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THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE OF KAZAKH NATION IN THE



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THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE OF KAZAKH NATION IN THE 
HISTORICAL LITERATURE OF SOVIET KAZAKHSTAN 
 
In XX century the traditional culture of the Kazakh people was studied in the context of 
Soviet culture. Culture of nomads considered from the point of view of the theory of Eurocentrism. 
So, according to the basic idea of the above-mentioned concept of the traditional culture of the 
Kazakh people represent the culture of the past, the culture of the country, which has no room for 
further self-development without the intervention of Russia. Moreover, in the history of the study of 
European culture for a long time dominated by the concept by stages, progressive, evolutionary 
development of history, culture, and do not fit into the framework of Eurocentrism culture were 
perceived as inferior to them in terms of development in the economic, cultural plans. Accordingly, 
the traditional culture of the Kazakh people was seen as being on the lower level of development 
with respect to European culture, and it was believed that after a period of time as a result of 
technical progress the traditional culture of nomads should be to achieve a high level of cultural 
development. 
However, in historical science there was a view that the traditional culture as such has its 
written history, as traditional culture is inherent to follow patterns of behavior, perceived by 
previous generations. Almost all of the information passed on from generation to generation 
through human memory, word of mouth. Basically, proponents argued that the unwritten culture 
due to orientation towards the collective memory of the reproduction characteristic of the structure 
of the society, such as the behavior of such thinking. Lotman in the "Alternative: unwritten culture 
or culture to culture?" Proves that there is a self-contained, self unwritten culture, characteristic of 
traditional culture [1]. Unwritten culture, the transmission of information by word of mouth is 
typical of almost the entire history of Kazakhstan. But in any case we cannot say that the historical 
science of Kazakhstan lacked a foundation, a basis for the study – historical sources. Suffice it a 
significant place among the sources of the study of the history of Kazakhstan took folklore, 
archaeological data, everyday objects, beliefs, etc. Indeed, since the XIX century, the study of the 
history and culture of traditional societies engaged in ethnography: it studied the traditions, rituals, 
costumes and cuisine, and world outlook. However, with the approval of the Marxist theory of the 
Soviet period related to the culture has changed. In studies of the culture of the Soviet period was 
studied as follows: on the one hand, culture is understood as education, so special attention was paid 
to the work of historians, literacy, construction of schools, their functioning, publishing and 
replication of textbooks and teaching aids. In studies of this trend is mainly considered (as a 
percentage) the level of literacy and education of the population of Kazakhstan, the number of 
constructed and operated schools, colleges, universities, and their human resources, increase in 
literacy among the population [2]. On the other hand, culture was represented as one of the 

