In XX century the traditional culture of the Kazakh people was studied in the context of
Soviet culture. Culture of nomads considered from the point of view of the theory of Eurocentrism.
So, according to the basic idea of the above-mentioned concept of the traditional culture of the
Kazakh people represent the culture of the past, the culture of the country, which has no room for
further self-development without the intervention of Russia. Moreover, in the history of the study of
European culture for a long time dominated by the concept by stages, progressive, evolutionary
development of history, culture, and do not fit into the framework of Eurocentrism culture were
perceived as inferior to them in terms of development in the economic, cultural plans. Accordingly,
the traditional culture of the Kazakh people was seen as being on the lower level of development
with respect to European culture, and it was believed that after a period of time as a result of
technical progress the traditional culture of nomads should be to achieve a high level of cultural
However, in historical science there was a view that the traditional culture as such has its
written history, as traditional culture is inherent to follow patterns of behavior, perceived by
previous generations. Almost all of the information passed on from generation to generation
through human memory, word of mouth. Basically, proponents argued that the unwritten culture
due to orientation towards the collective memory of the reproduction characteristic of the structure
of the society, such as the behavior of such thinking. Lotman in the "Alternative: unwritten culture
or culture to culture?" Proves that there is a self-contained, self unwritten culture, characteristic of
traditional culture . Unwritten culture, the transmission of information by word of mouth is
typical of almost the entire history of Kazakhstan. But in any case we cannot say that the historical
science of Kazakhstan lacked a foundation, a basis for the study – historical sources. Suffice it a
significant place among the sources of the study of the history of Kazakhstan took folklore,
archaeological data, everyday objects, beliefs, etc. Indeed, since the XIX century, the study of the
history and culture of traditional societies engaged in ethnography: it studied the traditions, rituals,
costumes and cuisine, and world outlook. However, with the approval of the Marxist theory of the
Soviet period related to the culture has changed. In studies of the culture of the Soviet period was
studied as follows: on the one hand, culture is understood as education, so special attention was paid
to the work of historians, literacy, construction of schools, their functioning, publishing and
replication of textbooks and teaching aids. In studies of this trend is mainly considered (as a
percentage) the level of literacy and education of the population of Kazakhstan, the number of
constructed and operated schools, colleges, universities, and their human resources, increase in
literacy among the population . On the other hand, culture was represented as one of the
components of history, including the history of human thought, therefore, in the writings of scholars
regard the democratic ideas and the views of representatives of the Kazakh Education – Ciocan
Valikhanov, Ibrai Altynsarin, Abay – In the context of world history and political philosophical
thought. A large number of research projects of the Soviet era – scientific articles and monographs -
are devoted to the latest issue.  The problem of development of socialist culture of Kazakhstan
during the years of "building a socialist society", "cultural building" covered in a number of
collective works  and monographs , theses, which shows the role of the revolution and the
power of the proletariat in the study and development of the Kazakh culture, the party in cultural
development, and the crucial role of the party in this process is shown in comparison with the
cultural development in Kazakhstan before and after the Revolution of 1917.
The twenty years of XX century proved fruitful for the preservation of historical and cultural
heritage in the sense that in this period have been published: Kazakh epic work (A.Divaev,
M.Auezov), the Kazakh traditional folklore (U.Turmanzhanov, S.Seifullin) and Kazakh kui (A.
V.Zataevich), the customs and traditions associated with the centuries-old way of life of Kazakh
people (A.Baytursynov). S.Seifullin in 1929 in the newspaper "Kazakh Enbekshі" called on the
people to the collection and preservation of folklore, oral and written literature .
Under the rule in historical science ideas of historical materialism problem of preservation of
historical and cultural heritage considered only if it is consistent with the materialist conception of
history. In the Soviet period have been studied enough works of folklore of Kazakh people
associated with the themes of work, homeland, the plight of ball; epics, the story of which consisted
mainly of the struggle for the liberation of their homeland . Particular attention was paid to the
creation Mahambet Utemisov, one of the leaders, the mastermind of the uprising in Bukeyev
(internal) Horde in 1836-1838, respectively, are not considered work "reactionary" cultural workers
as referred to in the works of the Soviet period, and historical figures (Bukhari -zhyrau,
In historical studies of the Soviet period, occupies a special place to solve the following
urgent tasks of the Soviet state: the elimination of mass illiteracy of workers, the introduction of
universal compulsory primary education, the growth of secondary education. In May 1926, the
Council of People's Commissars of the republic adopted a "Charter of the Unified Labor School of
the Kazakh SSR." Accordingly, work began on the creation of textbooks and educational materials
for schools. In that work active participation was taken by S.Seifullin, S.Sadvakasov, G.Musrepov,
M.Dulatov, Zh.Zholdybaev and others. The organizer of the preparation and publication of
textbooks in the Kazakh language were made by members of the Editorial Board at the State
Publishing House of the Kazakh ASSR within the A.Baitursynov, A.Bukeyhanova, S.Sadvakasova,
Zh.Aymautova. Among the first books recommended to the press, were collections of poems of
Abay and fables, riddles of A.Baitursynov.
