must pass cases involving more serious crimes on to a higher court.
28 A Grammar of English Practice Book for Law Students
E 1. For some trafﬁc offences you have to pay a ﬁxed penalty, and
this may be an on-the-spot-ﬁne (
штраф, который платится на месте
2. A police ofﬁcer cannot normally enter your home against
your wishes without a search warrant.
3. Customs ofﬁcers look out for illegal immigrants, some of
whom may be economic migrants.
4. On arrival in most countries as a foreigner you have to show
your passport and a customs declaration form.
5. There are several ways in which a company may be termi-
6. There shall be a sitting of Parliament and of each legislature
at least once every twelve months.
7. A company limited by shares may raise capital by borrowing
money and through the sale of shares.
Exercise 37. Insert modal verbs or expressions and explain their use; translate the sentences into Russian: are to; did ... have to; are obliged to (2); may (2); is to (3); could; had to (2); should; was to; can (6); might (2); shall be able to; ought to (2); shall (2); must (2); mustn’t; will have to (4); should be; have to. A 1. All citizens ... observe laws.
2. The meeting of shareholders ... be held at 5 p.m. That was
why we ... end the talks.
3. You ... ask your friends to help you with your English.
4. One ... make debts.
5. These young lawyers ... speak English.
6. The client asked the solicitor if he ... smoke in the ofﬁce.
7. We ... discuss this problem at the next seminar.
8. Judges ... act according to the law.
9. You ... state the amount of capital in the agreement.
10. The new director of the limited company ... sign a new con-
11. Both partners ... sued by the creditor to recover the money.
12. “The US President ... be elected every four years.”
13. He ... work as a judge: he is too young.
Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка для студентов-юристов
14. You ... work hard to improve your English.
15. The lawyer told us that that form of business organization ...
be called “partnership”.
B 1. Both parents ... support their children. In case of divorce one
of the parents ... pay alimony through the court.
2. You ... take part in contract negotiations tomorrow.
3. ... you ... sign any document?
4. No one ... act as a barrister and a solicitor at a time.
5. Before one ... start legal practice, it is necessary to obtain a
certiﬁcate from the Law Society which ... be annually renewed.
6. A justice after 65 ... not serve in a Juvenile Court, unless spe-
7. The judge ... discharge the accused for lack of strong evi-
8. An agreement to sell illegal drugs ... never be enforced in
9. A party to a contract ... carry out the promise.
10. Any contract ... be valid.
11. You ... use my computer, if you wish.
12. The decision of the judge ... be clear to everybody.
13. The partners ... share management, proﬁts and liability for
14. You ... consult an experienced lawyer before making a claim.
C 1. The magistrates ... choose the most appropriate penalty at
2. The arbitrator’s decision is binding on both sides — they ...
abide by his or her decision.
3. A detailed report on crime in the UK ... be published later
4. Small-scale robberies remain a serious problem in the city
and police are concerned that the problem ... soon become more seri-
5. Despite suggestions that the judge ... dismiss the case, he
found in favour of Mr. Henry and awarded damages to him.
30 A Grammar of English Practice Book for Law Students
6. An offender ... appeal against the severity of the sentence, or
conviction or both.
7. The Constitution of Great Britain is ﬂexible because its rules
... be modiﬁed by an act of Parliament.