The thesis research was conducted within the framework of the project work 2016-
1-15 «Creating electronic textbook on the subject Ecology and environmental
protection in Russian and Uzbek languages» (2016) in connection with scientific
research of the Uzbekistan State University of World Languages.
The aim of research work revealing the syntactic-, lexic-, semantic-and
nominative-derivational properties of ecological terms in Uzbek, Karakalpak,
Russian and English languages.
The tasks of research work the ecological terms in languages of various
highlight the study in linguistics;
revealing the derivational principles;
working out of syntactic-derivational features;
revealing the lexic-derivational features;
investigating the semantic-derivational features;
identifying of nominative-derivational signs;
scientific substantiation of the objective reasons and the factors influencing on
ecological terms in the Uzbek, Karakalpak, English and Russian languages;
defining of resources of formation of the borrowed ecological terms in the
Uzbek, Karakalpak, English and Russian languages;
working out of the special multilingual dictionary.
The object of the research is ecological terms in Uzbek, Karakalpak,
English and Russian languages.
derivational features of ecological terms in the languages of different systems.
historical-etymological, component analysis, semantic field and statistical methods
have been based on.
Scientific novelty of the Research is as follows:
derivational principles of ecological terms in the Uzbek, Karakalpak, English
and Russian languages were revealed for the first time;
features of ecological terms in the Uzbek and Karakalpak language; historical
formation and their pragma linguistic eventfulness in discourse are scientifically
ecological terms as an independent system in the languages of different systems
the formation of ecological terms with suffixation, prefixation, loan,
abbreviation and syntactic components in Uzbek, Karakalpak, English and Russian
languages is revealed with statistic indices.
developed a number of proposals and recommendations in the development of
the derivation of the system and improving the environmental terms of the
principles of comparative terminology in the study of a foreign language;
created «English-Russian-Uzbek- Karakalpak Dictionary of ecological terms
» for professionals and students based on the analyzed material on the ecological
The reliability of the results is defined by persuasiveness of conclusions,
concrete statement of a problem, efficiency of approaches and the methods applied
in work, the fact that the theoretical approaches applied within it received on the
actual linguistic material and dictionaries material, printed and electronic products
issued on the recommendation of the responsible organizations, the received results
are confirmed by proxy structures.
research consists that its results show the status of ecological terms in common-
literary language and serve the further enrichment of research principles of sphere
of comparative terminology. Opinions and statements, resulted in the dissertation,
serve as a scientific source in highlighting the terminological system of the Uzbek
and Karakalpak languages.
Practical value of results of research consists that materials of the given work
can be applied in work of ecologists and specialists whose activity is connected
with ecological sphere, in particular, translators can use them as guideline. Results
of research can be applied in special courses as the terminology theory,
comparative terminology, in written and oral translation, in teaching the disciplines
such as «Lexicology», «Theory of translation». Ecological lexemes that are
analyzed in this work can serve as a source for dictionaries which will be
developed in future in the ecological sphere.
ecological terms in the languages of different systems, comparative typological
features of the formation and development of these terms, the following proposals
are worked out:
ecological terms in languages of different systems have been introduced in
Bachelor’s degree in «Philology and language teaching (Romance and Germanic
Philology)» and «Foreign Language and literature (Romance and Germanic
Philology)» in for the study of subjects «General Linguistics», «Practical course
foreign language», «The theory of language», «Comparative typology and theory
of translation» (registered in the State Agency O’zStandart on September 18, 2014
under registry record O’zDSt 36.1410:2014 №05-573). The suggested materials
are used to distinguish the international ecological terms, the methods of formation
of words on the basis of word-formation models and revealing the ways of their
comparison in Uzbek, Karakalpak, English and Russian languages;
in linguistics ecological terms have been introduced in the Master's degree in
«Linguistics (Romance and Germanic Philology)», as well as «Foreign languages
and literature (English)» to study the subjects «Foreign language», «Modern trends
in comparative linguistics», «English for Specific purposes». (registered in the
State Agency O’zStandart on July 8, 2014 under registry record O’zDSt
36.1033:2014 №05-557). The materials can illuminate the ecological terms used in
text, along with an understanding of the ecological text, strategies and levels of
analysis of the meaning of words and terms, methods of using the terms relating to
the given area and their translation into the languages of different systems;
the integration of ecology and linguistics was used in the project on IOT-
2016-1-15 «Creating electronic textbook on the subject Ecology and
environmental protection in Russian and Uzbek languages» (2016). The suggested
materials serve for explaning the processes and the situation occurring in the
society, knowledge of their perfection, criteria the relation of the person to ecology
in the Uzbek and Russian languages.
