S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan State University, Kazakhstan
CLUSTER MECHANISM OF DEVELOPMENT
OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX IN KAZAKHSTAN
The article considers the problem of the formation and development of agrifood clusters
as a factor of increasing the economic efficiency of agro-industrial complex (AIC).
ҚАЗАҚСТАНДАҒЫ АГРОӨНЕРКӘСІП КЕШЕНІ
ДАМУЫНЫң КЛАСТЕРЛІК МЕХАНИЗМІ
Мақалада агроазық-түлік кластерінің қалыптасу және даму мәселелері АӨК
экономикалық тиімділігін жоғарылату факторы ретінде қарастырылған.
Түйін сөздер: кластер, ұйымдастырушылық-экономикалық механизм.
ҚОҒАМДЫҚ ЖӘНЕ ГУМАНИТАРЛЫҚ ҒЫЛЫМДАР
КЛАСТЕРНЫЙ МЕХАНИЗМ РАЗВИТИЯ
АГРОПРОМЫШЛЕННОГО КОМПЛЕКСА КАЗАХСТАНА
В статье рассматриваются проблема формирования и развития агропродоволь-
ственных кластеров как фактора повышения экономической эффективности АПК.
For the development of agriculture and processing industry, to solve the problem
of national food security of the Republic of Kazakhstan the cluster approach can be
According to the definition of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD), “a competitive cluster – is an association of companies, re-
search centres and educational institutions working in partnership and in accordance
with the overall strategy of development, with the aim of implementation of joint ac-
tions in the execution of innovative projects for the benefit of one or more markets”
have the potential that is greater than the simple sum of the potentials of its individual
elements. Such incrementis the result of long-term cooperation and efficient use of the
opportunities of partners, as well as a combination of cooperation and competition.
Companies benefit as a consequence of their ability to share a positive experience, re-
duce production and distribution costs, share the same services and suppliers. Clusters
create conditions for attracting foreign investment, implementation of innovations,
increase in labour productivity, development of small and medium-sized businesses,
education of supply chains.
Clusters have an impact on competitiveness, because:
– Improve the performance of firms and industries;
– Create opportunities for innovation and productivity growth;
– Stimulate and facilitate the formation of new business, supporting innovation
and expansion of the cluster .
On the scale of the economy clusters act as “growth points” of the domestic mar-
ket and international expansion base. Formation of clusters is the basis for improving
the competitiveness of certain industries and the national economy as a whole.
The economic feasibility of creating agro-industrial clusters in all countries is
determined by a greater technical backwardness of agriculture as compared with in-
dustrial, its characteristics, social importance, the need to improve the competitiveness
of products and other factors.
The food industry, which includes more than 30 specialized branches, sub-
branches and individual productions, is a cluster-forming branch of AIC in Kazakhstan.
Cluster unites all participants along the value chain (from raw material to finished
product) of any industry, related and supporting industries, as well as other institutions
A.A. KAyGORODTSEV, ZH.B. RAKHMETULINA,
T.A. AByLAyKHANOVA, A.A. RAKHMETULINA. 2 (66) 2015. Р. 330-336
Тоқсанына бір рет шығарылады
relevant to the given industry.
The core of the food cluster is a food manufacturer. Leaders in the production of
dairy products in Kazakhstan are companies such as “Dep”, “Food Master”, “Kosmis”,
SMAK, “Solnechnyi” and “AIC Adal”; in the production of meat products – Ust-Ka-
menogorsk Poultry, “Almaty Kus”, “Bent,” “Bekker and K”, “Alimpiyev”, “Pavlodar
Zaman”, “Shygys-Et”, “Naryk”, “Nur-Alem”; in the production of juices - “Raimbek
Bottlers”, “ Food Master Aseptic», RG Brands; in the processing of fruits and veg-
etables – “CinKaz”, “Akzhol”, “Zamir Food”, “BulgarKonservProduct”, Sairam and
Formation of clusters in AIC can not be successful without an effective infra-
structure, the development of which is one of the long-term priorities of Kazakhstan
Development Strategy until 2050.
The purpose of the formation and development of regional food clusters is to
create conditions for the expansion of intraregional production and improvement of
competitiveness of the food industry on the basis of enhancement the state regulation
of AIC and optimization of integration links between the operators of the agricultural
– Improvement of the regulatory and legal framework and mechanisms of state
regulation of AIC;
– The development of an effective mechanism of interaction between partici-
pants of the cluster;
– The development of source of raw materials on the basis of progressive agro
– The creation of innovative and high-tech manufacturing;
– Bringing the systems of standardization, certification and product quality con-
trol of AIC in accordance with international standards;
– Expansion of sales of food products produced in the region, in domestic and
– The formation and development of commodity distribution system of AIC;
– The formation of brands of domestic food;
– Improvement of training and retraining systems of personnel for the AIC;
– Improvement of information support and consulting services of business enti-
ties in the AIC .