212 
 
components of history, including the history of human thought, therefore, in the writings of scholars 
regard the democratic ideas and the views of representatives of the Kazakh Education – Ciocan 
Valikhanov, Ibrai Altynsarin, Abay – In the context of world history and political philosophical 
thought. A large number of research projects of the Soviet era – scientific articles and monographs - 
are devoted to the latest issue. [3] The problem of development of socialist culture of Kazakhstan 
during the years of "building a socialist society", "cultural building" covered in a number of 
collective works [4] and monographs [5], theses, which shows the role of the revolution and the 
power of the proletariat in the study and development of the Kazakh culture, the party in cultural 
development, and the crucial role of the party in this process is shown in comparison with the 
cultural development in Kazakhstan before and after the Revolution of 1917. 
The twenty years of XX century proved fruitful for the preservation of historical and cultural 
heritage in the sense that in this period have been published: Kazakh epic work (A.Divaev, 
M.Auezov), the Kazakh traditional folklore (U.Turmanzhanov, S.Seifullin) and Kazakh kui (A. 
V.Zataevich), the customs and traditions associated with the centuries-old way of life of Kazakh 
people (A.Baytursynov). S.Seifullin in 1929 in the newspaper "Kazakh Enbekshі" called on the 
people to the collection and preservation of folklore, oral and written literature [6]. 
Under the rule in historical science ideas of historical materialism problem of preservation of 
historical and cultural heritage considered only if it is consistent with the materialist conception of 
history. In the Soviet period have been studied enough works of folklore of Kazakh people 
associated with the themes of work, homeland, the plight of ball; epics, the story of which consisted 
mainly of the struggle for the liberation of their homeland [7]. Particular attention was paid to the 
creation Mahambet Utemisov, one of the leaders, the mastermind of the uprising in Bukeyev 
(internal) Horde in 1836-1838, respectively, are not considered work "reactionary" cultural workers 
as referred to in the works of the Soviet period, and historical figures (Bukhari -zhyrau, 
Kozhabergen-bard). 
In historical studies of the Soviet period, occupies a special place to solve the following 
urgent tasks of the Soviet state: the elimination of mass illiteracy of workers, the introduction of 
universal compulsory primary education, the growth of secondary education. In May 1926, the 
Council of People's Commissars of the republic adopted a "Charter of the Unified Labor School of 
the Kazakh SSR." Accordingly, work began on the creation of textbooks and educational materials 
for schools. In that work active participation was taken by S.Seifullin, S.Sadvakasov, G.Musrepov, 
M.Dulatov, Zh.Zholdybaev and others. The organizer of the preparation and publication of 
textbooks in the Kazakh language were made by members of the Editorial Board at the State 
Publishing House of the Kazakh ASSR within the A.Baitursynov, A.Bukeyhanova, S.Sadvakasova, 
Zh.Aymautova. Among the first books recommended to the press, were collections of poems of 
Abay and fables, riddles of A.Baitursynov. 
Much attention academic historians in the problem of continuity of the historical and cultural 
values, traditions given to the issue of cultural development, cultural revolution, widely considered 
issues beginning and end of the Cultural Revolution and its periodization. Since education patriot of 
the Soviet state, comprehensively developed person considered the main task of the problems of the 
Cultural Revolution, raising the cultural level of the Soviet man got up one notch on the importance 
of the problems of industrialization and collectivization. One of the famous explorers of the 
Cultural Revolution of the Soviet state R.B.Suleymenov wrote: "In a broad sense Leninist cultural 
revolution was conceived as a large-scale, global revolution in the whole spiritual life of society, 
designed to convert on a new socialist basis not only of the entire system of culture, education, 
science and art, but also to create the conditions in which almost solved the problem to the 
harmonious development of personality, fully developed and trained, highly educated, the 
conviction hardened ideological mastering the scientific Marxist-Leninist ideology, creative 
thinkers creators of material and spiritual values, highly moral people, personifying a genuine 
socialist way of life" [8]. 
The problem of preserving the continuity of the traditions of past generations, historical and 
cultural heritage is shown quite clearly in the works of Kazakh writers and poets. Kazakh literature 