in 18 scientific-applied republic and international conferences and workshops such as
«Actual problems of modern linguistic and teaching foreign languages» (Tashkent,
2008-2016), international conference on the topic « Current issues of identifying
the level of foreign language knowledge of students» (2010-2015), «Annual
scientific conference in linguistics» (Krasnodar, 2012), « Problems and prospects
of modernization of teaching a foreign language» (Tashkent, 2014), «Modern
technology for teaching foreign languages» (Tashkent, 2014), at scientific and
practical conferences University of World Languages scale (Tashkent, 2008 -
2016), «Language and culture» (Novosibirsk, 2014), « Content-based learning in
Uzbekistan: opportunities and challenges. International conference» (Tashkent,
2015), «Priority research areas: from theory to practice» (Novosibirsk, 2016)
including 2 monographs, among them in the journals recommended by the Higher
Attestation Commission of the Republic of Uzbekistan for publication of basic
scientific results of doctoral dissertations 13 articles, including 10 national and 3
The structure and volume of dissertation. Dissertation consists of
introduction, four chapters, conclusion and the list of literature. Dissertation
contains 230 text pages.
In introduction the topicality and the relevance of the theme of the
dissertation were justified, international researches on the topic of the dissertation
were reviewed, the degree of study of the problem was described, the aim, tasks as
well as the objects and subjects of the dissertation were formulated, its conformity
to the priority directions of science and technology development was shown, the
scientific novelty, the reliability of the obtained resuts, its theoretical and practical
significane were disclosed, a summary of the implementation and announcement of
the research results and the structure of the dissertation were given.
In the first chapter «Scientific-methodological bases of research of
scientists about terminology system; the scientific-practical viewpoints existing in
world linguistics are analyzed.
Terms are fixed in the production of mental activity of the person as means
promoting the formation of principles, positions, laws, theories of special fields of
knowledge and become an important component of scientific and technical
language. The concept term is the question which interests not only the linguists,
but also the other specialists of the various spheres.
Observation in the sphere of formation and establishment of terminological
systems show that the Uzbek and Karakalpak ecological terminology are
basically, developed and enriched at the expense of two sources: internal
possibilities of language and elements of foreign words and word combinations.
G.O.Vinokur noticed that terms «… the separate function of a word which
fulfills as the term, its nominative function. ... terms are not separate words, and
words in separate function»
originality of the term, «the term is such word which is connected with the
meaning, concerning the scientific concept. However this meaning reflects only the
basic, important signs of scientific concept because it is always wider than the
meaning reflected in its definition. First of all, the solution to the question on the
term consists of modeling the full structure of this concrete knowledge as much as
the founder of the Russian terminological school D.S. Lotte–it is system, not
connection of the term in context, shortness, absolute and comparative
unambiguity, simplicity and clearness, degree of implementation of the term
The researcher of the law terminology in French and Uzbek languages
Винокур Г.О. О некоторых явлениях словообразования в русской технической терминологии / Татаринов
Московский лицей, 1994. – С. 218 - 284.
