The first part of the second chapter is devoted to the «Features of ecological
terms in the languages of different system». One of the most prominent aspects of
the investigation of the ecological terms is the representation of the ecological
terms in discourse with pragma linguistics from the points of view that causes
possibility of promotion of the important conclusions. It is revealed that ecological
terms in the compared languages have the following features: the ecological terms
– means of expression of special concept; the ecological terms has the dual nature:
it is at the same time shown also as language unit, and unit of ecological
knowledge; as a language sign the ecological terms has denotative, significant,
syntagmatic, categorical and grammatical meanings; the ecological terms differs
from other language units in an application circle because it is a basic element of
language of a special purpose; the ecological terms is included into the ordered
relations with other terms within a certain term-system; the system of ecological
terms s is a result of lexicographic characteristics in dictionaries of various types,
its structure corresponds to structure of system of concepts of a certain sphere.
Там же.– С. 62–63.
Буянова Л.Ю. Терминологическая деривация в современном русском языке (метаязыковой аспект) –
The most frequent use of ecological terms in a short form is explained by
influence of the rule of speech economy and convenience of their application in the
In system of ecological terms irrespective of their application in the Russian,
English, Uzbek or Karakalpak languages, the synonymy phenomena are observed:
дissimilation – Russian.
диссимиляция – Uzbek. диссимиляция –
Karakalpak. диссимиляция synonyms – English.
атаболизм – прим.: a comment: splitting of complex organic
substances in an organism.
The most part of ecological terms is made by lexemes with emotional and
expressive way with connotative contents: English environmental sustainability –
Russian stability of environment – Uzbek атроф-муҳит барқарорлиги –
Karakalpak.қоршаған орталықтын турақлылығы, interpretation: "resistance of
environment to influence from the human. In Ecology this term means ability of
biological system of preservation and development of a biodiversity. Water and
marshy grounds and afforestation are an example of biologically steady system".
The second paragraph of chapter 2 is named "History of Emergence of
Ecological terms s in Languages of Various Systems". In formation of the Uzbek
and Karakalpak lexicon taking into account from what languages borrowings are
taken, pertinently to group them as follows: all-Turkic ecological lexicon;
formation of actually Uzbek and Karakalpak lexicon; the borrowed ecological
lexemes; the eco-lexemes accepted from Arab and Persian; Mongolian, Tatar
words; the ecological terms accepted from Russian and through it from other
The all-Turkic lexicon has served as the first and main base, a derivation in
formation of ecological lexical units in Uzbek, Karakalpak and other Turkic
languages. On these languages the basis of the universal model in the nomination
of a relief and species of plants, whether that is model with participation of suffixes
(-a face) – чилик was so far created that wasn't observed in ancient Turkic
language. This word-building model became opening for present Uzbek and
Karakalpak languages according to what under its influence new models and words
are formed: тоғли, тоғалик, пастлик, дўнглик, тоғу – тош, паст баланд. The
main samples of all-Turkic eco-lexicon, first of all, serve the nomination of the
phenomena connected with the sky, space and weather: тоғли, тоғалик, пастлик,
дўнглик, тоғу – тош, паст баланд and others.
In the Karakalpak language this lexical layer is traced in national eposes. For
example: ҳаўа райы, дүт тоғайлық, таўлық таслық, жаўынлы, шөлистан,
нәлше, қудық, булақ, ойпатлық and others.
Because of progress in science and technicians have gradually appeared new
words, such as “қўриқ ерларни ўзлаштириш”, “кимѐлаштириш”. Such words
were necessary for the nomination of the phenomena of that time. Scientific terms,
ecological terms s appear on the basis of regularities and features of development
of the Uzbek or Karakalpak languages. For example: герметиклаштириш
кислоталилик (кислотность), оксидлашиш, хлорлаш,
кристаллашув, фильтрланиш, нурланиш, минераллаштириш, дехлорация,
The opinion that in all languages borrowing of words from the outside is also
suitable for a terminology. "In all languages for expression of new concept or the
ready term from other language is accepted, or the word or the term which are
available in this language is used or the new term is formed", - S. Akobirov
As derivational process borrowing is rather well studied in linguistics.
Russian linguist L.P.Krysin considered as transition of elements from one language
in system of other language as a result of more or less long contacts between these
and Persian with lexemes from Russian and other European languages, difficult
phrases appear: табиат қонунларини ўрганиш, табиат объектлари, табиат
системаси, дунѐ океани, ҳаво бассейни, географик муҳит, табиий ресурслар,
табиий ландшафт, рельеф and others. In Karakalpal табиат қағыйдаларын
уйрениў, табийғый ресурслар, табийғый ландшафт and others.