Much attention academic historians in the problem of continuity of the historical and cultural
values, traditions given to the issue of cultural development, cultural revolution, widely considered
issues beginning and end of the Cultural Revolution and its periodization. Since education patriot of
the Soviet state, comprehensively developed person considered the main task of the problems of the
Cultural Revolution, raising the cultural level of the Soviet man got up one notch on the importance
of the problems of industrialization and collectivization. One of the famous explorers of the
Cultural Revolution of the Soviet state R.B.Suleymenov wrote: "In a broad sense Leninist cultural
revolution was conceived as a large-scale, global revolution in the whole spiritual life of society,
designed to convert on a new socialist basis not only of the entire system of culture, education,
science and art, but also to create the conditions in which almost solved the problem to the
harmonious development of personality, fully developed and trained, highly educated, the
conviction hardened ideological mastering the scientific Marxist-Leninist ideology, creative
thinkers creators of material and spiritual values, highly moral people, personifying a genuine
socialist way of life" .
The problem of preserving the continuity of the traditions of past generations, historical and
cultural heritage is shown quite clearly in the works of Kazakh writers and poets. Kazakh literature
was formed as part of the multinational Soviet literature. Her origins were A.Bukeyhanov,
A.Baytursynov, S.Seifullin, Zh.Aymautov, M.Dulatov, M.Zhumabaev, S.Mukanov, G.Musrepov
etc. They did not hide the difficulties that they encountered on the path of building a new culture.
Cultural situation in post-revolutionary country (until the mid of twenty years of XX century) was
studied by Turar Ryskulov. Significant contribution to the analysis of the problem was made by
T.Zhurgenov, S.Nurpeisov and others. For example, S.Seifullin was published in 1932, a textbook
on the history of Kazakh literature "Kazakh adebieti" in 1933 A.Konyratbaev – «XVIII-XIX.
Kazakh adebietі "in 1941 E.Ismailovym –"Kazakh adebietі". "They laid the foundation for the study
of the Kazakh literature, paying special attention to the study of the centuries-old Kazakh folk
wisdom, passed on from generation to generation. Overall, the scientists examined the relationship
is true enough oral poetry to written literature, oral poetry from the cultural heritage of the Kazakh
people. The history of the Kazakh culture is considered systematically in the works and E.Ismailova
S.Mukanov . However, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan in 1947,
adopted a decision in which the attention of the public and the creative intelligents was drawn to the
fact that the history of Kazakh literature study is not enough, a lot of gaps that research in this area
are superficial. In July 1957 a decree "On measures to improve the status and study and critical use
of literary and poetic and musical heritage of the Kazakh people", scientists call for that you need to
"pay more attention to research and development of critical literary and poetic and musical heritage
of the past and skilful use of it in the future development of the national in form, socialist in content
culture of the Kazakh people, radically improve the performance of the collection and publication
of works of pre-revolutionary oral and written Kazakh literature and music ".
