LINGUA-CULTURAL PECULIARITIES OF SELF-EXPRESSING IN SOCIAL NETWORKS Kanafina A. Y., email@example.com Л.Н.Гумилев атындағы Еуразия ҧлттық университеті, Астана
Ғылыми жетекшісі – O.V. Vorobyov We must say that the role of emotion in online communication, particularly, from the perspective
of social psychology and for older communications media like e-mail and chat rooms have already
been investigated by many researchers. Online social networks facilitate connections between
people based on shared interests, values, membership in particular groups (i.e., friends, professional
colleagues), etc. They make it easier for people to find and communicate with individuals who are
in their networks using the Web as the interface.
There are several different online social networks, but for our purposes, we shall focus on the one
that tends to be used mostly by learning professionals–Facebook. This network has its own unique
style, functionality and pattern of usage. You will also find that different people are active in these
Social networking is the practice of expanding the number of one's business and/or social contacts
by making connections through individuals. While social networking has gone on almost as long as
societies themselves have existed, the unparalleled potential of the Internet to promote such
connections is only now being fully recognized and exploited, through Web-based groups
established for that purpose.
The object of a social network is to find friends and expand relationships. Top social networking
websites allows members to search for other members in a safe and easy to use environment.
Common search functions include search by name, city, school and email address.
Facebook is the world‘s largest social network, with more than 900 million users. Mark Zuckerberg
founded Facebook in 2004 while he was attending Harvard University.
Facebook has affected the social life and activity of people in various ways. With its availability on
many mobile devices, Facebook allows users to continuously stay in touch with friends, relatives
and other acquaintances wherever they are in the world, as long as there is access to the Internet. It
can also unite people with common interests and/or beliefs through groups and other pages, and has
been known to reunite lost family members and friends because of the widespread reach of its
Some argue that Facebook is beneficial to one's social life because they can continuously stay in
contact with their friends and relatives, while others say that it can cause increased antisocial
tendencies because people are not directly communicating with each other. Some studies have
named Facebook as a source of problems in relationships. Several news stories have suggested that
using Facebook can lead to higher instances of divorce and infidelity, but the claims have been
questioned by other commentators.
Status is a posting on a social networking site that indicates a user‘s current situation, state of mind,
or opinion about something.
Many researchers have already investigated the role of emotion in online communication,
particularly from the perspective of social psychology and for older communications media like e–
mail and. These studies have typically used interviews or questionnaires to discover perceived
communication patterns and emotion factors, such as personality types. It seems that no previous
published study has investigated the role of emotion in SNS Friendship communication, although
some have investigated aspects of emotion in SNSs.
An emotion is generally a response of a person to a situation in which he/she finds himself. A
situation which is out of the ordinary one for an individual is likely to result in emotional activity.
This emotional activity is generally random and disorganized. It is accompanied by feelings or
pleasantness or unpleasantness and universally associated with marked changes in the chemistry of
It goes without saying that, anger is one of those emotions that can be destructive and lead to
various problems if it goes unnoticed. Although it can be tough sometimes, with the various types of anger around, recognizing when anger first occurs is a key factor in determining what to do when it
rears its ugly head.
Here are 12 of the most common kinds of anger.
The communicative behavior of the people is defined by their national mentality and national
We have set out to research one of the Western and one of the Eastern cultures involved in network
interactions. We would like to analyze one of their negative emotions - anger. We take American
and Korean people. So, according to this, let us look closely at their cultural peculiarities. The
sociologist of Lord to Bryce describes Americans as good-natured, promising, formed, moral,
religious, but not reverential, with a commercial vein, sociable; thus he considers them changeable
Negative emotions are expressed rather openly - rude expressions, curses.
As a whole, it is impossible to call the majority of Americans reserved, close-minded and
disciplined people. They are - noisy, vigorous, emotional and easily excitable
Initial question «Do you like America? » suggests the answer «lt's fine, great» and
enthusiasm existence. Any other answer is regarded as rudeness.
Unacceptable questions – why do you have no children, whether you are going to get
children why you not married or are unmarried.
In communication with a familiar or unfamiliar interlocutor it is not accepted to ask about
the details of private life (about marital status, for example, the size of a family, number of
children, about diseases the person was ill or is ill with).
