Учебное пособие состоит из двух частей и англо-русского словаря. Материалом для пособия послужило американское издание для изучающих компьютер P. Norton "Introduction to Computers"



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  • Text 7
Utilizes (использует) artificial intelligence.

  • Was the first to use English-like mnemonics.

  • Uses a text environment and a visual environment.

  • Developed to make programming easier.

  • Supports structured programming.

  • Visual Basic is an example of it.

  • Translator programs are used with it.

    VII. Speak on the contents of the text using the following chart:





    UNIT 3. Databases


    Text 7

    Databases and Database Management Systems


    I. Read and translate the text:
    A database is a collection of related data or facts arranged in a specific structure. A database management system (DBMS) is a program, or collection of programs, that allows multiple users to store, access, and process data or facts into useful information.
    Three of the most important terms to know about databases are a table, a record, a field. Data is stored in tables. A table is divided into records (unnamed rows), and each record is divided into fields (named columns). The table consists of a set number of fields and an arbitrary number of records. For a record to exist, it must have data in at least one field.
    To help you understand how a database stores data, think about a typical address book. Each piece of information in the address book is stored in its own location, called a field. For example, each entry has a field for First Name and another field for Last Name, as well as fields for Address, City, State, ZIP Code, and Phone Number. Each unique type of information is stored in its own field. One full set of fields – that is, all the related information about one person or object – is called a record. Therefore, all the information for the first person is record 1, all the information for the second person is record 2, and so on.
    A complete collection of records makes a table. Once you have a structure for storing data (whether it is a printed address book, phone book, or electronic table), you can enter and view data, create reports, and perform other tasks with the data. For example, you may create a customer report that lists customers by ZIP Code.
    A DBMS provides tools to perform data management functions: creating tables, sorting tables, entering and editing data, querying the database, viewing data, generating reports.
    Many different DBMS programs are available. Enterprise-level products, such as Oracle, DB2, and Sybase, are designed to manage large special-purpose database systems. Programs such as Microsoft Access, Corel's Paradox, and Lotus Approach are popular among individual and small-business database users.
    Vocabulary:



    1. database ['deitqbeis] – база данных

    2. collection [kq'lekSn] – совокупность

    3. relate [ri'leit] – соотносить

    related [ri'leitid] – зд. cвязанный
    relationship [ri'leiSnSip] – отношение

    1. to arrange [q'reinG] – компоновать, размещать, располагать, упорядочивать

    2. specific [spi'sifik] – заданный, специфический

    3. database management system (DBMS) ['deitqbeis 'mxnqGmqnt 'sistqm] – система управления базой данных (СУБД)

    4. multiple ['mAltipl] – множественный, многочисленный

    5. term [tq:m] – термин

    6. table ['teibl] – таблица

    7. record ['rekLd] – запись

    8. field [fi:ld] – поле

    9. to name [neim] = to call [kLl] – называть

    10. row [rqu] – ряд, строка

    11. column ['kolqm] – колонка, столбец, графа

    12. to set [set] (set, set) – устанавливать

    13. number (of) ['nAmbq] – ряд, число (чего-л.)

    14. arbitrary ['Rbitrqri] – произвольный

    15. to exist [ig'zist] – существовать

    16. at least [qt'li:st] – по крайней мере, не менее

    17. to think [TiNk] (thought, thought) – зд. представлять себе

    18. typical ['tipikl]– типичный, обычный

    19. piece [pi:s] – порция, кусок

    20. own [qun] – собственный

    21. location [lqu'keiSn] – расположение

    22. entry ['entri] – запись, содержимое, введённые данные

    23. as well as [qz 'wel qz] – а также

    24. ZIP Code ['zip kqud] – почтовый индекс

    25. full [fu:l] = complete [kqm'pli:t] – полный

    26. therefore ['DFqfL] – следовательно

    27. once [wAns] – как только

    28. to enter ['entq] – вводить

    29. to view [vju:] – просматривать

    30. to generate ['Genqreit] – создавать, производить

    31. report [ri'pLt] – отчёт, сообщение

    32. customer ['kAstqmq] – клиент, заказчик, покупатель

    33. to sort [sLt] – сортировать, упорядочивать

    34. to edit ['edit] – редактировать

    35. to query ['kwiqri] – делать запрос

    query – запрос

    1. available [q'veilqbl] – доступный, наличный

    2. enterprise ['entqpraiz] - предприятие

    3. level ['levl] – уровень

    4. such as ['sAtS qz] – такие, как

    5. to design [di'zain] – проектировать, конструировать, разрабатывать

    6. special-purpose ['speSql 'pq:pqs] – специализированный

    7. popular ['popjulj] – популярный

    8. among [q'mAN] – среди

    9. individual [‚indi'vidjuql] – отдельный

    II. Answer the following questions:





    1. What is a database?

    2. What is a database management system?

    3. What are the most important terms to know about databases?

    4. Where is data stored in a database?

    5. What is a table? a record? a field?

    6. What type of information is stored in the field?

    7. What data can a field contain?

    8. What functions does a DBMS provide?

    9. What enterprise-level DBMS programs do you know?

    10. What DBMS programs are popular among individual and small-business users?

    III. Tell whether the following statements are true or false:





    1. A database management system is a repository (архив) for collections of related data or facts.

    2. A database is at the heart (в центре) of many types of computer applications.

    3. In a database, each piece of information is stored in its own location, called a directory.

    4. In a database, a record contains all the related information about a single (единственный) person or object.

    5. In a database table, all the records are organized according to the same set of fields.

    6. One full set of fields is called a table.

    7. A database management system allows to view data, create reports and perform other tasks with the data.

    8. DBMS programs are used only by individual users.

    9. In a database, the number of records is set, but the number of fields is arbitrary.

    10. A record must have data in at least one field.

    IV. Fill in the blanks:





      1. The three most important terms to know about databases are ______________, ______________, and ______________.

      2. The table ___________ a set number of fields and an arbitrary number of records.

      3. In a database, each unique type of information is stored in its own _____________.

      4. All the __________ information about one person or object is called a record.

      5. For a database record to exist, it must have data in at least one ___________.

      6. The DBMS __________ the user with data and the tools to work with the data.

      7. A DBMS provides tools to ________ tables, ________, ________ data, _______ the database, _______ reports.

      8. A database management system _________ multiple users to store, access, and process data or facts into useful information.

    V. Choose the right answer:



    1. A tool that allows users to store, access, and process data is called

      1. Database c. Form

      2. Database management system d. Query

    2. A database is a collection of related facts arranged in a specific

      1. Database management system c. Field

      2. Structure d. Application

    1. In a database, names such as “Last name” and “Address” may be given to the

      1. Records c. Fields

      2. Files d. DBMS

    2. A database table is a collection of

      1. Records c. Rows

      2. Fields d. Columns

    3. In a database table, fields are stored as

      1. Columns c. Reports

      2. Rows d. None of the above

    4. Each object’s record contains (содержит) a limited number of

      1. Data c. Fields

      2. Tables d. Characters

    VI. Match each item to the correct statement below:



      1. Database d. Field

      2. Record e. Table

      3. Database management system

    1. A data repository.

    2. A software tool.

    3. Helps users process data into information.

    4. At the heart of many types of applications.

    5. A complete collection of records.

    6. All the related information about one thing.

    7. Each piece of information is stored in one.

    8. The database has arbitrary number of them.

    9. Can store any number of records.

    10. The database has a set number of them.




        1. Speak on the contents of the text using the following chart:




    Text 8


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