Герд А.С. Еще раз о значении термина // Лингвистические аспекты терминологии.– Воронеж: Изд-во
построения научно-технической терминологии. Вопросы теории и методики. – М.: Изд-во АН СССР, 1961. –
special area and are lexical units expressing the meaning related to the given
. R.G.Piotrovskiy considers that «terminology is closely connected with
the formation of the terms is correlated with all the general means of the word
formation of the language»
. The investigation of the ecological terms is one of
ecological terminology represents the big scientific interest in the languages of
Historical sources show that the ecological lexical units were presented in the
works of Al-Horezmi, Abu Nasr Farabi, Abu Raykhan Beruni, Mahmud Kashgari,
Jusuf Hos Hozhib, Alisher Navoi, Zahriddin Muhammad Bobur and many other
thinkers. Particularly, A. Navoi shows the event and the phenomenon, occurring in
the nature as an example to the person. Z.M.Babur in the well-known book
"Babur-name" gives detailed information about the nature and a climate of Fergana
valley, about the beauty of fields and hills, about the gardens created by him -
«Боги Шахроро», «Боги Жахоноро», «Боги Наврузи». In his work the lexical
units in the Uzbek language related to geography and ecology are reflected, for
боғча, дармон, заҳар, заҳ, камалакмуҳит, табиий, йил фасллари,
treatises writes: «Билингки, дарѐнинг кўзлари ѐшланса, унинг бошига ғам,
investigation of ecological terms on word formation example of the Bashkir
language where the lexical units such as кук «осмон», улои «ўт» are analyzed
the Russian, Tatar and Turkic languages are done by V.S.Dmitrieva and G.I.
. The O.N.Byatikova’s dissertation on the theme «Lexical units of
fish in the Tatar language. As an example of such lexical units O.N.Byatikova
analyzed lexical units as: корбап балыгы «лещ», килька «килька», салака
«салака», камбала «камбала», чуртан
. The investigation of I.G.Guseva on the
Номз. Дисс. ... автореф. – Тошкент, 2009. – Б .17
Пиотровский Р.Г. К вопросу об изучении термина // Татаринов В.А. История отечественного
Кн.1. – М.: Московский лицей, 1995. – 333с. – с. 205-206.
Бобурнома. Китоб-з-закот. – Тошкент, 1989; Машрабов З., Шоакрамов С. Асрларни бўйлаган Бобур. –
Муҳаммад Мусо Ал-Хоразмий. Китоб сурат ал-арз. – 847
Гарипов Т.М. Башкирское именное словообразование. – Уфа: Акад. наук СССР, Башк. филиал
Инс-т истории языка и лит-ры, 1959. – 223 с.
Дмитриева B.C. Лексика природных явлений в русском, татарском и турецком языках. – Казань:
Бятикова О.Н. Лексика рыбаловства в татарском литературном языке. Автореф. дисс. ... канд.
theme «Cognitive-discourse analysis of interbranch ecological terms in the field of
fishing» is dealt with the analysis of English terminology connected with ecology
of hunting. In the investigation the cognitive analysis of macroframe «Ecology of
hunting» is given and its frames also, the conceptual analysis of terminological
units on the frame groups is carried out, their features are revealed, the cognitive
relation between the frame groups are presented
. E.A.Latishevskaya’s research
the English language according the historical periods
. E.A.Latishevskaya divided
historical periods in English On the first period the ecological terms are divided
into global ecology and human ecology: terms water, human, forest, nature, earth,
condition, development, license, damage, chlorine, scrap on the second stage the
increase of the lexical semantic groups is observed and the number of terms -164.
The investigation of I.V.Veregitina is devoted to the derivational-semantic
features of ecological terms
. The purpose of the given work is to reveal the
of ecological sciences, definition of the terminological lexemes of the given
complex of the terminological system, consideration of the nominative units in the
The author identifies the synonymic conformity in the names of sciences of
the given complex: «a word - a word combination», for example: антэкология -
ecology of colours and plants; археоэкология - ecology of the ancient person;
аутэкология - ecology of kinds, bioecology - traditional ecology; «a word
combination - a word combination», for example: глобальная экология - world
ecology, universal ecology; ecology of underwater inhabitants экология
подводных обитателей - бентос ecology; динамическая экология - evolutional-
dynamic ecology; экология духовности - ecology of spiritual life of a society. In
I.V.Veregitina’s work the terminological units forming nests which are in their
turn formed on the basis of a simple combination of terms are described:
The terminological derivation is an important factor for the formation of
terms in ecological terminological system and serves as means of its stabilization,
formation and evolution. All derivational process can be interpreted as the result of
reflecting the derivational potential and cognitive quality of ecological terms.