Americans sincerely believe that they know themselves adequately well
The American dialogue is spoken at fast rates; it is not accepted to speak to one lengthily
Americans react to words of the interlocutor rather emotionally
Communications should be brief and to the point - Koreans prefer nutshell as opposed to
Insults and discussion of sensitive issues between newly associated parties are strictly taboo
and should only be broached with the introducer.
We‘d like to have an analysis of lingua-cultural peculiarities of self-expressing in social networks
from one of the most popular social network site – Facebook. Nowadays it is not so hard to identify
people, who are dissatisfied with many things. Thus we proceed to compare Americans and Korean
For example: (Americans)
God bless you Senator Sanders! (
You sound putzy. (
Homer Simpson. (
Sanders is pissed off (
We are soooooooooooooooooooooo screwed! (
IM MAD AS HELL AND IM NOT GUNNA TAKE IT ANYMORE!!!!! (John Farley )
You are TOTALLY wrong! He is a nut (
These comments are from one movie in Facebook. They show their discontent with Senator
Bernie‘s words. They do not agree with his opinion. Americans react to words with much
Basically, they communicate on a more superficial level; serious themes are not touched upon;
"heart to heart" talk is a rare occasion. So when they have problems in life, they have to consult a
psychiatrist rather than sharing their concerns with others.
On the topic of politics and religion, they are unlikely to speak on. They talk about work, weather,
cars, repairs of houses, road traffic, etc. If one talks to Americans about some deeper concerns and
personal matters, or analyzes something, they will not encourage it. Also you can have trouble
arguing with them, the same goes for disagreeing, contradicting, and interrupting.
Practically in all situations Americans are inclined to direct, open discussions on any problems
which arise between them and the interlocutor, and the tendency to call things by their names
avoiding innuendoes is obvious.
It is connected with the aspiration of Americans as soon as possible to settle all problems which
have been especially connected with business. The frankness which was found in these situations of
Americans sometimes is treated by foreigners as sharpness or even roughness.
Americans are very direct in expression of emotions. It is not accepted to hide emotions; positive
emotions can be publicly expressed by the extremely emotional interjections.
One more important manifestation of the American frankness is the habit not to hide personal
problems in verbal interaction and be free about telling about them.
So, according to the above comments, we can determine to what type of anger it is related. All of
these comments are related to behavioral, passive, verbal and retaliatory kinds of anger. They are
aggressive towards whatever triggered their anger. This can be someone who always seems to act
out, or is troublesome. They are expressed through words and not actions. They criticize and insult
people (put them down). Their comments occur as a direct response to someone else lashing at
them. People use sarcasm or mockery.
Example of Korean people‘s comments:
They must be insane!
I've met my share of dumbasses, creeps and weirdoes but rapists??
Look how mad that hippie is!
You done what you came for now go home and sort out you economy.
Koreans are not easy to defeat we are determined and fight till the end!
As you can see Koreans are more reserved in expressing their discontent. These comments are taken
from the news.
This topic is about Anti-Japanese, anti-American, anti-new government protests. It is claimed that
every year the number of protests and demonstrations average 11,000 while large-scale
deployments of riot police average 85. A humiliating history of colonization and a strong sense of
crisis have created ―angry Koreans‖. Over the years there was a lot of crime; people burned
themselves, made suicidal jumps from roofs, rioted, etc.
Some scholars believe that because of Korea‘s small size and limited resources, there is a
widespread sense of crisis and urgency amongst the people, creating the ―angry Koreans‖, allowing
them to use an indomitable spirit to fight for democracy, equality, and justice, crying out for their
country‘s future and their nation‘s prosperity.
Koreans do not like excessive display of emotion.
Similar to the Americans‘ comments, all of the given Koreans‘ comments are referred to behavioral,
verbal, retaliatory types of anger. Such comments like ―I‘ve met my share of dumbasses, creeps and
weirdoes but rapists??‖ and ―You done what you came for now go home and sort out you economy‖
can pertain to judgmental anger. They put other people down and make them feel bad about
themselves, or their abilities. They express their feelings by making those around them feel
worthless. They also are aggressive towards whatever triggered their anger. This can be someone
who always seems to act out, or is troublesome. Sometimes the outcome is physical abuse or
attacks against others. They are expressed through words and not actions. They criticize, insult
people (put them down) and complain. Their comments occur as a direct response to someone else
lashing at them. People use sarcasm or mockery, as a way to hide their feelings, typically express
this form of anger.
