Учебное пособие состоит из двух частей и англо-русского словаря. Материалом для пособия послужило американское издание для изучающих компьютер P. Norton "Introduction to Computers"



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Programming Languages

      1. Read and translate the text:

Programming is a way of sending instructions to the computer. To create these instructions, programmers use programming languages to create source code, and the source code is then converted into machine (or object) code, the only language that a computer understands. People, however, have difficulty understanding machine code. As a result, first assembly languages and then higher-level languages were developed. Programming languages require that information be provided in a certain order and structure, that symbols be used, and sometimes even that punctuation be used. These rules are called the syntax of the programming language, and they vary a great deal from one language to another.
Categories of Languages.
Based on evolutionary history, programming languages fall into one of the following three broad categories:
Machine Languages. Machine languages consist of the 0s and 1s of the binary number system and are defined by hardware design. A computer understands only its machine language – the commands in its instruction set that instruct the computer to perform elementary operations such as loading, storing, adding, and subtracting.
Assembly Languages. These languages were developed by using English-like mnemonics. Programmers worked in text editors to create their source files. To convert the source files into object code, researchers created translator programs called assemblers. Assembly languages are still much easier to use than machine language.
Higher-Level Languages. These languages use syntax that is close to human language, they use familiar words instead of communicating in digits. To express computer operations, they use operators, such as the plus or minus sign, that are the familiar components of mathematics. As a result, reading, writing, and understanding computer programs is easier.
Machine languages are considered first-generation languages, and assembly languages are considered second-generation languages. The higher-level languages began with the third generation. Third-generation languages (3GLs) can support structured programming, use true English-like phrasing, make it easier for programmers to share in the development of programs. Besides, they are portable, that is, you can put the source code and a compiler or interpreter on practically any computer and create working object code. Some of the third-generation languages include the following: FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C, C++, Java, ActiveX.
Fourth-generation languages (4GLs) use either a text environment, much like a 3GL, or a visual environment. In the text environment, the programmer uses English-like words when generating source code. In a 4GL visual environment, the programmer uses a toolbar to drag and drop various items like buttons, labels, and text boxes to create a visual definition of an application. Many 4GLs are database-aware; that is, you can build programs with a 4GL that work as front end (an interface that hides much of the program from the user) to databases. Programmers can also use 4GLs to develop prototypes of an application quickly. Some of the fourth-generation languages are Visual Basic and Visual Age.
A 5GL would use artificial intelligence to create software based on your description of what the software should do.
Vocabulary:

    1. as a result [qzqri'zAlt] – в результате

    2. assembly language [q'sembli 'lxNgwiG] – язык ассемблера

    3. higher-level language ['haiq'levl'lxgwiG] – язык более высокого уровня, высокоуровневый язык

    4. punctuation [‚pANktju'eiSn] – пунктуация

    5. syntax ['sintxks] – синтаксис, синтакическая структура

    6. to vary ['vFqri] – отличаться

various ['vFqriqs] – различный

    1. a great deal [q'greit di:l] – очень, сильно

    2. evolutionary [‚i:vq'lu:Snqri] – эволюционный

    3. to fall [fLl] (fell, fallen) (into) – распадаться (на ч.-л.)

    4. broad [brLd] – общий, широкий

    5. binary number system ['bainqri 'nAmbq 'sistim] – система двоичных чисел

    6. mnemonics [ni:'moniks]– мнемоника, символика

    7. text editor ['tekst 'editq] – текстовый редактор

    8. researcher [ri'sq:tSq] – исследователь

    9. translator program [trxns'leitq 'prqugrxm] – транслирующая программа

    10. close (to) [klqus] – близкий (чему-л.)

    11. human ['hju:mqn] – человеческий

    12. familiar [fq'miliq] – знакомый

    13. instead (of) [ins'ted] – вместо (ч.-л.)

    14. to communicate [kq'mju:nikeit] – обмениваться информацией

    15. digit ['diGit] – одноразрядное число

    16. plus [plAs] – плюс

    17. minus ['mainqs] – минус

    18. sign [sain] – знак

    19. to consider [kqn'sidq] – считать, рассматривать

    20. generation [‚Genq'reiSn] – поколение

    21. to begin (began, begun) [bi'gin] – начинать

    22. phrasing ['freiziN] – выражение, оборот, синтаксическая конструкция

    23. besides [bi'saidz] – кроме того

    24. portable ['pLtqbl] – машинонезависимый, мобильный, переносимый

    25. that is ['Dxtiz] – то есть

    26. compiler [kqm'pailq] – компилятор, компилирующая программа

    27. interpreter [in'tq:pritq] – интерпретатор, интерпретирующая программа

    28. environment [in'vaiqrqnmqnt] – среда

    29. visual ['vizjuql] – визуальный, зрительный

    30. toolbar ['tu:lbR] – панель инструментов

    31. to drag and drop ['drxgqn'drop] – перетащить

    32. item ['aitqm] – элемент

    33. button ['bAtn] – кнопка

    34. label ['leibl] – метка, ярлык

    35. text box ['tekst boks] – текстовое поле

    36. definition [‚defi'niSn] – определение, описание

    37. aware [q'wFq] – осведомлённый (о ч.-л.)

