YOUTH SLANG AS A SOCIAL PHENOMENON Кадыркулова А. К., firstname.lastname@example.org Л.Н.Гумилев атындағы Еуразия ҧлттық университеті, Астана
Ғылыми жетекшісі – Д.М. Ксанова
We are inclined to believe that language has its specific to change all the time. New words
and expressions appear and evolve. The words and pronunciations used by young people nowadays
can be radically different from those used by adults. As far as we concerned, living in a
multicultural society has an effect on a language, especially of young people, whose friends are
often from a mix of backgrounds. Mass Media, especially TV and music also have a massive impact
on the language of the young. For instance, often UK singers will even sing in American accents
Young people use lots of language that you usually cannot find in most dictionaries. These
highly informal words and expressions are known as slang. Slang words and expressions are
characterized by a high degree of informality, familiarity, vocabulary richness. Moreover, they are
realized by a specific group of people whose members are connected with some particular link, such
as territory (Californian), age (teenagers), subculture (students), and mainly occur in the spoken
form of the language. It is not possible to come up with a complete list of modern British slang. By
the time the list was completed, it would be out of date. New words come and go like fashions.
An obvious reason for choosing to concentrate on slang is that it is itself a controversial and
spectacular social phenomenon, an ‗exotic‘ aspect of an otherwise predictable language
environment. An even better reason is that it is a variety which belongs to young people themselves.
Researchers into adolescent language usage have tended to concentrate on the links between
language and hierarchies, status and deployment of social capital. More recently, however, some
specialists have started to look at such ‗carnivalesque‘ manifestations as profaning, mischief, banter
and teasing, the borrowing of ethnically marked codes to signal empathy and solidarity in ‗crossing‘
(Rampton 1995), and anticipated a change of emphasis in Bernstein‘s words ‗from the dominance
of adult-imposed and regulated rituals to dominance of rituals generated and regulated by youth‘
(Bernstein, cited in Rampton 2003). None of these studies has taken slang into account although
there has been a plea, again by Rampton, for more attention to ‗the social symbolic aspects of
formulaic language‘. [1,12]
Eble, in the only book-length study in recent times devoted to North American campus
slang, has shown that the slang of middle-class college students is more complex and less a product
of alienation than has been assumed in the past [2,34]. Her recordings of interactions reveal, too,
that the selective and conscious use of slang itself is only part of a broader repertoire of style-
shifting in conversation, not primarily to enforce opposition to authority, secretiveness or social
discrimination, but often for the purposes of bonding and ‗sociability‘ through playfulness.
John Benjamins considered slang words not to be distinguished from other words by sound
or meaning. Indeed, all slang words were once cant, jargon, argot, dialect, nonstandard, or taboo.
For example, the American slang to neck (to kiss and caress) was originally student cant; flattop (an
aircraft carrier) was originally navy jargon; and pineapple (a bomb or hand grenade) was originally
criminal argot. Such words did not, of course, change their sound or meaning when they became
slang. In fact, most slang words are homonyms of standard words, spelled and pronounced just like
their standard counterparts, as for example (American slang), cabbage (money), cool (relaxed), and
pot (marijuana). Each word sounds just as appealing or unappealing, dull or colourful in its standard
as in its slang use. Also, the meanings of cabbage and money, cool and relaxed, pot and marijuana are the same, so it cannot be said that the connotations of slang words are any more colourful or
racy than the meanings of standard words [3,65]
In our view, learning English entails learning not only formal language but also slang, which
is bound up with both social and linguistic conventions that may be essential for comprehension.
That suggests that under the proper circumstances, i.e., in a properly constructed social context
slang can convey cultural attitudes and ideas more efficiently than conventional usage. From the
linguistic point of view, E. Mattiello gives the following definition of slang ―Slang- informal,
nonstandard words and phrases, generally shorter lived than the expressions of ordinary colloquial
speech, and typically formed by creative, often witty juxtapositions of words or images‖. [4,50]
To our mind, each society can be divided into many groups regarding to interests, tastes,
professional affiliation, political and social points of view, etc. The members of the groups may
belong to several ones at the same time, so they will be aware of all the peculiarities concerning
these groups. According to Beregovskaya E.M. variety of such groups leads to the deviation from
some language standards and creation of so-called «micro languages» within these groups. Each of
these «micro languages» develops within the boundaries of one particular group. Such languages
are not spread far and wide as they are nonuniversal ones. [5, 36] This leads us to believe that slang,
i.e., youth slang as a social phenomenon is a nonstandard vocabulary composed of words or senses
characterized primarily by connotations of extreme informality; slang fills a necessary niche in all
languages, occupying a middle ground between the standard and informal words accepted by the
general public and the special words and expressions known only to comparatively small social
subgroups (group of young people).