We did not observe any constructive, self-inflicted, volatile, chronic, overwhelmed, paranoid and
deliberate types of anger. We failed to trace the precedence when people were acting out by
punishing themselves for something they had done wrong. The described utterances did not show us
the form of anger which occurs in varying degrees. There were not any comments which would
show us that a person we had come across was seemingly angry for no reason, or mad all the time.
There was not any person who would feel jealously towards others, because they felt other people
had or wanted to take what was rightfully theirs. Or they did not act out because they felt
intimidated by others. They did not use anger to gain power over a situation or person. A person
expressing this form of anger may not fall into anger, but will get angry when something does not
turn out the way he/she wants. These two different cultures have no such gaping differences
between social networking modes. But they have some distinctions in their cultural behavior in
respect to etiquette and openness.
So, American-based SNSs exhibit more frequent self-discourse, and rely more on direct text-based
communication. Asian-based SNSs tend to have tighter social relationships, with their practices
reflecting an indirect communication style and less open self-disclosure.
THE PROBLEM OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING FOR ADULTS Кarienova G. K. Л.Н.Гумилев атындағы Еуразия ҧлттық университеті, Астана
Ғылыми жетекшісі - Anasheva D.K.
The current stage of Kazakhstani development is focused on the rapid progress of the state
among 50 most competitive countries in the world. Therefore our education policy is aimed at
forming a national model of education which could integrate into the global educational space and
provide competitive employees in the global labor market. Education which is available for
everyone – is not only essential humanistic requirement and necessary element of social state, but
the term of under which Kazakhstan can get the status of the knowledge society as well.
Over the past few years, a crucial part is paid to the expansion of peoples‘ knowledge in
learning foreign languages. Nowadays, it can be considered as the age of information technology
and therefore the significance of knowing the international language among all kind of generations
is noticeably increasing[1, 95].
Older adults studying a foreign language are usually learning it for a specific purpose: to be
more effective professionally, to be able to survive in an anticipated foreign situation, or for other
instrumental reasons. Affective factors such as motivation and self-confidence are very important
in language learning. Many older learners fear failure more than their younger counterparts, maybe
because they accept the stereotype of the older person as a poor language learner or because of
previous unsuccessful attempts to learn a foreign language.[2, 24] When such learners are faced
with a stressful fast-paced learning situation, fear of failure only increases. The older person may
also exhibit greater hesitancy in learning. Thus, teachers must be able to reduce anxiety and build
self-confidence in the learner.
In problem-based learning classrooms, the roles and responsibilities of both teachers and
learners are different from those in more traditional types of school-based learning. Generally, in
problem-based classrooms, the teacher acts as a coach for or facilitator of activities that students
carry out themselves [3, 63].
Adult learners need materials designed to present structures and vocabulary that will be of
immediate use to them, in a context which reflects the situations and functions they will encounter
when using the new language. Materials and activities that do not incorporate real life experiences
will succeed with few older learners. Adult learn English as a second or foreign language much
faster than the children. They imitate the teacher‘s pronunciation, sentences, phrases, and words
more easily. They explicit rules which explain how sentences are put together, produced, and
pronounced. They may ask for the meanings of words, but they are able to intuitively identify
salient features of the meanings of a word and use the word more correctly. Language learning
should be encouraged in all the classes and in all the environments. Adult have a natural curiosity
to investigate the environment in greater detail [4, 57].
To solve some of the problems, a systematic approach should be followed. The teachers should
aim at teaching primarily, not knowledge but skill, the different skills required for good Listening-
Speaking-Reading-Writing. Teachers should find some way of helping pupils to enjoy their
language activities, and of building their confidence.
Teaching and learning with adult students is generally approached in a different manner
than with children. The underlying reasons for this are the focus of this module. In addition, we
will explore the needs of literacy students and meet some
An adult must be emotionally comfortable with the learning situation to learn.