Food cluster is a complex socio-economic system, the functioning efficiency of
which is largely determined by the external environment, including:
– Markets (food; material and technical resources; production, technical and
consulting services; technologies; financial; information; labour);
SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
– Government agencies.
The structure of the market infrastructure includes:
– Enterprises that are engaged in production and scientific and technical main-
tenance of AIC;
– Trade-purchasing and sales organizations;
– Financial and credit organizations;
– Organizations that are engaged in training and retraining of personnel, employ-
ment, social protection of population;
– Organizations that are engaged in information support of the process of func-
tioning of the enterprises AIC;
– Organizations that are engaged in legal services of enterprises AIC;
– Organizations that are engaged in normative service or regulatory support of
According to the research team “Graylyn group”, for the creation and successful
operation of the cluster it is necessary have the following prerequisites:
– Potential opportunities for R&D;
– Skill of labour force;
– Development of labour potential;
– Proximity of suppliers;
– Availability of capital;
– Access to specialized services;
– Relationships with suppliers of machinery, equipment and tools;
– Associated structures;
– Intensity of formation the networking;
– Entrepreneurial energy;
– Innovation and training;
– A collective vision and leadership .
The first seven indicators are a set of external economic factors, which were
available to local companies, due to the scale of their production. The eighth is a tool
for collaborative actions. The last four factors characterize the results of joint actions
All these factors are essential for companies - members of a cluster. At the same
time, a crucial factor for each company individually is the availability of specialized
labour force and the possibility of specialized training. If information technologies, to
some extent, can compensate factors such as proximity to suppliers, R&D opportuni-
ties, or access to equipment manufacturers, but for the specialized workforce there is
no alternative, although semi-skilled labour force, as a rule, is widely represented in
Cluster formation is possible on the basis of one of the following scenarios:
– “top-down”, i.e. with the priority formation of organs of deliberative coor-
dination and monitoring, identifying the strategies of a cluster as a whole and of its
– “bottom-up”, i.e. the alignment of individual projects and programs that inte-
grate potential cluster members;
– Mixed version, when parallel in time both approaches are combined [5, 6].
We believe that at the present stage of development of Kazakhstan AIC, the third
scenario is the most appropriate.
The process of creating a cluster involves several steps:
1 Conducting a research in order to identify the presence of conditions or poten-
tial clusters in certain regions of the country.
2 Identification of potential competitive clusters based on analysis of the com-
petitiveness of constituent enterprises.
3 Determination by the method of expert estimates, of the parameters classifying
enterprises to the core of the cluster.
4 Statistical data collection.
5 Determination of the cluster boundaries.
6 Identification of the cluster core.
7 The study of the relationship of cluster members with production determinants,
financial institutions, educational and scientific organizations, etc.
8 Construction of models of the cluster.
9 Conducting SWOT-analysis of identified cluster.
10 Development of recommendations to ensure the effective functioning and
development of the cluster .
Characteristic of organizational and economic mechanism of food cluster is
shown in Table 1.
Among the most significant items of expenditure on the activity of the cluster
– The cost of creating a cluster;
– The cost of infrastructure development;
– The cost of implementation the individual projects and programs of a cluster.
Funding for the creation of a cluster can be done from the republican and local
budgets, or at the expense of the enterprise integrator.
Creation and development of clusters is advisable to carry out on the basis of
public-private partnership (PPP), which is “an institutional and organizational alliance
between government and business for economic development and improving the com-
petitiveness of organizations and regional/national competitiveness” .
In practice, the role of PPPs in the clustering of the economy is reflected in
the joint development and financing of cluster projects (for example, the project of
creation a cluster infrastructure); assistance of local authorities in the organization of
SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
regional clusters; conducting training seminars for participants in the cluster; provid-
ing grants to conduct R&D for the cluster members; attracting foreign investments;
lobbying of interests of cluster entities, etc.
Table 1 – Organizational-economic mechanism of food cluster control
Characteristic of sub-mechanisms
Market mechanism 1 Demand.