The Russian and English ecological terms are borrowed by Uzbek and
Karakalpak languages by method of direct tracing: the term “benthos” in Russian
is borrowed from Greek ventos, the English word benthos – is borrowed by Uzbek
and Karakalpak languages as a bentos and means set of the organisms living at the
bottom of reservoirs. One more similar term a biogeocenosis – барқарор ер
similar to structure of vegetation of certain climatic regions.
In derivational system the following borrowings differ:
Literal borrowings: the words transferred to Russian from other language in
the form in which they in their exist at the time of borrowing: English aberrant
Russian аберрант – Uzbek аберрант – Karakalpak аберрант; English
the transformed borrowings: suffix borrowings with replacement of a suffix
In formation and enrichment of ecological terminology in English the special
place belongs to the terms borrowed from the Greek, Latin, German and French
languages. For example: ecology (Greek. oekos – housing, logos – science) –
were included into Russian from English.
Generally Russian ecological terms are enriched from Latin, Greek and
French languages: абиотическая среда (грек. салбий заррача, bioticos –
Акабиров С. Лексикографическая разработка терминологии в двуязычных словарях. Автореф. дисс. ...
Крысин Л.П. Толковый словарь иноязычных слова. – М.: Русс.яз., 1998. –132 с.
The words borrowed by Uzbek and Karakalpak languages without changes
make the vast majority: ботаник, ландшафт, кислота, ассоциация, формация,
биомасса, доминантлик, биотик, антропоген, фитоген, зооген, экологик
The main part of ecological terms in Russian, besides the words borrowed
from the French, German, Latin and Greek languages, is made by terms in the form
of lexemes and combinations of English. Their number makes 260. English is the
language created on the basis of Latin therefore etymologically main part of words
of this language goes back to Latin. The genetic analysis of ecological terms of the
Uzbek and Karakalpak languages has shown that the most part of such terms
(65%) make the words borrowed from other languages.
The chapter 3 of research is called "The derivational characteristic of
ecological terms in the languages of different system". In the first paragraph of
the chapter lexical-derivational features of ecological terms are investigated.
High efficiency of affixes in the sphere of word formation is caused by
essence of the Uzbek and Karakalpak languages, exactly by their agglutinative
features. At the same time for expression of new concepts not only absolutely new
lexemes of language are used, but also the lexemes which have appeared as a result
of addition to the available lexical units of word-formation affixes. The affixes
forming lexemes participate in formation of derivative terms.
In ecological terminology prefixes are very important. Though there little
number of prefixes in Uzbek language, however borrowings from other languages,
for example English and Russian, actively participate in formation of the Uzbek
and Karakalpak ecological terms. It is possible to refer a prefix to category of such
word-formation morphemes as eco-, which in system of ecological terms of all
languages is considered the most active and widespread: экоэкономика,
The prefix which serves economy and restriction of a possibility of a reuse of
the ecological terms. It is borrowed from Greek, therefore it is said in all languages
equally and it is considered as an international prefix. In the English-Russian
ecological dictionary 53 difficult terms and 92 multicomponent terms are recorded.
Words with a term-building affix био-, in this dictionary make 209 units. Greek-
Latin prefixes as транс-, диа-, гидро-, микро-, also belong to the category of such
prefixes, for example: биоэкономика, биометрия, гидробиос.
Conversion in English is the most traditional word-formation method, the
paradigm of semantics of words serves as word-formation means in it: damage –
In formation of eco-lexemes in English the following prefixes are applied.
The prefix of dis- expresses action, which is controversial to the sense of the word.
However the words formed by means of this prefix are translated into the Russian,
Uzbek and Karakalpak languages generally through one or two-component words
and in Uzbek by means of an affix – моқ, - иш, in Karakalpak by means of affixes
– йў, - ыў: Disforest - Russian to fell trees, Uzbek ўрмонни кесмоқ, Karakalpak
тоғайды кесиў; disroot - Russian to eradicate, Uzbek илдизини йўқотиш
,Karakalpak тамырын суўырыў; disarm – Russian, to make a person to leave
prefix of over – corresponds to the Russian prefix a пере –. It in the Uzbek and
Karakalpak languages means устки ҳаракат, йўқотиш, ошиб ўтиш устида
туриш ва ҳаддан зиѐд. In certain cases ecowords in Uzbek and Karakalpak,
formed with this prefix are expressed by a noun and a verb: overpopulation -
Russian to overpopulate, Uzbek - аҳолининг зич жойлашиши, Karakalpak
тығыз жайласыў; overflow - a Russian flood, Uzbek сув тошқини, Karakalpak
суў тасқыны; overwash - рус. To wash everything, Uzbek ювиш, Karakalpak
Anti– is applied in sense against - қарши, қарама қарши – and it is a
productive international prefix: antibiotic, anticyclone, antihelion. We meet this
prefix in the compared languages: antibiotic, anti-cyclone. In the Uzbek and
Karakalpak languages this prefix means қарши, қарсы, and forms terms by an
addition method: antibiotic, anti-cyclone.
