A covalent bond is formed by the sharing of electrons between non- metals to achieve state electronic configuration.
There are two types of covalent moelcules. Simple molecules, and giant molecules. In this section, we will be looking at simple molecules.
Оқушыларға видеоролик көрсету.
Оқушыларға электртерістілікті түсіндіру:
Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself. An atom's electronegativity is affected by both its atomic number and the distance at which its valence electrons reside from the charged nucleus. The higher the associated electronegativity number, the more an element or compound attracts electrons towards it.
оқушылар (f) оларды біртіңдеп күрделендіре отырып, өз мысалдарын келтіреді
Draw dot-and- cross diagrams for the following:
The topic and objectives of the new lesson are presented.
Switch to electron coupling: Explain how it affects the stability of the outer layer, but does not affect the charge compartment.
Explain how to use the "dots and crosses" diagram to show a covalent bond
Students write down new terms they have encountered throughout the lesson in a dictionary.
Students will also be given a small whiteboard. Students are given the formulas of 4 chemical compounds in turn. Students' answers should be presented in the form of a diagram of "dots and crosses".
During this task, the teacher marks the students who were able to correctly draw a diagram of "dots and crosses" for all the given connections, and the students who completed the task only partially.
The task is for 10 minutes.
The task is assessed directly during the lesson. The teacher tabulates the results in the form of a table, opposite the names of the students, for each connection, who did the task faster, and who did it later, and who failed to complete the task.
At the end of the training, the teacher further identifies students who have not achieved the goal set for the development of individual trajectories of students.
Ionic crystals are formed as a result of electrostatic action of charged ions of the same name. The ionic model of a crystal is formed by the fact that each ion is surrounded by charged ions of the same name under maximum conditions.
For AB-containing crystals, the ratio of the ionic radius is the coordination number of ions. Ionic crystal lattice is formed by salts and alkalis.
Due to the strength of the ionic bond, the melting point of ionic crystal lattice substances is high and solid.
Cesium chloride contains eight Cl- (Cs +) ions around Cs + (Cl-) ions in CsCl crystals and in the crystal lattice.