The concept of derivation was implemented for the processes of word
formation and equaled to the term of word formation. However, after being
distinguished the lexical and syntactical derivation
, the concept derivation was
рыбного промысла. Автореф. дисс. ... канд. фил. наук. – Москва, 2003.
Латышевская Е.А. Становление и развитие системы экологии в английском языке. Автореф. дисс. ... канд.
Верегитина И.В. Терминология системного комплекса научных экологических знаний:деривационно-
begun to be applied in the process of formation of language units within the word
Expansion of concept of derivation has led to research of derivational
The word derivation is adopted into linguistics by one of the representatives
of the Prague school of linguistics E. Kurilovich in the middle of the XXth century.
After publishing the article of the scientist under the theme «The lexical derivation
and semantic derivation»
, in Russian linguistics have started to give more
In the Uzbek linguistics there have been also done serious works that devoted
to the problems of derivatology and about ten investigations are defensed and
number of interesting scientific articles is written
Undoubtedly, the derivation is realized on the basis of a definite linguistic
operator. The process of derivation is not presented without the operator because
the operator is the basic implementer in both lexical and syntactic derivation. For
this reason operator in derivatology is treated as absolutely prevailed element of
from the historical development till now interpretation of monosyllabic lexemes
from the formal structural view point presents scientific novelty and actual at the
present stage of the development of modern linguistics as the features of derivation
of derivation structures have importance not only within the limits of relations
between the elements of language system, but also the interpretation of the
problems of the speech elements in transition
process, in its turn, there is a semantic discrepancy in the form of the non-
productive and derivative structures serving a basis for a derivation.
The derivational analysis of ecological terms shows their structural belonging
to various lexical units. This fact motivates to study the analyzed layer of lexical
units from these positions.
The main part of the concept term «syntactic derivation» that suggested by
E.Kurilovich is embodied the theory of distinction of two processes of word
formation – lexical and syntactical derivation
. «...syntactical derivation occurs in
Иностранная литература, 1962.
Турниязова Ш.Н. Ҳозирги ўзбек тилида матн тилининг матн шаклланишининг деривацион хусусиятлари.
– Самарқанд, 1990; Четин М. Ҳозирги ўзбек ва турк тилларида сўз бирикмалари синтактик деривацияси.
Филол. ф. н. дисс. ... автореф. – Самарқанд, 2002; Холияров Л. Ҳозирги замон немис тилида содда гаплар
деривацияси. Филол. ф. н. дисс. ... автореф. – Тошкент, 2004. Шодиев. Э.А. Навоий ва форс тожик адиблари.
Курилович Е. Очерки по лингвистике.– М., 1962. –60 с..
one lexical meaning. At the lexical derivation the primary syntactic function of
root and derivative words are equaled»
nominative derivation the semantic meaning of the word can be observed, in such
word formation method.
Occurrence and development of the theory of derivation serves also for
constructing the various derivational models, therefore secondary language units
are formed in the languages of different systems, there are derivational structures
and formed between various formal operations are established that gives the
chance to investigate semantic features of these processes
system of concepts and ways of their expression. Lexical, morphological and
word-formation ways of the borrowed ecological terms are revealed.
The semantic derivation within the ecological terms is represented the interest
from the point of view of linguistic research. The present way of occurrence of
new nominative units is the most productive in the given area.
Word-formation is a special area in the languages nomination
. The national
formation is the basis of derivational system of ecological terms. At the
morphological derivation prevails suffixation as a productive method that is
formed common borrowed formants. Derivational processes of ecological terms
occur simultaneously in a way of lexicalization and suffixation.
The second chapter is called «The features of the formation and