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ВЕРМИКУЛЬТИВИРОВАНИЕ КАК ПУТЬ РЕШЕНИЯ

НЕКОТОРЫХ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ПРОБЛЕМ


вермикультура, черви, Eisenia foetida, экологические проблемы, загрязнение. Обсуждаются вопросы, связанные с утилизацией органических отходов с применением
«живых» объектов червей Eisenia foetida. Описываются положительные и ряд отрицательных аспектов вермикультивирования. Приводятся результаты собственных исследований выращивания червей на различных органических субстратах.


THE VERMICULTURE AS SOLUTION OF SOME ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS


vermiculture, worms, Eisenia foetida, environmental problems, pollution.


The questions connected with utilization of organic waste with application of earthworms of Eisenia foetida are discussed. Are described positive and a number of negative aspects of vermiculture. Results of own researches of cultivation of worms on various organic substrata are given.

Many modern environmental problems arise due to the local accumulation of organic waste, the amount of which is too large for the natural potential of biodegradation. In particularly large volumes, the accumulation of organic matter comes from livestock and poultry complexes. Therefore, the disposal of these wastes becomes an urgent and urgent task. For this purpose, farms use specialized composting sites, which are concrete pits with inclined walls [3]. It is in them that manure is brought from livestock complexes. This method of disposal (composting) requires quite a long time. In addition, when composting in manure, pathogenic microflora, weed seeds remain in significant quantities, which later fall on farmland. Solving the problems associated with the biological disposal of locally accumulated organic waste, with the optimization of the activities of agrobiogeocenoses, requires new approaches based on an in-depth study of the ecological mechanisms of ecosystem functioning.


Recently, along with composting, the vermiculture method has been actively used. Vermicultivation is the breeding of dung worms, or a California hybrid, Eisenia foetida. It is one of the promising ways of recycling organic waste. Worms, which accelerate the decomposition of organic matter many times, make it possible to turn various kinds of organic waste into valuable fertilizer in a relatively short time in an absolutely environmentally friendly way.
Numerous studies in recent years, both in the field of earthworm ecology and vermicultivation technology, have proved that the influence of earthworms on the substrate is not limited only to structuring the soil and improving its water-air properties, due to the locomotor activity of worms. Earthworms, in fact, are unique "bioreactors" that accelerate the course of biochemical processes of organic matter transformation by hundreds and thousands of times. Worms, as a result of their vital activity, release a significant amount of enzymes, vitamins and other biologically active substances into the environment. In addition, by passing an organic substrate through the digestive tract, worms carry out a kind of selective selection of microorganisms, suppressing some species and, on the contrary, stimulating the reproduction of others. As a result, the composition of vermiculture (vermiculture product) produced by worms changes dramatically compared to the original substrate. There is evidence [6] that pathogenic fauna and weed seeds are destroyed by 95-100% in vermicompost after the substrate passes through the intestine. The products of manure processing by earthworms have a number of agronomically valuable properties that make it possible to successfully use vermicompost in agriculture: homogeneity, high water retention capacity, enrichment with beneficial microorganisms and worm waste products [1, 4, 5].
Cow manure was used in our research. According to the literature data [6], he must be at least 6 months old. It is during this time that the initial composting of manure takes place. As the main component of the mixture, garden soil was used, previously cleared of roots, stones, and "wild" earthworms. The mixture consisted of earth/manure in volume ratios: 100/0 (control), 80/20, 50/50 and 20/80. The first cocoons were found in a mixture of 50/50 and 20/80 on the 22nd day of the experiment. When studying the mixtures, it turned out that the worms adhere to the surface layers and clearly gravitate to feed (manure). During the experiment, it was visually possible to observe significant changes occurring with the structure of the soil. It became more and more homogeneous in contrast to the original rough-lumpy structure. This was especially evident in the last two variants (50/50 and 20/80).
114 days after the start, the experiment was completed. As can be seen from the figure, the most optimal substrate for growing worms was the ratio of land/manure 20/80.
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80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
коконы особи биомасса

Рис. 1. Соотношение числа коконов, особей и общей биомассы навозных червей при выращивании на субстрате с разным соотношением земли/навоза. 1 – 100/0 (контроль), 2 – 80/20, 3 – 50/50, 4 – 20/80.