    38. front end ['frAnt end] – внешний интерфейс

    39. to hide [haid] – скрывать

    40. prototype ['proqutqtaip] – макет, прототип

    41. artificial intelligence [Rti'fiSql in'teliGqns] – искусственный интеллект

    42. description [dis'kripSn] – описание

      1. Answer the questions:

  1. What is programming?

  2. How are instructions created?

  3. What is called the syntax of the programming language?

  4. What are the categories of programming languages?

  5. What is a machine language?

  6. What is the difference between the machine language and the assembly language?

  7. What is a translator program?

  8. Why is programming in higher-level languages easier than in machine and assembly languages?

  9. What languages are considered first- and second-generation?

  10. What are third-generation languages characterized by?

  11. Give the names of third-generation languages.

  12. What types of environment are used with fourth-generation languages?

  13. Give the names of some fourth-generation languages.

  14. What would fifth-generation languages be characterized by?

      1. Tell whether the following statements are true or false:




  1. Assembly-languages and higher-level languages were developed because people have difficulty understanding machine code.

  2. Programming languages require the programmer to follow rules of syntax.

  3. Compilers and interpreters can correct (исправлять) the programmer’s syntax errors when creating object code.

  4. Programming languages are usually grouped by their place in the evolution of programming languages.

  5. Machine languages are the most advanced of all programming languages.

  6. Machine languages and assembly languages are both considered first-generation programming languages.

  7. Assembly languages are based on binary number system.

  8. Third-generation languages use a visual environment.

  9. Third-generation languages are highly portable.

  10. Because they are more complex and sophisticated, fourth-generation languages are considerably more difficult to use than third-generation languages.

  11. One benefit of fourth-generation languages is their ability (способность) to quickly generate prototype applications.

  12. Visual Basic lets programmers create applications only in a text environment.

      1. Fill in the blanks:

  1. Many programming languages follow a set of rules called _____________.

  2. Programming languages fall into _____________, _____________ and ______________.

  3. Machine languages are defined by ____________ design.

  4. A computer understands only its machine language and performs elementary operations such as ____________, ____________, __________ and ____________.

  5. _______________ languages were developed by using English-like mnemonics for commonly used strings (строка) of machine language.

  6. _____________ are used for converting the source files into object code.

  7. The term _____________ means that you can put the source code and a compiler or interpreter on practically any computer and create working object code.

  8. Fourth-generation languages use either a ___________ environment or a ___________ environment.

  9. Examples of fourth-generation languages are ___________ and _________.

  10. A(n) _____________ is an interface to a program that hides much of the program from the user.

      1. Choose the right answer:




  1. To create source code, programmer use

    1. Programming languages c. Compilers

    2. Object code d. Interpreters

  1. A programming language’s syntax rules may require that

    1. Information is provided in a certain order

    2. Symbols are used

    3. Punctuation is used

    4. All the above

  2. Which of the following is not a major category of programming languages?

    1. Machine languages c. Lower-level languages

    2. Assembly languages d. Higher-level languages

  3. Machine languages are defined by

    1. Hardware design c. Compilers

    2. Portability d. Syntax

  4. Which of the following is closest to human language?

    1. Machine languages c. Higher-level languages

    2. Assembly languages d. All are similar to human language

  5. Which of the following is not a category of higher-level languages?

    1. Third-generation languages c. Fifth-generation languages

    2. Fourth-generation languages d. Sixth-generation languages

  6. Which of the following is considered to be a second-generation programming language?

    1. Machine language c. Higher-level language

    2. Assembly language d. None of the above

  7. Which type of language was the first to use true English-style phrasing?

    1. First-generation language c. Third-generation language

    2. Second-generation language d. Fourth-generation language




      1. Match each item to the correct statement below:




    1. Machine language d. Third-generation language

    2. Assembly language e. Fourth-generation language

    3. Higher-level language f. Fifth-generation language




  1. The most basic of languages.

  2. Consists of strings of numbers.

  3. Uses familiar words.



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