State regulation of
1 The legislative framework (including antitrust and environmental
2 Economic methods:
- Budget tax levers;
- Credit and financial levers;
- Currency regulation;
- Regulation of distributive relations (wages, social welfare, etc.);
- Indicative planning and forecasting;
- Customs regulation;
- Agricultural policy;
- Pricing policy;
- Investment policy;
- Innovation policy;
- Export-import policy;
3 State support (including subsidies, trade interventions).
4 Administrative methods (quotas, restrictions, prohibitions, coercion,
ment System (Co-
1 Organizational levers:
- Effective organization of management system;
- Organization of intra-cluster industrial relations.
2 Economic instruments:
- Strategic planning;
- Management of costs and revenues;
- Management of investments;
- Management of innovations;
- Human Resources Management.
Note – Compiled by authors.
The cluster approach provides an opportunity for efficient use of material, la-
bour and financial resources, as well as the main means of labour in agriculture – land
resources, contributes to an increase of crop yields and livestock productivity, as well
as high-quality processing of agricultural raw materials, ensuring the necessary condi-
tions for the storage and delivery of products to the consumer.
Development of the sphere of processing crop and livestock products provides
the following benefits:
– Creation of new jobs;
– Export of deep processing food products (e.g., flour, cereals) allows to get
more foreign exchange earnings than export of agricultural raw materials (e.g. grain);
– Deep processing of agricultural raw materials allows the use of non-waste
technologies (for example, the use of by-products of flour production (bran) in the feed
– Transportation of finished products is much more economical than the trans-
portation of raw materials.
1. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Organiza-
tion for Economic Cooperation and Development on the project implementation Diversifica-
tion of Kazakhstan’s resources to direct foreign investments and improvement programs for
the development of sectorial investment. Approved by the Resolution of the Government of the
Republic of Kazakhstan from January 22, 2009, 36. http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P090000036
2. Porter Michael E., Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York. Free Press, 1990.
3. Mominbaev Zh., Serikov D., Problems of clustering and improvement the competi-
4. Lukinov I. Classification and characteristic signs of the clusters. Http://financials.
5. Mishchenkoyu.P., The cluster approach to the organization of the production in-
6. Scherbik E.E., Mishchenkoyu.P., Sources of financing AIC in terms of innovative
7. yasheva G., The new methods to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of AIC.
S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan State University, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan
INFLUENCE OF REGINAL POLITICS ON INTEGRATION PROCESSES
In article its problems and prospects are analyzed modern development of integration
processes, three main are defined the direction of regional integration policy.
Keywords: integration, regional policy, integration process, regional integration, eco-
ИНТЕГРАЦИЯЛЫҚ ҮРДІСТЕРГЕ АЙМАҚТЫҚ САЯСАТТЫң ӘСЕРІ
Мақалада Қазақстанның қазіргі интеграциялық даму үрдісіне, оның мәселелері
мен болашағына талдау жасалып, аймақтық интеграциялық саясаттың маңызды үш
Түйін сөздер: интеграция, аймақтық саясат, интеграциялық үрдіс, аймақтық
интеграция, экономикалық саясат.
ВЛИЯНИЕ РЕГИОНАЛьНОЙ ПОЛИТИКИ
НА ИНТЕГРАЦИОННЫЕ ПРОЦЕССЫ
В статье анализируются современное развитие интеграционных процессов, про-
блемы и перспективы, определены три основных направления региональной интегра-
Ключевые слова: интеграция, региональная политика, интеграционный процесс,
региональная интеграция, экономическая политика.
In the modern conditions of management the most essential problem for pres-
ent time is the problem of formation of management system on regional level. The
development of integral processes is the most important characteristics of modern
The integration processes in Kazakhstan are tightly interconnected with process-
ing transformations. Integration is the most important indicator of general social and
economical situation in the country and together with this the most important mecha-
nism of improvement of this situation.
The regional integration is a phenomenon of different factors and components
and it occurs in different spheres (economics, politics and social sphere). Together
with it in the present time this phenomenon becomes more important outer factor of
social and economical development of countries. In connection this the research of
integration processes has great practical and theoretical meaning for effective usage of
The regional integration process stipulates the origin of different political, so-
cial and economic contradictions and negative occurrences. That is why the research
of such phenomenon has the growing urgency in disclosure of causal conditionality,
regularities and their optimal development .
The integration should be understood as a progressive approaching of economies
of regions when creation by them of specified economical space with their mecha-
nisms of influence.
Economic integration is an inherent to modern society objective process of grad-
ual jointing of economic mechanisms of two or several states that are situated, as a
rule, in the same region approximately on the same development level, that have com-
patible social, economic and political systems and priorities and that carry out the in-
Z.B. KINASHEVA, T.K. KALELOVA. 2 (66) 2015. Р. 336-342
tegration policy. Such process is shown in creation of regional integration unions that
has defined collection of economic and legal instruments and regulations . Origin
and development of connections on the level of economic subjects result the necessity
in appearance of inter-regional interconnection that provides free movement of goods,
capitals, services and labour force between regions. Thereby, the formation of regional
economic complexes with united infrastructure happens. The progressing reproduc-
tion processes in the integration grouping become interconnected. They interoperate
and unite forming the reproduction process of regional scale.