213 
 
was formed as part of the multinational Soviet literature. Her origins were A.Bukeyhanov, 
A.Baytursynov, S.Seifullin, Zh.Aymautov, M.Dulatov, M.Zhumabaev, S.Mukanov, G.Musrepov 
etc. They did not hide the difficulties that they encountered on the path of building a new culture. 
Cultural situation in post-revolutionary country (until the mid of twenty years of XX century) was 
studied by Turar Ryskulov. Significant contribution to the analysis of the problem was made by 
T.Zhurgenov, S.Nurpeisov and others. For example, S.Seifullin was published in 1932, a textbook 
on the history of Kazakh literature "Kazakh adebieti" in 1933 A.Konyratbaev – «XVIII-XIX. 
Kazakh adebietі "in 1941 E.Ismailovym –"Kazakh adebietі". "They laid the foundation for the study 
of the Kazakh literature, paying special attention to the study of the centuries-old Kazakh folk 
wisdom, passed on from generation to generation. Overall, the scientists examined the relationship 
is true enough oral poetry to written literature, oral poetry from the cultural heritage of the Kazakh 
people. The history of the Kazakh culture is considered systematically in the works and E.Ismailova 
S.Mukanov [9]. However, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan in 1947, 
adopted a decision in which the attention of the public and the creative intelligents was drawn to the 
fact that the history of Kazakh literature study is not enough, a lot of gaps that research in this area 
are superficial. In July 1957 a decree "On measures to improve the status and study and critical use 
of literary and poetic and musical heritage of the Kazakh people", scientists call for that you need to 
"pay more attention to research and development of critical literary and poetic and musical heritage 
of the past and skilful use of it in the future development of the national in form, socialist in content 
culture of the Kazakh people, radically improve the performance of the collection and publication 
of works of pre-revolutionary oral and written Kazakh literature and music "[10]. 
A notable phenomenon in the 50s of XX century is that in the Kazakh literary criticism was 
the formation of Abai as an independent scientific direction in philology. A special contribution to 
the development of a new branch of literature has made well-known writer, playwright, novelist, 
scholar and literary critic, social activist Mukhtar Auezov Kazakh SSR, was reflected in the epic 
novel "Abai's Way" life of the Kazakh people, its traditions, customs, way of life and so on. If we 
consider this work from the perspective of historical analysis, the epic novel is the source for the 
study of history, culture, way of life and mentality of nomads [11]. Activities for the study of the 
writer's creativity Abay played a fundamental, significant role in the development of Kazakh 
literature, a total of spiritual culture of Kazakhstan. M.Auezov was the author of the first Kazakh 
epic, the first researcher of the great poet of the Kazakhs. In addition, the scientist in Abay studies 
identified a new problem - the problem of continuity of traditions in the work of Abai Kazakh 
democratic literature beginning of XX century "establishing continuity between the Abai Kazakh 
democratic and therefore the beginning of the XX century - Donentaevym, Torajgyrov, Seralina, 
especially the continuity between the ratio of Abai these poets in Russian culture and literature 
"[12]. In the 20s of XX century M.Auezov tried to publish a book on the history of Kazakh 
literature. The result of such painstaking work became the "Literary History", published in Kyzyl-
Orda in 1927, but until 1991 the publication of this work was banned due to the ideological 
situation in the country. When you work with a layer of centuries-old wisdom of the Kazakh people 
MOAuezov not just analyzed the samples of folklore, but also suggested systematization of the 
material, searching for the genesis of a genre of folk art. The writer rightly pointed out that national 
traditions are not one but several generations. On this occasion, he wrote: "We need not break with 
tradition and follow-up, innovation, he is regarded not as a continuation of traditions and their 
revolutionary understanding ... It is like the baton, but the baton very special - in which each new 
stage of art goes, constantly accumulating new and enriching " [13]. 
In the Soviet period of great interest to the study of folk music showed public figures, social 
scientists, historians and writers. For example, anthropologist and composer A.V.Zataevich. 
Alexander has recorded over two thousand folk songs and kyus published collections: in 1925 – 
"1000 Songs of the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) people" in 1931 – "500 songs and kyus of Kazakh people". 
Ethnographer wrote about the integrity of folk forms. "A.V.Zataevich is primarily known as a 
prominent folklorist, tireless collector and an investigator of Kazakh folk music" [14] – he noted 
P.V.Aravin. He is in the "Music and aesthetic views A.V.Zataevicha" wrote: "A.V.Zataevich 