Many adult learners come to our classrooms with a low self-image and a recognition that they have
failed in some way.
There are natural feelings about inadequacy that stem from growing older; some feelings
are artificially induced by society; some feelings come from past personal experiences with family,
peers, and educators. It is important to recognize that adult students must feel welcomed,
encouraged and enabled. They should not be judged or criticized.[5,98]
Celce-Murcia, Marianne, and Lois McIntosh. 1979. Eds. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign
Language. Rawley, MA: Newbury House Publishers, Inc.
Crystal, David. 1987. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge, England:
Cambridge University Press.
Day, Richard R. 1993. Ed. New Ways in Teaching Reading. Alexan- dria, Virginia: Teachers of
English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc.
Lessow-Hurley, J. (2003). Meeting the needs of second language learners: An educator's guide.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. J. (2004). Making content comprehensible for English
language learners: The SIOP model (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon
NEOLOGISMS AS NEWLY-COINED PHRASES FINDING THEIR WAY INTO ENGLISH Концевая Анастасия Юрьевна, firstname.lastname@example.org Студентка Филологического Факультета ЕНУ им. Л.Н.Гумилева, Астана, Казахстан
Научный руководитель – Латанова Р.У.
Neologisms - words and phrases created to describe new concepts of political, scientific, or
commonly character formed by the current language in word-formation models and laws, or
borrowed from other languages. In its structure and mode of formation neologisms exist in several
versions. The most typical method of neologisms formation in the English language newspapers are
word formation (compounding, affixation, conversion, reduction), changing the meaning of words
and borrowings from other languages. The first method of word formation of English neologisms is
compounding. Compounding is a fusion of two or more bases to form new words. For English
compound words formations consisting of two pillars are the most frequent. Recently, in the
English language, and especially the American newspapers, a large number of nouns were formed
by the conversion method of compounding combinations of verb and adverb. In some of them there
is a clear repetition of the second component, which in some cases suggests that there is a definite
relationship between the form and its meaning. Therefore it is often possible to predict the meaning
(or meaning of the distribution area) of the each new formed word. But often such predictions can
not be done for the entire group some words, which impede the understanding of new words.
Examples of this type are the words:
ride-in - a protest against discrimination against blacks travel in buses;
fish-in - a protest against the limitation of fishing territory by American Indians;
apply-in - the requirement of equal opportunities in employment;
Recently, in the language of the British press nouns with component-in began to appear, with the
meaning of the competition, contest, tournament, conference.
read-in - match readers;
recite-in - competition reciters;
sail-in - Regatta;
However, there are the component-in English words that do not have such a common meaning:
buy-in - a bargain (the cost paid by the seller on the exchange);
tie-in - load when buying a hot commodity;
A similar model is used to form nouns from verbs and other adverbs. Often the same adverb joins
different verbs, and the meaning of each new word is unique. Typically, these words came into the
language through different newspaper genres. For example:
over: take-over - the seizure of power;
switch-over - a transition (change the subject);
push-over - easy driving obstacle;
Complex English words are often used for the names of the realities take place in the country, and it
requires knowledge of extralinguistic factors to understand them, such as:
fight-back - countermeasures (after administrative action), fight back.
sit-down protest - sit-in protest;
shut-down - closing, liquidation (the company), for example;
These words occur in such large numbers, and so often, that many of them still do not have a steady
spell (together, separately or with a hyphen), for example: shutdown, shut-down, shut down. The
other method of word-formation is affixation. Affixation is the formation of new words with
prefixes and suffixes. For newspaper style the appearance of affixed neologisms with a set of
common affixes, and the unusual combination of bases and affixes. In many cases, affixes develop
new meanings previously alien to them.
For example:-ship. This Anglo-Saxon suffix was used for the formation of abstract nouns with the
meaning of the state, the provisions, for example: friendship, leadership, lordship. It was considered
counter-productive for a long time, because the new words with -ship were not formed for
centuries. In the newspaper vocabulary suffix-ship combined with the morpheme -man forms
abstract nouns with the meaning of quality, features:
craftsmanship - the art of influencing the masses;
oneupmanship - the desire to be first;
statesmanship - the wisdom of the statesman.
