Chakka & Kulkarni (2010) stress on improvement of teaching quali-
ty and learning processes through total quality management and propose a new
concept of ‗teacher-accreditation‘, which may be more important over the other
accreditations. Moreover, Sahney et al. (2006) attempted to find the students
perspective of quality on select educational institutions.
Also Pandi et al. (2009) focuses on integrated management practices in
educational institutions and institutions effectiveness through student‘s percep-
tions of quality. Altbach (2005) argues that there are a small number of high
quality institutions, departments and centres that can form the basis of quality
sector in higher education.
Kaul (2006) argues that India should have a proactive demand based policy
for private higher education including foreign universities and institutes desirous
of setting institutes in India or having joint ventures combined with a regulatory
mechanism so that the interests and the welfare of the students are not compro-
In such one example related to the improvement of higher education, Mi-
shra (2011) reports that in the Indian state of Bihar, for increasing the gross
enrolment ratio in higher education from the existing 12.4% to at least 20% and
also enhancing the quality of higher education to attract talented boys and girls,
the state government has been contemplating to create centers of excellence in
different parts of the state.
IV. Result and Discussion The major gap was identified through extensive literature review in terms
of students‘ expectations from administration set-up rather teaching quality. The
several researches on service quality in higher education emphasized academic
more than administration, concentrating on effective course delivery mechanisms
and the quality of courses and teaching (Athiyaman, 1997; Bourner, 1998; Cheng
& Tam, 1997; McElwee & Redman, 1993; Palihawadana, 1996; Soutar &
McNeil, 1996; Varey, 1993; Yorke, 1992).
The administration services of educational institutions are also important
like the academic activities. According to Anderson (1995) and Salem (1969),
there are many reasons for focusing the administrative service quality in a univer-
sity which is the first exposure of the student to the university is through the ad-
mission and registrar‘s services so providing high quality service to students con-
tributes to the positive assessment of the university. Moreover, compared with the
academic units, the administrative departments of the university, such as the regis-
tration office, financial office or library, are more likely to be a replication of the
bureaucratic units of governmental or public institutions. Therefore, Spencer
(1991) focused on the fact that during registration in the Western universities,
they has rapidly adopted the banking touch-tone telephone systems while the uni-
versities in developing countries attempt to struggle with bureaucracies and inef-
ficient infrastructure, hence, registration remains tied to a traditional manual
The review of literature also finds a research gap to examine the antece-
dents of service quality in higher education context. There is a need to give prefe-
rence to service quality in higher education which emphasized on academic more
than administration, concentrating on effective course delivery mechanisms and
the quality of courses and teaching.
V. Items and Dimensions of Higher Education Based on the review of literature and discussion with the industry experts,
following framework was designed as shown in Table 1:
Table 1: Dimensions with their respective Items Dimension I: Academic Instructions Subjective Knowledge of the Faculty
Personality Development Classes
Dimension II: Administration Services Behaviour of the Staff
Timely availability of the information
Dimension III: Learning Atmosphere Library Resources
Availability of technological tools
Level of organizing Seminars and Workshops
Dimension IV: Campus Life Extra-curriculum activities
Dimension V: Recognition & Guidance Guidance Cell
Recognition of the Campuses / Courses
VI. Summary More than hundred research papers and its related literature were tho-
roughly studied and interviewed the experts and academician for identified the
elements that are valid in Indian scenario. The major benefit of this regress
process was to identify the prospective research gaps in higher education in terms
of quality services, as mentioned in the section of Indian scenario of service quali-
ty in higher education. In the study, secondary data was analyzed and based on
that the probable antecedents were identified and then these were tested according
to Indian scenario. These dimensions will help and guide the next phase of the
study when these will be empirically tested and hence more generalized sugges-
tion will be framed for future references.
VII. Conclusion Based on the interview and qualitative study, the impact of various dimen-
sions especially in the context of educational institutions contributes in creating,
setting and monitoring the all important practices of service quality. In the present
time, where the hunt for excellence is on, the overall role of maintaining the ser-
vice quality can easily bring the competitive benefits for the educational institu-
Moreover, the service quality has positively contributes in marketing arena
while in the educational institutions and especially those where the professional
courses of tourism and hospitality are running; this study will presents a new pa-
radigm. As proved time and again, the professional courses having relevance in
industrial perspective, therefore, to maintain and upgrade the latest techniques are
must, first to attract the talent and then trained them according to industry re-
For that purpose, every activity and key areas should be given utmost im-
portance right from academic coursework to administration services, from library
resources to pleasant campus life. The recognition of the universities, educational
institutions and the courses runs in it is as important to attract the talent as the
other key-areas of academic and administration services. Hence, the qualified
faculty is as important as providing the quality in the services during the tenure of
various professional courses.
Therefore, there is a need to analyze the present practices and then mod-
ified accordingly to provide the desired service quality to the students who are
studying the professional courses in the educational institutions.
VIII. Limitations and Areas for Future Study Now, the present study is in first stage while the next stage of the study
will empirically test the dimension and antecedents of service quality in the edu-
cation sector especially in the tourism and hospitality sector.
Moreover, like every research study, the present study was also has some
limitations. First such limitation was time constraint because of the less time for
data collection. The future researchers might perform this study in by increasing
the sample size.
The major benefit from that process to collect and analyze the information
or responses from the students related to service quality in various phases of their
course. Accordingly, the educational institutions will plan to re-define the practic-
es of service quality in their respective educational institutions. The next con-
straint is limited financial resources which resulted to limit the study within Jam-
mu City. Future researchers can take the above mentioned points in their study.
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