A notable phenomenon in the 50s of XX century is that in the Kazakh literary criticism was
the formation of Abai as an independent scientific direction in philology. A special contribution to
the development of a new branch of literature has made well-known writer, playwright, novelist,
scholar and literary critic, social activist Mukhtar Auezov Kazakh SSR, was reflected in the epic
novel "Abai's Way" life of the Kazakh people, its traditions, customs, way of life and so on. If we
consider this work from the perspective of historical analysis, the epic novel is the source for the
study of history, culture, way of life and mentality of nomads . Activities for the study of the
writer's creativity Abay played a fundamental, significant role in the development of Kazakh
literature, a total of spiritual culture of Kazakhstan. M.Auezov was the author of the first Kazakh
epic, the first researcher of the great poet of the Kazakhs. In addition, the scientist in Abay studies
identified a new problem - the problem of continuity of traditions in the work of Abai Kazakh
democratic literature beginning of XX century "establishing continuity between the Abai Kazakh
democratic and therefore the beginning of the XX century - Donentaevym, Torajgyrov, Seralina,
especially the continuity between the ratio of Abai these poets in Russian culture and literature
". In the 20s of XX century M.Auezov tried to publish a book on the history of Kazakh
literature. The result of such painstaking work became the "Literary History", published in Kyzyl-
Orda in 1927, but until 1991 the publication of this work was banned due to the ideological
situation in the country. When you work with a layer of centuries-old wisdom of the Kazakh people
MOAuezov not just analyzed the samples of folklore, but also suggested systematization of the
material, searching for the genesis of a genre of folk art. The writer rightly pointed out that national
traditions are not one but several generations. On this occasion, he wrote: "We need not break with
tradition and follow-up, innovation, he is regarded not as a continuation of traditions and their
revolutionary understanding ... It is like the baton, but the baton very special - in which each new
stage of art goes, constantly accumulating new and enriching " .
In the Soviet period of great interest to the study of folk music showed public figures, social
scientists, historians and writers. For example, anthropologist and composer A.V.Zataevich.
Alexander has recorded over two thousand folk songs and kyus published collections: in 1925 –
"1000 Songs of the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) people" in 1931 – "500 songs and kyus of Kazakh people".
Ethnographer wrote about the integrity of folk forms. "A.V.Zataevich is primarily known as a
prominent folklorist, tireless collector and an investigator of Kazakh folk music"  – he noted
P.V.Aravin. He is in the "Music and aesthetic views A.V.Zataevicha" wrote: "A.V.Zataevich
eagerly stretched to all health services and national, currently stored in the unfading beauty of
national culture and realistic musical creativity. On this basis grew A.V.Zataevicha permanent
interest to folk songs to vocal and choral performance " . Even in the aforementioned novel
M.Auezov in his imagery a significant role to play music. Ample space in the novel devoted to
famous musicians, akyn singers of the XIX century, which continued the tradition and developed in
his work Abai Kunanbayev and continue to develop the figures of music of the Soviet period.
Auezov showed not only the social significance bard, his role, a place in the spiritual life of the
nomadic society, but also the laws of transmission of skill in the transmission of oral tradition
akyns. However, with the addition of the territory of the Kazakh zhuzes to the Russian Empire, then
the formation of a single state in the USSR was great influence of European, especially Russian,
traditions of Kazakh musical art. Therefore, the meetings of the Society for the Study of Kazakhstan
systematically addressed issues of public education, health, literature and science. At one of the
meetings have been identified two opposing points of view. One of the problems in the collision
was the problem of the influence of the views of the European musical education in distinctive
Kazakh musical art. I.P.Tretyakov believed that European music education can help figure Kazakh
art build your creativity on a more professional level; I.P.Slovohotov art, on the contrary, it is
assumed that the result of the introduction of European art music would be the displacement of
original Kazakh culture, which, in turn, will lead to the destruction of the culture of the nomads.
One of the areas in the study and protection of cultural heritage was the organization of the
Kazakh SSR in the Society for the Protection of Cultural Monuments, then create a primary
organization in the regions and districts of the country. "...But a true patriot must know their
homeland, not only proud of her today, but its glorious past, its progressive tradition that goes back
centuries. It is no coincidence in the country was and is a lot of work on the identification,
preservation, study and promotion of monuments of the past".
In the postwar period the government paid attention to the people's initiative, the development
of crafts and art and decorative arts, organized public performances, exhibitions, "Gathering the
people's masters of applied art and decorative art showed a great desire to continue the work of folk
artists, the desire to unite in a cooperative and creative workshops, to transfer their skills and the art
of young people ". However, artists have noted that not all kinds of folk art of the Kazakhs are
interested in young people, "Regional and Republican review also showed that among the masters
of applied art almost entirely of young people do not have that causes more anxiety for the
continuity of craftsmanship craftsmen" .
The basic concept when considering the problems of continuity in the work of the researchers
is the concept of tradition. In the modern cultural sciences, defines cultural tradition: it is
"something that stabilizes society, ensures the reproduction of the past in the present, enables the
present generation to build on past experience. Passed down from generation to generation of
consistent rules of activity in the integral unity up technology activities, is the essence of culture
". It is known that the historical path traversed by the people, it is deposited in the social
memory, which further gives some settings, values stability and retentive for a long time, covering
more than one or two generations. These traditional attitudes, handed down from generation to
generation and develop the elements of a certain way of life and way of thinking characterize the
national character of the people and their mentality. B.D.Lebin Soviet philosopher believed that the
cultural heritage are "not only expressed in the form of the spiritual values of the subject, but are
themselves the bearers of these values: of science, technology, culture, knowledge and experience"
In the period of independence in Republic of Kazakhstan in the process of historical self-
awareness and understanding of the genesis of the Kazakh ethnic group and its formation in space.