The same can be said of the non-productive suffix-dom, which now is used to form new words in a
newspaper vocabulary, and thus gained productivity, such as:
Bangdom - organized crime;
bogdom - the living dead end;
officialdom - official circles.
The formation of new words with prefixes and their frequent use is also characteristic for
Using prefixes political terms were formed, such as: demilitarization - remilitarization, nazification-
denazification-renazification (revival of Nazism).
A lot of words with the prefix non- recently appeared in the newspapers:
non-access to nuclear weapons - the prevention of nuclear weapons;
non-affiliated union - the American union, is not part of a large association of trade unions;
non-beligerent country - a country not involved in the war;
Conversion is the another way of word-formation. Conversion is moving words from one part of
speech to another, leading to the formation of a new word without changing its initial shape. This is
another source of neologisms in English. Formed on conversion, they are widely distributed in the
newspaper vocabulary. High frequency of words formed by conversion - one of the hallmarks of
newspaper style. They are the verbs derived from nouns and nouns derived from verbs. It is
pertinent to note that the newly formed word often develop meanings that only indirectly related to
the based word. For example, in the pair to hit - a hit we can observe an interesting development in
the meaning of the noun. As a result of translations and rethinking the meanings a hit has come to
mean the success. A similar development can be observed in the following pairs:
to print - a print; of the following combinations it can be seen that in the noun meaning evolved
print circulation, the number of printed copies of all: the total print of editions - total print
to cut - a cut; noun acquired meaning decline, retrenchment, abolition.
In the newspaper vocabulary, especially in the part that relates to political events, advertising, there
are partially substantivized words - a kind of conversion, in which the word gets only a few signs of
a noun, such as article or plural. For example:
the unemployed - people who don‘t have a job;
casuals - comfortable shoes for every day;
home beautifuls - household objects (bathrobe, slippers and so on);
Reduction is another type of word formation, which is also a source of neologisms. A great amount
of reducted words, especially common in headlines - a characteristic feature of a newspaper
language. It should be noted that if the reductions are widespread in the XX century in all European
languages, in the English language they were particularly numerous. The process of reducing words
and phrases was contributed primarily external (social) factors. This is primarily scientific and
technical progress, dramatically increased the need for short name of the organization, facilities,
materials. The appearance of the telegraph, which required saving of linguistic resources. The
development of mass media enabled to memorize abbreviations wide range of people. Gradually the
words entrenched in everyday use. Some reduction occurring in the English newspapers, were born
in the paper and commonly used for all styles of speech, there are some that are rarely found outside
of the newspaper, the third came to the newspaper from the language of technical literature,
language of business, that is, from other functional styles. Abbreviation is contraction of the words
to one letter, for the most part to be spelled: HO - Home Office. Some abbreviations in which
consonants alternate with vowels and which resemble ordinary words are read by reading rules:
UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization;
WHO - World Health Organization;
NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration;
As a rule, these reductions have long routinely use, are not explained in the text.
Another way of neologisms formation in language newspaper is to change the meanings of English
words. It is connected with the change of the valence bonds of words or the possibility of their use
in different contexts. As the press releases targeted at the general reader, changing the meaning of
words is often based on the norms of everyday speech, and these words are used in a figurative,
often exaggerated sense.
1 His first value – hallway
2 a political term for the parliamentary lobbies
3 a person who "handles" of the Congress members in favor to approve the boss‘ bill.
4 a person who gathers information for his master, and sneak his policies
5 a journalist entitled to priority in publishing information about the activities of Parliament.
6 an appeal to the Parliament or other public authority, any requirement.
The third way of the appearance of neologisms in the paper is borrowed from another language.
These words assimilate the language by repetitive gradually. Their appearance is caused by various
reasons. For example, the French detente (easing international tensions), which is now frequently
used in the British and American press, has emerged as a consequence of the peace-loving policy of
the Soviet Union, proclaimed the easing of international tension by maintaining world peace.
Л.Ф.Дмитриева, С.Е.Кунцевич, Е.А.Мартинкевич, Н.Ф.Смирнова. Английский язык.
Курс перевода. – Москва – Ростов-на-Дону: ‗Март‘, 2005. – 40-41
Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics. Word-Formation in English, Ingo Plag.