214 
 
eagerly stretched to all health services and national, currently stored in the unfading beauty of 
national culture and realistic musical creativity. On this basis grew A.V.Zataevicha permanent 
interest to folk songs to vocal and choral performance " [15]. Even in the aforementioned novel 
M.Auezov in his imagery a significant role to play music. Ample space in the novel devoted to 
famous musicians, akyn singers of the XIX century, which continued the tradition and developed in 
his work Abai Kunanbayev and continue to develop the figures of music of the Soviet period. 
Auezov showed not only the social significance bard, his role, a place in the spiritual life of the 
nomadic society, but also the laws of transmission of skill in the transmission of oral tradition 
akyns. However, with the addition of the territory of the Kazakh zhuzes to the Russian Empire, then 
the formation of a single state in the USSR was great influence of European, especially Russian, 
traditions of Kazakh musical art. Therefore, the meetings of the Society for the Study of Kazakhstan 
systematically addressed issues of public education, health, literature and science. At one of the 
meetings have been identified two opposing points of view. One of the problems in the collision 
was the problem of the influence of the views of the European musical education in distinctive 
Kazakh musical art. I.P.Tretyakov believed that European music education can help figure Kazakh 
art build your creativity on a more professional level; I.P.Slovohotov art, on the contrary, it is 
assumed that the result of the introduction of European art music would be the displacement of 
original Kazakh culture, which, in turn, will lead to the destruction of the culture of the nomads. 
One of the areas in the study and protection of cultural heritage was the organization of the 
Kazakh SSR in the Society for the Protection of Cultural Monuments, then create a primary 
organization in the regions and districts of the country. "...But a true patriot must know their 
homeland, not only proud of her today, but its glorious past, its progressive tradition that goes back 
centuries. It is no coincidence in the country was and is a lot of work on the identification, 
preservation, study and promotion of monuments of the past"[17]. 
In the postwar period the government paid attention to the people's initiative, the development 
of crafts and art and decorative arts, organized public performances, exhibitions, "Gathering the 
people's masters of applied art and decorative art showed a great desire to continue the work of folk 
artists, the desire to unite in a cooperative and creative workshops, to transfer their skills and the art 
of young people "[18]. However, artists have noted that not all kinds of folk art of the Kazakhs are 
interested in young people, "Regional and Republican review also showed that among the masters 
of applied art almost entirely of young people do not have that causes more anxiety for the 
continuity of craftsmanship craftsmen" [19]. 
The basic concept when considering the problems of continuity in the work of the researchers 
is the concept of tradition. In the modern cultural sciences, defines cultural tradition: it is 
"something that stabilizes society, ensures the reproduction of the past in the present, enables the 
present generation to build on past experience. Passed down from generation to generation of 
consistent rules of activity in the integral unity up technology activities, is the essence of culture 
"[20]. It is known that the historical path traversed by the people, it is deposited in the social 
memory, which further gives some settings, values stability and retentive for a long time, covering 
more than one or two generations. These traditional attitudes, handed down from generation to 
generation and develop the elements of a certain way of life and way of thinking characterize the 
national character of the people and their mentality. B.D.Lebin Soviet philosopher believed that the 
cultural heritage are "not only expressed in the form of the spiritual values of the subject, but are 
themselves the bearers of these values: of science, technology, culture, knowledge and experience" 
[21]. 
In the period of independence in Republic of Kazakhstan in the process of historical self-
awareness and understanding of the genesis of the Kazakh ethnic group and its formation in space. 
In carrying out these tasks plays a special role to solve the continuity of culture, so with great 
attention devoted to the problems of culture, cultural heritage, synthesized existing data and identify 
new ones. Proof can serve as a large-scale state program "Cultural heritage" for 2004-2006, 
approved by the President of Republic of Kazakhstan dated 13 January 2004 aimed at ensuring 
safety, efficient use and availability of all regions and social strata of Kazakh society monuments of 

215 
 
historical and cultural value, Kazakhstan culture has deep historical roots. Various historical stages 
through which the country left a footprint in the formation of the cultural potential of the country. 
Tasks so unique inherently diverse program. They relate to practically all spheres of culture, but 
united by one goal - to ensure the safety and effective use of historical and cultural heritage of the 
Kazakh people, the formation of a common cultural space that provides access to different groups 
of population of different regions of the country to the cultural elements and information resources. 
This trend in historical science involves the study of materials that are currently not only in 
Kazakhstan but also in archives, libraries, museums, the territory of foreign countries. To do this, it 
planned to organize expeditions to the countries of CIS and foreign countries to study these unique 
materials, documents, ensure their safety, the transfer to electronic media (disks, diskettes), to 
provide access to them, make copies of manuscripts, historic publications, books and popular 
works. Particular attention is paid to restoration of monuments of history and culture of the 
republic, the creation of fundamental works on the problem of the cultural heritage of the Kazakh 
people, its scientific study and the publication of a set of historical and cultural monuments of 
Kazakhstan. Now, at the beginning of the XXI century all the necessary socio-economic, political, 
ideological prerequisites for the study of the cultural past of the country, to explore the Kazakh 
public with famous monuments of cultural heritage, with famous examples of literature and 
folklore, philosophy of the Kazakh people. These include the best works that make up the rich 
treasury of philosophical, political and historical thought. A feature of these samples historical and 
cultural heritage is that they were formed over the centuries and stored in the memory of people, 
handed down from generation to generation and are stored in the memory of the people of our time. 
Considerable attention in the cultural policy of the Government of  Republic of Kazakhstan paid 
translation into the official language materials on the history of Kazakhstan, the history of the 
formation of the Kazakh nation, the writings of Herodotus, Ptolemy, Thucydides and other famous 
foreign historians, as well as translating the masterpieces of Kazakh culture in the major languages 
of the world to people of other dating countries, people of different nationalities of the Earth with a 
rich cultural heritage of the Kazakh people, a significant part of the story which has been associated 
with a nomadic way of life, nomadism. This will be a process of a kind of cultural exchange and 
integration of the Kazakh culture into the world cultural space. 
To sum up, in the Soviet historical science of Kazakhstan scientists considerable work done 
on the study of the vast complex of cultural heritage etched in artefacts, in the samples of folklore 
and ethnographic data. 
 
