The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is an organized method for building an information system. The SDLC includes five phases: needs analysis, systems design, development, implementation, and maintenance.
During the needs analysis phase, the development team focuses on completing three tasks: (1) defining the problem and whether to proceed, (2) analyzing the current system and developing possible solutions to the problem, and (3) selecting the best solution and defining its function.
During the systems design phase, the project team decides how the selected solution will work; each system activity is defined.
During the development phase, programmers play the key role: creating or customizing the software for the various parts of the system. There are two alternative paths through this phase: the acquisition path or the development path. The project team may decide to buy and then customize some components for an information system or develop the needed components themselves. Technical and user documentation is written during the development phase. Testing is also an integral part of this phase.
In the implementation phase, the hardware and software are installed in the user environment. The process of moving from an old system to a new one is called conversion. The project team may follow four different conversion methods: direct, parallel, phased, and pilot.
During the maintenance phase, IS professionals provide ongoing training and support to the system's users. Fixes or improvements are made regularly throughout the remaining life of the system.
8. office automation system ['ofis ‚Ltq'meiSn 'sistqm] – система автоматизации учрежденческой деятельности; учрежденческая автоматизированная система
9. transaction processing system [trxn'zxkSn prqu'sesiN 'sistqm] – система обработки транзакций
10. management information system ['mxniGmqnt ‚infq'meiSn 'sistqm] – управленческая информационная система, информационно-управляющая система (ИУС)
decision support system [di'siZn sq'pLt 'sistqm] – система поддержки принятия решений (СППР)
expert system ['ekspq:t 'sistqm] – экспертная система
to remain [ri'mein] – оставаться
Answer the questions:
1. What is an information system?
2. What are the three basic components of an information system?
3. What is an example of a manual information system?
4. What types do information systems fall into?
5. What are the tasks of office automation systems?
6. What is the role of transaction processing systems?
7. What is the purpose of management information systems?
8. What is a decision support system?
9. What role do expert systems play?
10. What kind of specialists does an Information Systems department include?
11. What tasks do they perform?
12. What is the systems development life cycle?
13. What tasks does the development team perform during the needs analysis phase?
14. What is the systems design phase?
15. Why is the development phase the most important one?
16. What are two alternative paths through this phase?
17. What are the tasks of the implementation phase?
18. What does the term “conversion” mean? What are its types?
19. What is the last phase of the SDLC?
III. Tell whether the following statements are true or false:
An information system helps people collect and use information.
Information systems do nothing more than store and retrieve data.
There is only one type of a computerized information system.
An office automation system is designed to help users handle information-related tasks more efficiently.
A well-designed transaction processing system helps the users track every part of a transaction, from the moment it begins until its completion.
Decision support systems are used to process business transactions.
A management information system can produce reports that are useful to different types of managers in an organization.
Expert systems are based on a large collection of human expertise in a specific area.
In large organizations the IS department may include hundreds or even thousands of workers.
The systems development life cycle is composed of six phases.
The systems development life cycle is so called because it covers the entire life of an information system.
The needs analysis phase begins when a solution is identified for a new or modified information system.
Programmers play the key role in the development phase of the systems development life cycle.
Programmers have the option of developing softwarefrom scratch(на пустом месте) or acquiring (приобрести) existing software and modifying it as needed.
Testing typically begins during the last phase of the SDLC.
In the implementation phase the system is installed in the user environment.
After a new information system has been implemented changes can be made during the maintenance phase of the SDLC.
Fill in the blanks:
A(n) _____________ system uses computers to carry out various operations, such as word processing, accounting, document management or communications.
Decision support systems generate specific _____________ that managers can use in making mission-critical (важные для решения задач) decisions.
The IS department is responsible for generating the _____________ that a business needs to run effectively and efficiently.
The ______________ is an organized method for building an information system.
During the _____________ phase of the SDLC the project team tackles the “how” of the selected solution.
During the development phase developers may ___________ some components and ____________ others.
The four conversion methods commonly used in information system implementation are called __________, __________, __________ and __________.
The final phase of the SDLC is called the __________ phase.
Choose the right answer:
Modern information systems feature tools that enable users to
Sort information c. Analyze information
Categorize information d. All the above
Office automation systems are used to perform operations, such as
Transaction processing c. Decision making
Word processing d. Developing a course of action
To collect and report certain types of business data which can aid managers in the decision-making process companies typically use
Transaction processing system c. Management information system
Expert system d. Decision support systems
In many companies computerized information systems are created and managed by a(n)
Information Systems department c. Expert Systems department
Decision Support department d. Nobody
The acronym SDLC stands for
a. Systems development life cycle
b. System design local creation
c. Systematic development of logical constructs
d. None of the above