At the end of the experiment, the number of cocoons in this variant exceeded the control by 79 times, and individuals by 19 times. There were practically no cocoons in the control, which is probably due to very unfavorable feeding conditions (garden land contains little organic matter). On the other hand, in the 4th variant there is a very large number of cocoons, which indicates the successful reproduction of the hybrid. The fact that the immature group made up the majority of the total number of individuals speaks in favor of this. There was a very small number of immature individuals in the control, and the sexually mature part of the population prevailed. In the other variants, the studied indicators had average values.


A characteristic feature of vermicultivation is the possibility of processing a fairly wide range of organic waste by a California hybrid: manure of all types of animals, bird droppings, sewage sludge, household waste, waste from agricultural and processing industries. Thus, we [7,6] have developed methods for the production of vermicultivation (vermicultivation), including the preparation of the substrate by mixing components: beet pulp, defecate, earth and fillers (straw). Thus, the technology was proposed,
"removing" a number of problems of sugar production waste. At the same time, the cultivated plants felt quite well on the resulting vermicompost.
In the system of measures aimed at reducing environmental pollution, vermicomposting of organic waste can play an important role, since compost from potentially hazardous ones can be used in agriculture if environmental safety measures are observed. OSV and BO can be contaminated with heavy metals (TM), phenyls and other substances toxic to living organisms. Analyzing numerous data, it was concluded that there is no danger of TM contamination for worms and contamination of TM sediments is not an obstacle to their use as transformer organisms of these wastes. Worms can accumulate TM in their

body, but the content of TM in the soil does not decrease, because the microbiota that releases metals intensifies. On the other hand, according to Serpukhov scientists, the dung worm is able to accumulate radioactive isotopes, as a result of which their content in the surrounding soil drops several times. This ability to accumulate can be used on lands contaminated with radioactive waste. At the same time, the worms are collected and vitrified, then delivered to special storages.


A number of countries have accumulated experience in the disposal of sewage sludge with the help of earthworms. It has a semi-reproducible character. The use of worms makes it possible to simplify the technology of sludge processing, which is characterized by complexity and the use of a large number of chemical reagents. Therefore, the use of vermicomposting is promising for processing precipitation accumulating at small water treatment plants. The situation with BO is somewhat more complicated. It is required to sort them, grind the isolated organic fraction, and keep it in burts for a certain time. But these problems can also be solved. As we noted above, organic raw materials suitable for vermicomposting may contain a certain amount of xenobiotics. Such vermicompost can be used for growing only industrial crops, flowers and ornamental plants, for landscaping environmentally hazardous areas.
Thus, the method of vermicomposting has a number of advantages: worm-infested waste quickly ceases to emit unpleasant odors; when vermicomposting accelerates the process of decomposition and mineralization of organic matter; when using household garbage as raw materials, the yield of compost increases; the volume of waste decreases; deeper disinfection of compost occurs; vermicompost contains a significantly larger number of mobile forms of plant nutrition elements; during vermicultivation , the acidity of the medium decreases; the humification coefficient increases by 1.5 -2.5 times; there is a significant decrease in the content of gross forms of heavy metals during their vermicomposting.
One of the main problems faced by the vermicomposting process is the high cost of manual labor, since the process is poorly mechanized. However, positive aspects can be found in this, if we keep in mind that employees are attracted to work on vermicultivation farms, i.e. the number of jobs increases.
Literature

1. Bityutsky N.P., Lukina E.I., Patsevich V.G. et al. The influence of worms on the transformation of organic substrates and soil nutrition of plants // Soil Science. - 1998. – No. 3. – pp. 309-315.


2. Igonin A.M. Earthworms. – Kovrov, 2002. – 192 p.
3. Melnik I.A., Karpets I.P. Vermiculture and its product biohumus // Chemization of agriculture. – 1990. – No. 10. – pp. 14-17.
4. Okhotnikov S.I. Adaptive abilities of Eisenia foetida worms to substrates from bird droppings during its disposal. Author's thesis. cand. diss. – Yoshkar-Ola, 1999. – 18 p.
5. Striganova B.R., Kozlovskaya L.S., Kudryashova I.V. Nutritional activity of earthworms and amino acid content in dark gray forest soil // Soil science. – 1989. – No. 5. – pp. 44-51.
6. Tereshchenko P.V. Vermiculture and biohumus. – Pushchino, 2000. – 51 p.
7. Ruchin A.B., Revin V.V. Method of obtaining vermicompost. – Pat. No. 2339601 dated 11/27/2008.
8. Ruchin A.B., Revin V.V., Ivanov A.Yu. Method of obtaining vermicompost. – Pat. No. 2255077 of 27.06.2005.

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