По дисциплине “Информационно-коммуникационные технологии (на англ. языке)”
Презентация на тему “Evolution of operating systems.”
Выполнил: Омарбеков Тамерлан
First operating system
The first operating system for computers was GM-HAA. It was created in 1955 by Robert Patrick of General Motors and Owen Mock of North American Aviation. It was based on system monitors and ran exclusively on large machines. The main function of the GM-HAA is to automatically execute a new program when the old program has ended.
Mainframe operating systems
A mainframe is a high-performance computer that is designed to process a lot of data and store a lot of data, as well as having a large amount of memory. The first mainframe was created by IBM in 1964, which was called the IBM System / 360.
Mainframes occupied entire halls as large general-purpose machines in large enterprise data centers that are still found today. Such computers differ from personal computers in terms of input-output data. Mainframes are used as powerful web servers, servers for large online stores, and servers for intercompany transactions.
Mainframe operating systems are primarily focused on processing many jobs at the same time, most of which require enormous amounts of I/O data. There are three types of operating systems:
• Batch processing
• Time sharing and multitasking
• Separation of powers
A batch processing operating system is a system in which user jobs are submitted for processing in sequential batches to input devices and in which there is no interaction between the user and his job during processing. Batch mode uses the maximum load of the computer's peripheral equipment.
Time sharing and multitasking
Working in time-sharing mode allows many remote users to simultaneously run their tasks on the computer, such as queries against a large database. All these functions are closely related to each other, and often the operating systems of universal machines perform them in combination. An example of a general purpose machine operating system is OS/390, the successor to OS/360. However, these operating systems are being phased out by variants of the UNIX operating system such as Linux.
Separation of powers
The development of multi-user systems required solutions to the problem associated with the separation of powers, while avoiding changes to the program itself. The implementation of separation of powers in operating systems was supported by processor developers, who proposed architectures with two modes of processor operation - “real” (in which the entire address space of the computer is available to the executable program) and “protected” (in which the availability of the address space is limited to the range allocated when the program is launched for execution).
The evolution of operating systems
First period (1945-1955)
Progress in the creation of digital computers occurred after the end of the Second World War. In the mid-forties, the first tube computing devices were created. At the same time, the design and programming of a computer was taking place. It was a research work in the field of solving various kinds of practical problems from other applied areas. Programming at that time was carried out exclusively in machine language. Due to the lack of operating systems at that time, all tasks were solved manually by a programmer from a special control panel. There was no system software other than math and utility libraries.
Second period (1955-1965)
Since the mid-50s, a new period in the development of computer technology began, associated with the emergence of a new technical base - semiconductor elements. Second generation computers have become more reliable. They were able to work uninterruptedly long enough to be given very important tasks. It was during this period that the division of personnel into programmers and operators, operators and developers of computers took place.
During these years, the first algorithmic languages and the first system programs appeared - compilers. The cost of processor time has increased, which required a reduction in unproductive time spent between program launches. The first batch processing systems appeared that simply automated the launch of one program after another and thereby increased the processor utilization. Batch processing systems were the prototype of modern operating systems. During the implementation of batch processing systems, a formalized job control language was developed, with the help of which the programmer told the system and the operator what work he wanted to do on the computer. A set of several tasks, usually in the form of a deck of punched cards, is called a task package.
Third period (1965 - 1980)
The third important period in the development of computers refers to the years 1965-1980.
At this time, in the technical base there was a transition from individual semiconductor elements such as transistors to integrated circuits, which gave much greater opportunities to the new, third generation of computers.
This period is also characterized by the creation of families of software-compatible machines. The first family of software-compatible machines built on integrated circuits was the IBM/360 series of machines. Built in the early 60s, this family was significantly superior to the second generation machines in terms of price / performance. Soon the idea of software-compatible machines became generally accepted.
The software required operating system compatibility. Such operating systems had to work on both large and small computing systems, with a large and with a small number of diverse peripherals, in the commercial field and in the field of scientific research. Operating systems built with the intention of satisfying all these conflicting requirements have proven to be extremely complex in their structure. They consisted of many millions of lines of assembly, written by thousands of programmers, and contained thousands of bugs, causing an endless stream of fixes. Each new version of the operating system fixed some bugs and introduced others.
Despite its enormous size and many problems, OS/360 and other third-generation machine operating systems like it did satisfy most consumer requirements. The most important achievement of operating systems of this generation was the implementation of multiprogramming. Multiprogramming is a method of organizing a computational process in which several programs are alternately executed on the same processor. While one program is performing an I/O operation, the processor is not idle, as it was when programs were executed sequentially (single-program mode), but is executing another program (multi-program mode). In this case, each program is loaded into its own section of RAM, called a partition.
There was one more innovation - spooling (spooling). Spooling at that time was defined as a method of organizing a computing process, in accordance with which tasks were read from punched cards to disk at the pace at which they appeared in the computer center, and then, when the next task was completed, a new task from the disk was loaded into the freed partition . Along with the multiprogram implementation of batch processing systems, a new type of operating systems appeared - time-sharing systems.
