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"RESTORATION OF A SILK WAY FROM CHINA TO UZBEKISTAN". Sattarov M. N. Associate professor of the Tashkent Financial institution
Great Silk Road – concept which usually belongs to the road on which there was a trade, migration of
people and development mankind. The person moving on the Silk way I expanded the potential knowledge,
experience, culture and I reached the highest level of development. Having passed from the East to the west on
the Silk way nomads aspired to a settled way of life. Built settlements, the cities, the civilization centers,
created the states and empires.
Materials of this popular scientific book form a fundamental basis for acceptance of important historical
conclusions, includes actual problems of migration of the people, ethnogenesis of different tribes, history of
the ancient cities and early statehood, cultural ties of the people of Central Asia.
Materials of the book can be used in creation of a modern history of Uzbekistan as affects development
of modern economy and their relation to historical and cultural heritage in the countries of Eurasia.
Value of this book and its subject contents depends first of all on what role is given to nomads of
Central Asia. Nomads supervised, traded and were at war for dominations on the Silk way. They bore the
culture, history in the civilization centers and were a cheap labor resource. And though from this doesn't follow
at all that nomad tribes are the most important force influencing development of the centers of a civilization, it
is necessary to recognize nevertheless that its insufficient impacts on the centers of a civilization are threatened
by civilization existence as a whole.
The book follows the nonconventional principle to a statement of materials of history of migration of
nomads, proceeding from the assumption that acquaintance with it will be occurs in a section of history of
In total it is supposed publications of 7 books: 1 . Restoration of the Silk way from China to Uzbekistan.
2 . The most ancient trade ways of China. 3 . Great Silk way in the history of China. 4 . Great Silk way in the
history to Korea and Japan. 5 . Great Silk way in the history of Iran. 6 . Great Silk way in the history of India.
7 . Great Silk way in the history of the Middle East. 8 . Great Silk way in the history of Europe.
But thus possibility of selective reading separate books isn't excluded also, meaning that in each of the
book of head one logically follows another.
In the first book migration of nomads and the concept of construction of the states is stated
in Central Asia. There was a doctrine of use of potential energy of a stream of nomad tribes for
development of the cities and the states of Ancient Khoresm and Marannakhar. During the huge historical
period nomad tribes settled, forming empires, the states, emirates, khanates in different regions of Central
Chapters are located in chronological sequence. In the 1
evolution of the Great Silk Road is stated. In
chapter it is stated nomads of Central Asia.
In the 3
it is stated the most ancient trade ways. In 4
the Kushansky empire is stated. In 5
Sogdiysky empire is stated. The 6
is about state Khunna . In 7
chapter it is about state usuny. In the 8
chapter the state Kangyuy is stated. In 9
chapter the Turkic Khaganate is stated. In 10
Maverannakhr is stated. In 11
chapter the Samanidsky empire is stated. In 12
chapter it is stated
Karakhanidsky the states. In 13
chapter the Mongolsky gain of Central Asia is stated. In 14
empire of Timurids is stated. In 15
chapter Sheybanids and Ashtarkhanids is stated the states. In 16
the Bukhara khaganate is stated. In 17
chapter the dynasty of Mangyt is stated. In 18
ethnography of Uzbeks is stated. In 19
chapter development of a civilization of Ancient Khoresm is stated. In
chapter the role Silk is stated to a way in distribution of world religions. In 21th chapter it is stated new
transport prospects of the Great Silk way.
On book contents have impact of several primary sources, materials from the Internet, the review and
researches of archaeological materials, own views of essence of the Great Silk way and migration of nomad
tribes of Central Asia. Restoration of a silk road provides evolutionary transition to a new world order,
involvement of the people of Central Asia in international trade. Great Silk road – concept which usually
belongs to the road on which there was a trade, migration of people and development of humanity. Moving on
the Silk Road, the person expanded the potential knowledge, experience, culture and reached the highest level
of development. Having passed on the Silk way nomads aspired to a settled way of life. Central Asia is
considered the primary region where nomads began a settled way of life, built settlements, the cities, the
civilization centers, created the states and empires. Nomads supervised, traded and were at war for
dominations on the Silk Road. They bore the culture, history in the civilization centers and were a cheap labor
resource. And though from this doesn't follow at all that nomad tribes are the most important force influencing
development of the centers of a civilization, it is necessary to recognize, nevertheless, that its insufficient
impact on the centers of a civilization threatens civilization existence as a whole.