In all compared languages the main part of eco terms is formed by suffixes.
English suffixes -er, -age, -ion, -ation, -fication, -ness, -ment, -ty, -ity, -ant
contribute to the formation of ecowords. Suffixes –иш, -ш, -ыў, -иў, -ў in Uzbek
and Karakalpak languages in meaning match Russian –ние, -ные, - ение. They
generally added only to the verb root and form nouns with an abstract sense:
semantic derivational tracings. It is established that some eco terms in English,
Russian, Uzbek and Karakalpak languages can contain multiple affixes.
In every language affix is added to the root on the basis of morphological
rules inherent in precisely this language. From formative point of view, in the
formation of new word, based on the change of its semantics under the influence of
word-formation process and the transition or no transition of the word in a
different part of speech, word formation several different relationships: the
semantics of the word is not changing, membership of a particular part of speech.
There are several derivational relations: the semantics of the word remains the
same, changes only the belonging of a particular part of speech: to liquidate –
ликвидировать – йўқ қилмоқ - жоқ қылыў феъл; liquidation – ликвидация – йўқ
қилиш-жоқ етиў – In Russian and English - a noun, in Uzbek and Karakalpak
language - the name of the action; changes both semantics and part of speech: Eng.
changes but the belonging to a part of speech retains: Eng. to forest – Rus.
Rus. вырубать лес - Karak. ўрмонни кесмоқ- тоғайды кесиў.
In the formation of verbs related to the environment in Uzbek and Karakalpak
languages involved the following suffixes –ла, -моқ, -лаштир,-лаштирмоқ, -ў, -
иў, -ыў, -ластырыў: хлорламоқ -хлорлаў; ифлосламоқ – патаслаў;
минераллаштирмоқ –минералластырыў and etc. Thus, the phenomenon of
lexical derivation constitutes a peculiar system. The formation of the derivational
process and the formation of the terms in this process, the appearance of new
derivatives of the derivative at the subsequent stages suggest that this is a complex
The second part of the third chapter deals with the "Syntactic derivational
features of environmental terms in the languages of different system" and its
features. "Syntactic derivation appears everywhere - from phrases to the text."
RA Budagov, speaking about the essence of syntax, emphasizes the following:
... Outside the semantic categories syntax loses its "spirit" and turns into a dead set
of conventional rules. "
of compounding rules. The order of the use of words and their parts reflects a
certain sense, for example, the use of words тоза and ҳaво in a different order
leads to the appearance of different nature of the content.
Investigation of environmental terms in the languages of various systems
revealed the fact that in their formation may occasionally participate three or four
components: Eng. wild life; water-ratio; urban center; thick fog; plant ecology;
marine life; float wood; droughty zone; derelict land; barren soil; waste land;
Rus. дикий мир; содержание воды; городской центр; густой туман;
karak.жабайы дунья; суў қурамы; қала орайы; қалын думан; өсимликлер
The Uzbek and Karakalpak languages there are three-component ecological
terms: инсониятнинг табиатга таъсири – адамзаттың тәбиятқа тәсири –
воздействие человека на природу; атроф муҳитининг аҳволи - тәбияттын
аўҳалы – состояние природной среды.
Ecological terms, consisting of four words in Russian and Uzbek, in
Karakalpak may consist of three words: табиий муҳитга иқтисодий зиѐн -
тәбиятқа экономикалық зыян – экономический вред природной среде.
Prevailing components of syntactic structures of combinations of ecological
terms with a noun are expressed by noun. When studying the semantic derivation
of collocations it is a matter of importance the relationship of dominance and
submission component. Exactly this aspect determines the highest point of the
Розиқова Г.З. Ўзбек тилида синтаксик полисемия. филол.ф.ном. ...дисс. автореф. – Тошкент, 1999. – 34 Б.
Будагов Р.А. Человек и его язык. – М.: МГУ, 1976. – С.176.
syntactic derivation, because it serves as a means of communication operator of
semantic derivation. Operator - is an absolutely derived element of semantic
In the model adjective + noun in the comparable languages, syntactic
relations of components of ecological collocations based on contiguity way, here
the function of derivative operator is performed by a real manner: abiotic
environment, allogenic succession; абиотический фактор, аллогенная
сукцессия; абиотик фактор, аллоген сукцессия; абиотикалық фактор,
аллоген сукцессиясы. От+от: pollution abatement, waste assimilation, litter bin;
борьба с загрязнением, поглощение отходов, мусорный бачок; ифлосликлар
билан кураш, чиқиндиларнинг ютилиши, аҳлат қутиси; патаслықлар менен
гуресиў, шығындылардын жутылыўы, аҳлат қутысы.
