Учебное пособие состоит из двух частей и англо-русского словаря. Материалом для пособия послужило американское издание для изучающих компьютер P. Norton "Introduction to Computers"



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UNIT 2. Programming

Text 4
Creating Computer Programs


I. Read and translate the text:


A computer program is a set of commands that tell the CPU what to do. Software may contain only an executable program file, or it may have several other supporting files such as dynamic link libraries, initialization files, and help files.


An executable file (EXE) is the part of a program that sends commands to the processor that executes the commands in the file. In fact, when you run a program, you are running the executable file. A dynamic link library (DLL) is a partial EXE file, it contains a part of an executable program and does not run on its own; its commands are accessed by another running program. These files allow programmers to break large programs into small components; it makes the entire program easier to upgrade. DLL files can also be shared by several programs at one time. This feature makes them efficient for program storage. An initialization file (INI) contains configuration information, such as the size and starting point of a window, the color of the background, the user's name, and so on. Initialization files help programs start running or contain information that programs can use as they run. Although initializing files are still in use, many newer programs now store user preferences and other program variables in the Windows Registry. By including a help file (HLP), programmers can provide the user with PC-based help.
To create a program, using a programming language a programmer creates source code, which is compiled or interpreted to create object code that the computer can understand. Object code, also known as machine code, is the binary language file that tells the CPU what to do.
When you launch a program, the computer begins reading and carrying out its statements. The order in which program statements are executed is called program flow control. When mapping a program, a programmer creates a flowchart. The steps represented in a flowchart are called an algorithm and usually lead to some desired result.
To perform certain tasks, the actual programming process uses variables and functions. Variables are placeholders for data being processed (e.g. variable Age). Functions, or mini-algorithms, are discrete sets of code used to perform one task like finding the square root of a number or the average of a set of numbers.

Vocabulary:





  1. to create [kri:'eit] – создавать

  2. to tell [tel] (told, told) – сообщать

  3. several ['sevqrql] – несколько

  4. other ['ADq] – другой

  5. to support [sq'pLt] – поддерживать

  6. executable file (EXE) ['eksikju:tqbl fail] – исполняемый файл

  7. to send [send] (sent, sent) – отправлять, посылать

  8. in fact [in'fxkt] – фактически

  9. dynamic link library [dai'nxmik liNk 'laibrqri] – динамически подключаемая библиотека

  10. on one’s own [on wAnz 'qun]– самостоятельно

  11. easy ['i:zi] – лёгкий

  12. to upgrade ['Ap'greid] – модернизировать, усовершенствовать

  13. feature ['fi:tSq] – особенность, признак, свойство

  14. efficient [i'fiSqnt] – эффективный

  15. storage ['stLriG] – хранение, запоминание

  16. initialization file (INI) [i‚niSqli'zeiSn fail] – файл инициализации

  17. size [saiz] – размер

18. to start [stRt] – начинать
starting point ['stRtiN point] – начальная точка, начальный пункт

  1. window ['windqu] – окно

  2. color ['kAlq] – цвет

  3. background ['bxkgraund] – фон

  4. and so on [qnd squ 'on] – и тому подобное

  5. still [stil] – всё ещё, пока

  6. preference ['prefqrqns] – предпочтение

  7. variable ['vFqriqbl] – переменная

  8. Windows Registry ['windquz 'reGistri] – системный реестр, файл системного реестра

  9. help file ['help fail] – файл справок

  10. to base [beis] – основывать

  11. programming language ['prqugrxmiN 'lxNgwiG] – язык программирования

  1. source code ['sLs kqud] – исходный код, исходный текст (программы)

  1. to compile [kqm'pail] – компилировать, транслировать

  2. to interpret [in'tq:prit] – переводить

  3. object code ['obGikt kqud] – объектный код, объектная программа

  4. to understand [‚Andq'stxnd] (understood, understood) – понимать

  5. binary ['bainqri] – двоичный

  6. to launch [lLntS] – запускать

  7. statement ['steitmqnt] – утверждение, высказывание

  8. flow control [flqu kqn'trqul] – управление ходом программы

  9. to map [mxp] – наносить на карту, составлять карту или схему, отображать в виде карты

  10. flowchart ['flqutSRt] – блок-схема

  11. to represent [‚repri'zent] – представлять

  12. to lead [li:d] (led, led) (to) – приводить (к)

  13. desired [di'zaiqd] – желаемый

  14. actual ['xktjuql] – фактический

  15. placeholder ['pleis'hquldq] – метка-заполнитель

  16. age [eiG]– возраст

  17. discrete [dis'kri:t] – дискретный

  18. to find [faind] (found, found) – находить

  19. square root ['skwFq ru:t] – квадратный корень

  20. average ['xvqriG] – средний

II. Answer the questions:

  1. What is a computer program?

  2. What types of files can a program contain?

  3. What is an executable file?

  4. What is a dynamic link library?

  5. What feature makes DLL files efficient for program storage?

  6. What information do initialization files contain?

  7. What information is stored in the Windows Registry?

  8. What is the purpose of help files?

  9. What tasks does a programmer perform to create a program?

  10. What is a machine code?

  11. What is called program flow control?

  12. What does a programmer create when mapping a program?

  13. What is an algorithm?

  14. What is called a variable? a function?

III. Tell whether the following statements are true or false:

  1. A computer program is a set of instructions or statements that is carried out by the computer’s RAM.

  2. Software may contain not only an executable program file, but also have several other supporting files.

  3. An executable file provides the user with PC-based help.

  4. A DLL is a complete, fully functioning executable program file.

  5. DLL files can also be shared by several programs at one time.

  6. A help file contains information about the size and starting point of a window, the color of the background, the user's name.

  7. Programmers use tools that convert their human-language instructions into codes that computers can understand.

  8. Using a flowchart, you can depict (изобразить) any step-by-step process, regardless of (независимо от) the desired result.

  9. The steps in a flowchart represent an algorithm.

  10. When writing a program, the programmer’s first step is to create a source code.

  11. Although it is possible for programmers to write programs in machine code, it is more practical to use special tools called programming languages, to write programs.

  12. Programming process can use variables and functions.

IV. Fill in the blanks:

  1. When you run a program, you are running its ________ file.

  2. A (an) _____________ file is a partial EXE file.

  3. ________ files can help the programs start running or contain information that programs can use as they run.

  4. By including a help file (HLP), programmers can provide the user with ______________.

  5. When mapping a program, a programmer creates a (an) _______.

  6. ________ also known as machine code, is the binary language file that tells the CPU what to do.



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