In carrying out these tasks plays a special role to solve the continuity of culture, so with great
attention devoted to the problems of culture, cultural heritage, synthesized existing data and identify
new ones. Proof can serve as a large-scale state program "Cultural heritage" for 2004-2006,
approved by the President of Republic of Kazakhstan dated 13 January 2004 aimed at ensuring
safety, efficient use and availability of all regions and social strata of Kazakh society monuments of
historical and cultural value, Kazakhstan culture has deep historical roots. Various historical stages
through which the country left a footprint in the formation of the cultural potential of the country.
Tasks so unique inherently diverse program. They relate to practically all spheres of culture, but
united by one goal - to ensure the safety and effective use of historical and cultural heritage of the
Kazakh people, the formation of a common cultural space that provides access to different groups
of population of different regions of the country to the cultural elements and information resources.
This trend in historical science involves the study of materials that are currently not only in
Kazakhstan but also in archives, libraries, museums, the territory of foreign countries. To do this, it
planned to organize expeditions to the countries of CIS and foreign countries to study these unique
materials, documents, ensure their safety, the transfer to electronic media (disks, diskettes), to
provide access to them, make copies of manuscripts, historic publications, books and popular
works. Particular attention is paid to restoration of monuments of history and culture of the
republic, the creation of fundamental works on the problem of the cultural heritage of the Kazakh
people, its scientific study and the publication of a set of historical and cultural monuments of
Kazakhstan. Now, at the beginning of the XXI century all the necessary socio-economic, political,
ideological prerequisites for the study of the cultural past of the country, to explore the Kazakh
public with famous monuments of cultural heritage, with famous examples of literature and
folklore, philosophy of the Kazakh people. These include the best works that make up the rich
treasury of philosophical, political and historical thought. A feature of these samples historical and
cultural heritage is that they were formed over the centuries and stored in the memory of people,
handed down from generation to generation and are stored in the memory of the people of our time.
Considerable attention in the cultural policy of the Government of Republic of Kazakhstan paid
translation into the official language materials on the history of Kazakhstan, the history of the
formation of the Kazakh nation, the writings of Herodotus, Ptolemy, Thucydides and other famous
foreign historians, as well as translating the masterpieces of Kazakh culture in the major languages
of the world to people of other dating countries, people of different nationalities of the Earth with a
rich cultural heritage of the Kazakh people, a significant part of the story which has been associated
with a nomadic way of life, nomadism. This will be a process of a kind of cultural exchange and
integration of the Kazakh culture into the world cultural space.
To sum up, in the Soviet historical science of Kazakhstan scientists considerable work done
on the study of the vast complex of cultural heritage etched in artefacts, in the samples of folklore
and ethnographic data.
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worlds: Man – text – the semiosphere – history. – M., 1996. – P. 344-345.
2. GA MSE. F. 1168. Op. 1. D. 25 vol.
3. Djumagulov K.T. Ibrahim Altynsarin and development of culture of the Kazakh people. –
Almaty: Kazakhstan, 1984 and others.
4. Studies in the History of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 1963; Culture of Soviet
Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 1957; Science of Soviet Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 1960; Essay on the history
of the Kazakh Soviet literature. – Almaty, 1958.
5. Kim M.P. Forty years of Soviet culture. – M., 1957; Abrosenko K.P. Growth of the culture of the
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6. Kamaliev K. Educational activities S.Seifullin. – Almaty, 1983. – P. 92.
7. Kөkshe E.F. Batyrlar zhyry. – Almaty, 1987; Ep Edige // Edige Batyr. – Alma-Ata, 1996;
Zhirmunsky V.V.Tyurksky heroic epic. – L., 1974 and others.
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9. Ismailov E., Mukanov S. Өsu zholdarymyz. Maқalalar. – Almaty, 1960.
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literature. – Alma-Ata: Science of the Kazakh SSR, 1979. – P. 9.
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15. Ibid. – AL 31.
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Г.Қ. Құрманбаева, Г.Ə. Омарова, Əл-Фараби атындағы Қазақ ұлттық университетінің магистранттары