References: 
1. Lotman Y.M. Alternative: unwritten culture or culture to culture? // Lotman Y.M. Inside minded 
worlds: Man – text – the semiosphere – history. – M., 1996. – P. 344-345. 
2. GA MSE. F. 1168. Op. 1. D. 25 vol. 
3. Djumagulov K.T. Ibrahim Altynsarin and development of culture of the Kazakh people. – 
Almaty: Kazakhstan, 1984 and others. 
4. Studies in the History of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 1963; Culture of Soviet 
Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 1957; Science of Soviet Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 1960; Essay on the history 
of the Kazakh Soviet literature. – Almaty, 1958. 
5. Kim M.P. Forty years of Soviet culture. – M., 1957; Abrosenko K.P. Growth of the culture of the 
Soviet society. – M., 1958; Baishev C. The victory of socialism in Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 1961. 
6. Kamaliev K. Educational activities S.Seifullin. – Almaty, 1983. – P. 92. 
7. Kөkshe E.F. Batyrlar zhyry. – Almaty, 1987; Ep Edige // Edige Batyr. – Alma-Ata, 1996; 
Zhirmunsky V.V.Tyurksky heroic epic. – L., 1974 and others. 
8. Suleimenov R.B.The problems of the spiritual life of Kazakhstan period of developed socialism // 
Actual problems of the history of Soviet Kazakhstan (for the 60th anniversary of the Kazakh SSR 
and the Communist Party of Kazakhstan). – Alma-Ata: Science of the Kazakh SSR, 1980. – P. 261. 
9. Ismailov E., Mukanov S. Өsu zholdarymyz. Maқalalar. – Almaty, 1960. 

216 
 
10. History of Kazakh literature: In 3 vol. /Ed. I.T. Dyusenbayev. – Vol. 2. Pre-revolutionary Kazakh 
literature. – Alma-Ata: Science of the Kazakh SSR, 1979. – P. 9. 
11. Auezov L. History of Kazakhstan in the works M. Auezov (on the material of "Abai's Way" and 
"Dashing time"). – Almaty: Sanat, 1997. 
12. M. Auezov achievements and shortcomings in the study of the heritage of Abai // Auezov M. 
Unpublished materials Abay studies. – Alma-Ata, Nauka, 1988. – 117 p. 
13. Tayzhanov A.T. M.O. Auezov – thinker. – Alma-Ata: Gylym, 1991. – P. 70. 
14. CSA RK. F.1840. Op.1. D.122. L.24. 
15. Ibid. – AL 31. 
16. Suleimenov R.B. Historiography cultural revolution // Soviet historical science of Kazakhstan 
(1917-1960): Essays on the formation and development. – Alma-Ata: Gylym, 1990. – P. 206-207. 
17. Gasquet. F. 637. Op. 1. D. 1. L. 3. 
18. Gasquet. F. 637. Op. 1. D. 122. L. 3. 
19. L. 4. 
20. Cultural. / Ed. G.V.Dracha. – M.: Alpha-M, 2003. – P. 115. 
21. Lebina BD Lenin and scientific intelligentsia // Philosophical Sciences. – 1969, № 2. –P. 186. 
 
Г.Қ. Құрманбаева, Г.Ə. Омарова, 
Əл-Фараби атындағы Қазақ ұлттық университетінің 
магистранттары 


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