Ecological words together make up the largest part of the ecological
vocabulary in English, Russian, Uzbek and Karakalpak languages. Structurally
they are similar to the syntactic word combinations. In agglutinative languages,
components of ecological term combinations consist primarily of nouns connected
by bond: экологик хавфсизлик – экология қаўипсизлиги- экологическая
formation are more observed as part of eco terms, they are also called non-verbal
abbreviation and substitution (replacement). For example: abbreviations: GMO –
genetic Modified Organisms- генлари ўзгартирилган мавжудотлар; СОЭ –
скорость оседения эритроцитов; БМТ – Бирлашган Миллатлар Ташкилоти
ва б. Новербал субституцияга мисоллар: озон –О
, кислороднинг икки оксиди
, сульфат кислота – Н
Furthermore, now in Uzbek and Karakalpak languages, belonging to the
group of agglutinative languages, especially developed tracing method. Tracing is
performed in accordance with the grammatical rules and word-formation models of
the borrowing language: ўз ўзидан тозалаш – оз озин тазалаў; ўз ўзидан ѐниб
In the languages of different systems there are also complex words which
components can be equal and subordinated in relation to each other. Very often
they are formed by abutting way, which is widespread in English, Uzbek. In these
languages, two-component compound words are greater than three-component. In
some cases, in these words an attributive link can be also traced. This fact indicates
that the components of these words can be associated by matching method. For
example: snowfall – снегопад – қорбўрон -қарборан; durability – долговечность
syntactic derivation is the productive method of eco terms formation in compared
languages. The third part of the third chapter reflects observations about
"Semantic-derivational features ecological terms in the languages of different
systems". Semantic derivation engaged in the interpretation of language units and
derived syntactic structures.
No matter what character is derivation - lexical or syntactic - analysis of the
linguistic material is based on three aspects: а) operand; b) operator; c) derivative
Operand - language material of derivation. Operator - a means leading to the
emergence of derivation. Derivative - provides a derivative of the word, which
appears as a result of derivation. Lexical derivation occurs in one stage: (чи, лик,
Taking into account environmental problems, i.e. that the concepts expressed
by the eco terms are the result of a positive or negative influence of man, we have
analyzed the environmental terms, dividing them into two large lexical-semantic
groups: 1) Ecological units with a positive sense; 2) Ecological units with negative
Ecological vocabulary of the first group, in its turn, divided into the following
micro-groups: verbs, having a positive sense; natural and geographical names;
terms of the world of animals and plants; ecological terms indicating equipment
and facilities; names of workers.
Ecological lexemes of the second group consist of the following micro
groups: verbs with negative content; ecological disasters; names indicating the
types of pollution; eco terms indicating human activity.
Verbs, expressing a positive sense, i.e. verbs denoting a positive attitude of
man to nature. Such words are significantly less than the verbs with negative
meaning. In English, this micro group constitutes 300 lexical units, in Russian 400
lexical units, in Uzbek and Karakalpak languages 700.
The research revealed that in the composition of the ecological vocabulary of
Uzbek and Karakalpak languages words with a negative meaning more than
opposing them ecological words with a positive value: Uzbek: тозаламоқ;
Karakalpak: тазалаў, қорғаў, шеклеў; тәртипсиз ҳалатда таслаў; қазып
Most ecological verbs with positive sense are used in the form of collocations:
Eng. to fight pollution; to preserve ecosystems; to harmonize industry; to preserve
woollands; to reduce pollution; Rus. бороться против загрязнения; беречь
экосистемы; гармонизировать промышленность; сохранять лесистые
места; сократить загрязненность; Uzb. ифлосланишларга қарши кураш;
экотизимларни эҳтиѐт қилиш; саноатни мослаштирмоқ; ўрмонли жойларни
асраб авайлаш; ифлосликларни камайтириш; Karak.: патаслыққларға қарсы
гурес; экосистемаларды абайлап асраў;санаатты масластырыў; тоғайлы
жерлерди асырап абайлаў; патаслықларды кемейтириў. They appear in the
following models: V + N (Verb and Noun); Г + С; О + Ҳ н; А + Ҳ а.
In English, the environmental terms of the negative value constitute 1170
units. In all the compared languages, their number is 1800. These ecological words
are divided into 4 micro groups.
The research revealed that the composition of the ecological vocabulary of
Uzbek and Karakalpak languages, words with a negative value and meaning more
than opposing them ecological words with a positive value: uzb. тозаламоқ;
karakalpak.: тазалаў, қорғаў, шеклеў; тәртипсиз ҳалатда таслаў; қазып
In comparable languages most ecological terms with negative meaning are
simple words. For example, the names of environmental pollutants. Most of the
ecological words with this meaning make up simple words. Eng. acid, fume, dirt,
Semantic derivation is a very efficient and entertaining way of replenishment
vocabulary of the language, in the process there is the transformation of common
words in terms.
The fourth chapter is called «The nominative-derivational characteristics