It is impossible to create a support for activization of investment-innovative pro-
cesses and transition to a new quality of economic growth without integration of in-
terests and business. There is a sharp question of interaction of market and nonmarket
mechanisms, regulators and instruments with regard to known influence of external
factors to them.
Thereby, this refers to a qualitative improvement of state regulation and support
of innovative way of development of domestic production. It can be realized on the
base of long-term state policy that includes complex measures on increasing of role of
government in solving of social and economic problems, structuring of complex forms
of property and management .
That is why the economic integration is such a process of economic and political
unification of regions, when the deep stable interactions are developed and division of
labour between enterprises happens.
In the modern conditions of development of Russian economics the objectively
existing process of regionalization of all sides of social and economic life of the coun-
try is observed. In the methodological aspect we can mentioned that one of the most
important form of realization of regional economy is regional policy. The main direc-
tion of a state regional policy in our country is the strengthening of federal relation-
Politics is targets and purposes pursued and solved by people in connection of
their specific interests and methods, measures and institutions with a help of which
such interests are formed, defended and protected. On the bases of this, regional poli-
tics may be considered such kind of system of measurement and actions that realizes
the interests of state in relation to regions and internal interests of regions themselves
by methods and means that take into consideration the nature of modern regional pro-
cesses and that realizes all this mainly in the structure of inter and inside regional con-
The regional politics primarily must be directed to: securing of economical de-
velopment in regions. Without a transition of economy to the stage of growth all con-
versations about efficiency of any economic policy (mainly integration) are senseless.
The removal of non-effective movement of resources, first of all excessive migration
of population and unreasonable concentration of capitals; the ensuring of reconstruc-
tion of industry and its adaptation to market system; encouragement and support of
preparation and realization of interregional programs, mainly in the sphere of infra-
structure projects and establishment of long-term cooperative connections between
regions result the possibility to smooth many interregional antagonisms that will assist
the coordination of economic politics of subjects of the region.
Strengthening of a profitable base of regional budgets and broadening of rights
of regions in tax and budget policy that consists in insuring of guaranties of the largest
financial independence of regions from the center makes a possibility not only to bal-
ance the regional budgets but to decrease transfers. From the experience of other coun-
tries it can be seen that if to increase the income level of regional budgets it is possible
to make policy of regional authorities more responsible and aimed for the long-term
tasks of economical development and growth.
Based on the above it is possible to distinguish three groups of top-priority direc-
tions of regional integration politics.
The first group includes the development of legal and institutional base of inte-
gration. It may include: completion of creation of legal bases of economical interrela-
tions of a “center”; subjects of region and local self-government; support to formation
and development of integration forms of spatial organization and self-development of
economics (inter-regional associations of economical interaction, interregional finan-
cial and industrial groups and others).
The second group includes the investment activity on improvement of quality of
economic area that differs by ensuring of functioning of main transport, power system
and main telecommunications.
The third group is the direction of economical regulators for reinforcement of
homogeneity and integratedness of economic area. It is intended the removal of the
main contradictions of budget federalism; adjustment of bank system and solvency of
acting market subjects; growth of transport and energy tariffs, creation of wholesale
market of electric power, retention of economic control of the state under strategic
and structure-forming objects and natural resources; selective support of enterprises
especially city-forming in depression regions; provision of external economics safety
It allows to make two resumes. First of all, from the point of view of regional
politics the economic development considerably must be an activity of regional au-
thorities themselves and its pivot must be a work that is directed to institutional ensur-
ing of advantages of each specific region in the sphere of economic climate (including
investment and business climate). It results the improvement of economical environ-
ment in the country in whole.
In the second place, the role of regions must be determined in creation of such
institutional conditions that would promote the effective development of regional ini-
tiative in the sphere of institutional building and in effective use of financial transfers
for control of the most pointed discharges of income differentiation and communal rise
in price over separate regions (transportation tariffs, energy tariffs, agricultural grants
The main idea of economic development of regions conception must be the
agreement of strategic goals of development of national economy, subjects of the fed-
eration and enterprises.
This approach will allow regional economic politics to reflect interests of subject
of regions that is why it is possible to confirm that such behavior of an enterprise corre-
sponds the strategic interests of national economy, interests of region and its partners,
and personal interest of an enterprise.