The fact that slang does enter the common language is one thing. It signals formal meanings
in an informal way, and it may also symbolize a whole range of beliefs and/or attitudes of a
subculture. Concrete abstractions such as these involve the user of the slang, the listener to the
slang, and the linguistic target of the designation itself, in a specific cultural frame of reference.
That is to say sociological properties are derived from slang´s multiple nature and its function. As
E. Mattiello offers they can be classified into two groups with respect to either the speaker (speaker-
oriented) or the hearer (hearer-oriented). refers to four characteristics of speaker with regard to
appropriate sociological properties.[4,47]
As a member of a particular group (group-restriction, individuality, secrecy, privacy,
As a person with a concrete occupation or activity (subject-restriction, technicality).
As a person of low cultural status using bad language (informality, debasement,
As an individual of a certain age or generation from a certain regional area (time-
restriction, ephemerality, localism).
As the speaker-oriented properties of slang determine the speaker, hearer oriented properties
characterize the hearer and the effect they produce upon him with a view to
Amusing the hearer (playfulness, humor).
Breaking up his monotony of neutral style (freshness, novelty, unconventionality).
Impress the hearer with extraordinary expressions (faddishness, color, and
The importance and frequency of sociological properties used in slang vary from the
linguists´ different point of view. Thus, most of the properties are not considered so much crucial
and it may happen that they are not even mentioned in some linguistic studies on slang.
As slang is the language of the youth it is interesting for us to find out where it comes from.
At all times the youth could not live without music. For some people it is a way to relax, and for
others - an inexhaustible source of inspiration. Teenagers even try to look like their idols, and let
alone the imitation of the way of speaking. For instance, following the example of ―The Pink
Floyd‖, the name of their song «Another brick in the wall» became a synonym of the informal
Song lyrics often contain slang words and expressions. For instance, slang word Phunk (Black Eyed Peace ―Don‘t phunk with my heart‖) is an euphemism (polite way of saying
something) for fuck; Don‘t phunk with my heart = don‘t play with my heart, and according to the
classification of sociolinguistic features of slangs given by Mattiello Phunk regards to Obscenity:
slang synonyms flourish in the taboo subjects of a culture.
Another example from the same song is Yee-haw! - an exclamation of excitement associated
with unsophisticated country people from the South – Orality - typical fillers of everyday
conversation and never used in formal written language associated with spoken language. 
Chill out (Avril Lavigne ―Complicated‖) is a slang that refers to the Ephemerality: slang is
an ephemeral, short-lived, ever changing vocabulary. Novel words and special meanings crop up at
very brief intervals, but generally remain in current use for a short time, and then pass away as
quickly as they have been created. Thus, while some words, such as chap, chum and grub ―have
been slang for a long time‖ [6,78], other words (called ―vogue words‖ in the literature), such as
massive, paranoid and reckon, ―have become fashionable for a short period of time‖ [3, 65].
In Eminem‘s ―Without me‖ we can find the following ones: Weed meaning marijuana refers
to the subject-restriction: sometimes slang is described as the special, even specialized, vocabulary
of some profession, occupation or activity in society. This makes slang peculiar to a set of people
who are identified by their specific terminology or by the specialized terms they use within group
members. In particular, specific slang words such as crack (‗a potent, crystalline form of cocaine‘),
junkie (‗a drug addict‘) and joint (‗a marijuana cigarette‘) are related to the topic of drugs, and creep (‗a stealthy robber‘), dog (‗an informer; a traitor‘), and the Family (‗the thieving fraternity‘) are
connected with the crime topic. 
Slang is worthy of the attention of linguists in its own right, but further that, as an exciting
and controversial form of language which belongs to young people and to youth culture. So this
leads us to believe that context – physical, social, psychological, emotional – is the decisive
sociolinguistic factor of communication effectiveness, and that mastering context may prove more
important for mastering the language than mere attention to linguistic phonemes.
Rampton, B, Crossing: Language and Ethnicity among Adolescents, Harlow and New York:
Longman, 2003 –p.12
Eble, C. Slang and Sociability. London and Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press,
Stenström, A.-B., G. Andersen & I.K. Hasund Trends in teenage talk: Corpus compilation, analysis and findings - John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, 2002 – p. 65
Elisa Mattiello An Introduction to English Slang - Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher
Monza/Italy, 2008 – p. 47-60
Береговская Э. М. Молодежный сленг: формирование и функционирование // Вопросы
языкознания. - 1996. - № 3. - С. 32-41.
6. Andersson, L.G. & P. Trudgill Bad language - Blackwell, Oxford, 1990 –p.78 7.
METHODS AND ACTIVITIES OF USING MOBILE PHONES IN TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE Каламбаева Г. Б., email@example.com
Л.Н.Гумилев атындағы Еуразия ҧлттық университеті, Астана
Ғылыми жетекшісі – А. М.Тулегенова
Today, the rapid development of technology has led to the mechanization of modern society,
which is to empower people, involves changes in the system of social values.