Fourth period (1980 - present)
The fourth period in the evolution of operating systems is associated with the advent of large integrated circuits (LSI). During these years, there was a sharp increase in the degree of integration and a reduction in the cost of microcircuits. The computer became available to everyone, and the era of personal computers. From the point of view of architecture, personal computers were no different from the class of minicomputers such as PDP-11, but their price was significantly different. If the minicomputer made it possible for a department of an enterprise or a university to have its own computer, then the personal computer made it possible for every person.
Computers became widely used by ordinary people, which required the development of "friendly" software.
The operating system market was dominated by two systems: MS-DOS and UNIX. The MS-DOS single-program, single-user operating system was widely used for computers based on the Intel 8088 microprocessor, and then the 80286, 80386, and 80486 microprocessors. .
In the mid-80s, networks of personal computers running under network or distributed operating systems began to develop rapidly.
In network operating systems, users must be aware of the presence of other computers and must log on to another computer in order to use its resources, primarily files. Each machine on the network runs its own local operating system, which differs from the OS of a standalone computer in that it has additional features that allow the computer to operate on the network. A network OS has no fundamental differences from the OS of a uniprocessor computer. It necessarily contains software support for network interface devices (network adapter driver), as well as tools for remote login to other computers on the network and tools for accessing remote files, but these additions do not significantly change the structure of the operating system itself.
Common operating systems
The first version of Windows came out in 1985, going completely unnoticed. The version of Windows 3.0, released in 1992, managed to gain great popularity. Two years after that, versions 3.1 and 3.11 appeared (the latter included such a significant element as full multimedia support and work on a local network - that's why it was called Windows For Workgroups). Windows was installed on top of the OS already on the computer - DOS - and only expanded its capabilities. In fact, it was only a graphical shell, setting up the MS-DOS set installed on the computer.
Multitasking appeared - although the number of simultaneously running applications was limited to two or three, a small amount of RAM no longer allowed to run. The 640 kB barrier was gone, and the computer was able to use all the RAM installed on it.
Windows was notable for its rare instability, frequent “freezes” and a large number of errors. This was due to the fact that programs in Windows had to live in a common space where the division of RAM and processor power took place.
Windows NT 32-bit, first released in 1993 and last in 1998, was built from the ground up to be an ultra-stable, reliable system that was built to work first and foremost.
At the end of 1997 Microsoft has distributed pre-production copies of Windows 98 to hundreds of thousands of beta testers.
In 1999 Win2000 was released. The new OS was supposed to become the standard not only for the "corporate" market, but also to settle down on home PCs. However, the high demands on computer resources pushed some home users away from the new OS. It was these shortcomings, as well as the fact that support for the "game mode" in Windows 2000, even after tweaks and improvements, was far from ideal, forced Microsoft to abandon the idea of making Windows 2000 "a single, universal operating system."
Win XP appeared in the summer of 2001. It was a line of OS "corporate" OS Windows XP Server and Windows XP Professional and "home" Windows XP Home.
On January 30, 2007, the new WINDOWS VISTA OS appeared. Since its release, the Vista operating system has been constantly criticized. Windows Vista aims to be a technology release, providing a solid foundation to enable technologies, many of which will be related to system features not immediately visible to the user.
Windows 7 is a new operating system from Microsoft that replaced Windows XP and Windows Vista and was released on October 22, 2009. Official development of Windows 7 began immediately after the release of Windows Vista in late 2006, but some of the ideas were laid down in the Longhorn project, which began in 2001, after the release of the Windows XP operating system. Initially, Longhorn was planned to implement a whole range of fundamental innovations, but over the three years of work on this project, the developers did not manage to create a full-fledged working system. Longhorn's release dates were constantly pushed back, and drastic measures had to be taken to save the project.
In mid-2004, Microsoft decided to start the development of the Longhorn operating system again, excluding some important features from it. The result of this work was the release in early 2007 of the Windows Vista operating system. This system has received a mixed assessment of experts and users. In the two years after the release of Windows Vista, only a small part of users switched to it, and the time-tested Windows XP remained the most popular.
Mobile operating systems
Currently, the interest of users is attracted by smartphones on various operating systems: Windows Phone, Boda, IOS. The most popular of them are iOS and Android.
IOS is a mobile operating system based on the Linux kernel and developed and released by the American company Apple. It was originally released in 2007 for the iPhone and iPod Touch. It is currently installed on all Apple devices. Innovations such as the Safari mobile browser, visual voice mail, and a virtual keyboard have made IOS one of the most popular systems for smartphones.
Android is the most dynamically developing system, designed for smartphones (originally for communicators). It is a simplified version of similar Windows and Linux systems used on desktop PCs and laptops, focused on the touchscreen. The Android platform consists of an operating system, an interface, interfacing software, and powerful applications.
Chrome OS is positioned as an operating system for devices ranging from small netbooks to full-size desktops and supports X86 and ARM processor architectures.
The new Google Chrome OS is open source, based on an optimized Linux kernel, and powered by the Chrome browser. The main feature will be the dominance of web applications over the usual functions of the OS. The browser plays a key role in this.
The strategy of creating a new product implies an architecture that is undemanding to the hardware resources of a personal computer used to access the Internet.
All applications that the system launches are web services. In fact, all the activities that take place on the computer are performed on the Internet - there is no need to install any offline applications. In this regard, working in Chrome OS does not require the computer to have powerful resources, all processes are launched not on the computer itself, but on the servers of the corresponding services.