The serious impetus to development of integration processes provides the re-
gions policy in the sphere of budget relations, that the most researchers are agree
with (they are: Granberg A.G., Ushvitskiy M.L., Chitipyakhovyan P., Chkalova O.,
Shegoleva N.G.). Such kind of policy results the decrease of personal tax income of
the territories that in its tern forces subjects of the Republic of Kazakhstan to search
new resources of replenishment of income part of regional and local budgets, often for
the account of increasing of efficiency of regions’ economy functioning and reinforce-
ment of interregional connections.
Region becomes the central section of policy of transformation of modern mar-
ket economy the made by the state.
By the present time in the domestic economic science the different approaches
to determination of regional policy content had been formed. The regional economic
politics supposes the differentiated diagnostics of economical regions of the country
for the purpose of elaboration of development directions. Besides economical goals it
is possible to mention such goals as social, political and protection of environment.
The economical motives are usually considered as the most important ones, but their
relative importance is different depending on a country.
The regional economical politics, or local planning, includes all forms of social
intervention directed to improvement of territorial distribution of economical activity.
The regionalization of economy that is one of the forms of its transformation got
the additional impulse in the result of transformation in social and economic sphere of
Kazakhstan. The overcoming of the inherent to planning economy sectoral principle of
administration of economic life of the country revealed the possibility for competent
development of territorial-institutional forms of organization of production-economi-
cal activity in regions.
In Kazakhstan the constitutional-legal and political structure of democratic
transformation is formed that reorganized in all spheres of social and political life,
including for regionalization of economic area of the country. In the sphere of global-
ization problems of regional politics the important place is taken by territorial-political
organization of regions.
The process of regional structuring of area and full including of regions into the
economic, social and political life on national and transnational levels is the regional-
step integration of regional social and economical complexes into total economic area
of national economy.
Such point of view is conditioned that a weakening and disintegration of eco-
nomical connections between regions and economical subjects that was formed dur-
ing decades is negatively affected the economics condition of regions of Kazakhstan.
The mostly strong the economic disintegration reflected on economical connections
between regions of the country in 90s of XX century. That was mostly natural pro-
cess dictated by the necessity of adaptation to market relations and entry to the world
pening situation in economy and social sphere and mistakes admitted during reforms
resulted that the transfer of economy of the country to the market base was accompa-
nied with large economic, social and political expenditures.
The most essential effects that influence to economical development of the coun-
try in present time must be the following:
1. Compression of internal market depended on fall of internal production and
customer demand, essential growth of tariffs for electric resources and goods transpor-
tation, arrival of competitive foreign production to Russian markets.
2. Actual disintegration of real sector of natural economy into two in a great
measure independent part: inherently orientate and export-orientated sector. The cross
points of these two sectors are in the sphere of infrastructure.
3. Origin of large financial and industrial groups, vertically-integrated multisec-
toral holdings that control the most part of production and sale of the most important
kind of production (so called oligopolies). In their activity they often do not take into
account the long-term interests of the state, specified subjects of the Republic of Ka-
zakhstan, medium-sized and small business and population, but effective actions of
regional authority directed to limitation of monopolistic desires and political influence
of oligopolies are not visible for the present.
4. Fragmentation of unique economical area into many small local markets ac-
companied by the concentration of successfully working enterprises in the same re-
In the conditions of market economy the research of this problem processing in
our country must be based on the management theory. The specialization, cooperation
and integration of different territorial structures play a great role in increasing of ef-
ficiency of their functioning, because the territorial economical integration must be ac-
companied by diversity of the main types of activity of territorial complexes under the
market demand. In such interpretation of theoretical version the territorial economic
integration will get the most tangible social and economical result. Together with it the
integration of different objects and different types of activity must be considered as
objective category of social reproduction.
In the conclusion it should be mentioned that the origin of integration processes
within the scope of region is the objective and logical phenomenon that arises on the
level of economical subjects of economy in the shape of institutional and political-
legal forms of interaction. The integration process is an objective and logical process
because it is supported and reconciled by the state.
So, from our point of view, on the modern stage such complex measures on in-
tegration and modernization of economic complexes are necessary that would assist
the state regulation. The economical strategy and state support of production must
help growing of investment resource of development, including high technologies,
quality of production and economy competitiveness. That is why the integration and
modernization of economy results the formation of Kazakhstan as large technological
and competitive state.
Thereby, resuming the abovementioned we can mention that for the stable devel-
opment of region not only the development, but the realization of complex of measures
in all spheres of vital activity of a person for interaction of regional system on the base
of regional interests should be considered.
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