Nowadays, we cannot imagine a modern lesson without the using innovative technologies. These
technologies have become an essential tool in raising students' interest to study the problems and
develop visual-creative thinking. All this leads to a new system of knowledge, change of
consciousness, a rethinking of the whole picture of the world: there is automation of the man who,
in dealing with people manifests itself in different ways. The using innovative technologies in the
school provide the opportunity to enhance cognitive, mental and independent activity of students, to
intensify the educational process. These technologies make it possible not only to change the forms
and methods of teaching, but also significantly transform and enrich the educational paradigm.
The experiences show that the English language allows for the formation and development of the
Now almost all the schools have computers, multimedia installations, and interactive
whiteboard, with free Internet access. Therefore the use of innovative technologies in the teaching
of English has become not only necessary but also feasible.
And also one of the innovative technologies includes Mobile learning. Mobile learning
involves the use of a mobile phone, which has each student for providing mobility for learning.
Teachers of English as a foreign language who want to develop successful lessons face
numerous challenges, including large class sizes and inadequate instructional materials and
technological support. The purpose of this article is to describe the methods and activities of using
mobile phones as an effective method of teaching FL.
These days it seems mobile phones are used everywhere by everyone, which leads to the
obvious question: How can mobile phone technology support learning in the foreign language
classroom? The answer is ―in a number of ways‖ because mobile phones come with ever-increasing
functions that most students are adept at using. In this article we describe some practical ways to
use mobile phones to support foreign language learning, both inside and outside the classroom.
Most of the activities will work with most mobile phones and do not require special knowledge or
additional software or hardware. Recent interest in the potential for mobile phones and other
portable devices to support learning and teaching has been driven by the fact that mobile phones are
relatively cheap and increasingly powerful. Another benefit is that learners are used to working with
them, often more so than with computers. The famous scientists in this field Thornton and Houser
report that young Japanese learners prefer to use mobile phones for many activities, from emailing
to reading books. Research on the use of mobile phones for the delivery of vocabulary materials to
English learners in many Asian countries also in our country show that students enjoy using their
phones because of easy access to materials and the ability to practice anytime and anywhere, in
addition, some students like the screen size limitations, which make the amount of content more
manageable than that of other teaching materials. According to foreign English teachers, there are
several pedagogical reasons to consider using mobile phones in the second language classroom.
Most importantly, phones are social tools that facilitate authentic and relevant communication and
collaboration among learners. [4, 20]
In many schools in our country are available wireless networks for students. Wireless
communication technology are applied to many fields such as GPS navigation, wireless monitoring
system as well as learning various materials including learning language skills. Mobile learning can
take place either within the classroom or outside it. In the former case, mobile phones possessing
appropriate software are very effective in collaborative learning among small groups. Although this
type of learning has nothing to do with the mobility property of such devices, it provides the
learners with the opportunity of close interaction, conversation, and decision-making among the
members of their group due to the specific design of the learning activity on mobile phones. These
types of interaction among learners and their physical movement can hardly be achieved when
desktop or laptop computers are to be used. Mobile learning technology is more useful for doing
activities outside the classroom. Such activities enable learning to be more directly connected with
the real world experiments. Moreover, learning through mobile phones outside the classroom has
the advantage of better exploiting the learner's free time; even the students on the move can
improve their learning skills. [2, 31]
SMS-based learning is another development in the use of wireless technologies in education
in which receiving wanted text messages supports learning outside of classroom and helps learners
benefit from their teacher's experimentation with mobile technology.
Game-based learning is another theme for mobile learning in which learning materials are so
designed to be integrated with aspects of physical environment. In such environments, learning
activities are facilitated using the mobile technology which serves as a link between the real world
of knowledge and the visual world of the game.
One of the easiest ways to use a mobile phone for learning is to record samples of the target
language by taking pictures. Students can take pictures of English text by using the Camera feature
on their mobile phones. They can then make a collage of the images or upload the pictures. If
students do not have a data connection, they can transfer the pictures to a computer and upload them
These activities for using mobile phones for foreign language learning generally focus on
developing the four skills and in many cases integrate speaking with listening and reading with
writing. The material and activities can be modified to conform to different syllabi and are easily
adaptable for different ages, learning levels, and interests. It is important to note that the names of
the features used here may not be the same for all mobile phones.
Many researchers were so interested in mobile assisted language learning approaches that
they attempt to provide some strong supports to conduct further studies on this discipline. Today,
mobile learning is easily possible by delivery of various learning materials or content to learners
through the mobile devices. Various activities related to language learning are supported by mobile
devices among which we can name SMS, internet access, camera, audio/video recording, and video
One of the advantages of mobile learning is that collaborative learning is very encourages in
this kind of learning. That is, different learners are able exchange their knowledge, skills and
attitudes through interaction. Collaborative learning helps the learners to support, motivate and
evaluate each other to achieve substantial amounts of learning, the property which is almost absent
in other kinds of learning. One can attain a good collaborative approach simply by using a mobile
device as an environment for learning, which is, of course, highly dependent of the users than the
devices. Devices, in fact, act as pencils and calculators which are the basic equipment in a learning
process of a student. What is important, here, is the communication between the learners, as an
important factor in language learning is the interaction in the target language. [3, 12]
There are different mobile devices in the market compatible to the needs of different users.
The basic activities can be performed by many mobile phones. However, for language learning, the
cost and technologies related to the mobile devices should be taken into consideration. Such
learners can use their customized mobile devices for language learning based on their own abilities.
When, in 1973, the mobile devices were invented for the first time, no one ever thought some
day they would become an important part of routine life. As soon as the mobile phones became a
crucial part of our lives, there felt a need for using them in language learning tasks. These days
mobile devices such as PDAs, phones, and other handheld devices, are used everywhere for doing
everything ranging from voice calling to making short message, video chat, listening to audio, web
surfing, shopping, and the like. Apart from these benefits, mobile devices have increasingly grown
toward becoming tools for education and language learning, and all its users from teachers or
students are getting used to this environment to make education as ubiquitous as possible.
Moreover, the emerging of internet made open and distance learning a means of receiving education
from all parts of the world. In a short period, the attractiveness of distance learning led to the
realization that various mobile devices provide a very effective resource for education. This way,
many researchers tried to make mobile devices a rich resource for teaching and learning. It was, in
fact, a challenging affair to cover learning tasks by a mobile phone.
MALL deals with the use of mobile technology in language learning. Students do not always
have to study a foreign language in a classroom. They may have the opportunity to learn it using
mobile devices when they desire and where they are. As learning English is considered a main
factor for professional success and a criterion for being educated in many communities, providing
more convenient environment for people to learn English is one of the strategic educational goals
towards improving the students' achievement and supporting differentiation of learning needs.
There are many researches and developments towards the use of wireless technology for
different aspects of language learning. In the following lines it has been tried to demonstrate the
benefits of using mobile phones in learning English as a second language. Areas of mobile-based
language learning are diverse among which the most common ones are vocabulary, listening,
grammar, phonetics, reading comprehension, etc.
The rising speed of mobile technology is increasing and penetrating all aspects of the lives so
that this technology plays a vital role in learning different dimensions of knowledge. Today, a clear
shift from teacher-led learning to students, that m-learning allowed causes the students feel using
the technology more effective and interesting than before. In fact, we can provide a richer learning
environment through mobile phones for our language learners. Though many researchers have been
carried out towards MALL technology as a growing field of study in language learning, there are
still so many works left to be done and a large amount of information to be uncovered. Moreover,
the methods with the help of which mobile device technology can be used to provide a more robust
learning environment have to be further improved. The ways through which the barriers of CALL
have been removed can help the MALL technology to grow with less effort and cost. Some
language skills such as speaking and listening as mobile-based activities need some further
improvements due to the hardware weaknesses. Mobile-based learning or m-learning faces many
challenges, but it has grown in exponentially in spite of all its problems to provide a better
environment for language learning. [1, 6]
Mobile learning technology, however, has a rapid pace of development from a teacher-learner
text-based approach to a forthcoming multimedia supporting technology. In addition, podcast
lectures and digitized audio comments made the online interaction between teachers and learners
possible in a more convenient way without any time and space limitations.
Although going through language activities on mobile phones may take longer time compared
to computers, the learners feel a greater sense of freedom of time and place, so that they can take
the advantage of spare time to learn a second language when and where they are.
Mobile technology gets learning away from the classroom environment with little or no
access to the teacher, though the learning process can hardly be accomplished without a teacher's
direction or guidance. As the demand for acquiring a foreign language increases and the people time
for more formal, classroom-based, traditional language learning courses decreases, the need felt by
busy users for learning a foreign language through MALL will inevitably increases. In other word,
MALL can be considered an ideal solution to language learning barriers in terms of time and place.
Chen, C. M. & S.-H. Hsu. ―Personalized Intelligent Mobile Learning System for Supporting
Effective English Learning‖. Educational Technology & Society. 2008
Gay, G.; M. Stefanone, M. Grace-Martin, & H. Hembrooke. ―The effects of wireless computing in
collaborative learning environments‖. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction.
Kennedy, C. & M. Levy. ―L‘italiano al telefonino: Using SMS to support beginners‘ language
Thornton, P. & C.Houser. ―Using mobile phones in English education in Japan. Journal of
Computer Assisted Learning‖. 2005