The mankind passed a number of the periods in the development. Period of development of Dravidian,
Semitic, Aryan and Turkic tribes. According to the recurrence law, each tribe passed five cycles of life. In the
first cycle there was the tribe births, in the second growth, in the third blossoming, in the fourth decline and in
the fifth migration (death) of a tribe. After passing of five cycles of life, the tribe started moving and migrated
in new habitats. After moving of nomads to new places began assimilation with the local people, accepted their
customs and culture. In turn they enriched a civilization with culture of nomads. On the same road there was a
peace trade and migration of nomad tribes. Barter between the East and the West till the 15th century was
carried out on the Silk way. Goods went generally from the East to the west.
The silk Road served in the beginning for export of the Chinese silk. In turn, from Khoresm to Rome,
Byzantium, and it is later to Europe and Russia on it went myrrh and an incense, jasmine water and ambergris,
cardamom and a nutmeg, a ginseng and bile of a python, carpets and cloths, dyes and mineral raw materials,
diamonds and a jasper, amber and, an ivory and "fish tusks", ingots of silver and gold, fur and a coin, onions
and arrows, swords and a spear and much other. On the Silk road carried on sale of the well-known horses of
Fergana, the Arab horses, camels and elephants, rhinoceroses and lions, cheetahs and gazelles, hawks,
peacocks, parrots and ostriches. Now the main part of the Chinese goods goes to Europe and the USA sea
transport through ports of east coast of the country. In this case delivery of freights from the People's Republic
of China to Europe takes on the average 4-6 weeks, and at times much more because of such few predictable
factors, as turns on loading in port, weather conditions along the line, etc. Shipping are connected with
expensive operations on an overload, stevedoring and other works in port. As a result the cost of transportation
by the sea of the 40-foot container makes about $3 thousand, and taking into account loading and unloading
works the cost of delivery can exceed $5 thousand. Thus port capacities worldwide work at a limit of
throughput opportunities, and consignors even more often pay the attention to application of other means of
transport. In this situation there is a need to use advantages of automobile transportations – in particular
possibility of safe and safe delivery of freights for shorter period, including "from a door at a door". Besides
general freights which make a basis of today's export of the People's Republic of China, can successfully and
be delivered favorably by large-capacity road trains.
In this regard, an important component of the external economic strategy of Uzbekistan for the next
years has to become overland transit of goods from China to Europe, India, to the Middle East. Not the secret
that essential advantage of our country is its unique geographical position: the territory of Uzbekistan is
between two largest economic poles of force of the modern world – united Europe and East Asia.
Within the Eurasian economic community the concept of the transport union is already accepted.
Economic relations between member states will make "A great silk road" even more demanded not only as
purely transit route to the countries of Europe. Practical realization of motor transportations on the Silk road
through the Republics of Central Asia will provide development of the region, a raising of a standard of living
of the population and will eliminate unemployment. Becomes obvious that from the economic point of view
the project "Great silk Road" with participation of the Republics of Central Asia is much more favorable.
First, in this case expensive transfer in the ports of Russia with the subsequent transportation across the
Caspian, Black and Baltic Sea isn't required. Secondly, the project doesn't pass through politically unstable
regions of Russia. In the third cold winters, bad roads, natural cataclysms obstruct traffic of motor transport
and storage of freights in Russia. It is important also that level of transport services in Uzbekistan is higher,
than in many other participating countries of the project that will stimulate the general orientation to higher
rates and will increase its competitiveness in comparison with other routes. As for transport capacities and
infrastructure on territories of Uzbekistan, both a highway, and tracks already we are now ready to accept new
volumes of freights.
Thus, there are all preconditions for successful practical implementation of the project of revival of "A
great silk road". It is thus obvious, what even in the conditions of post-crisis development the role of the states
and the international financing here has to be combined with efforts of the enterprise environment which
expenses will quickly pay off and further promise considerable profits. On railway transport for creation of
more competitive environment it would be worth canceling so-called minimum "a payment for freight
protection" and decrease in a rate on transit of international transport that will lead to considerable decrease in
carrying cost and will make rail transportation on the Uzbekistan territory much more favorable. All these
measures will allow Uzbekistan to become more competitive both in international automobile, and in rail
transportation that will make more preferable passing of part new "A great silk road" on the territory of Central
Civilization development in Central Asia submit to certain laws and the principles. Let's consider on the
example of Ancient Khoresm the main hypotheses of development of a civilization.
Hypothesis 1: Ancient Khoresm was the civilization center on an equal basis with the centers of a
civilization of the Middle East, Rome, Greece.
Huge masses of immigrants of nomads arrived as cheap human resources in above called centers. In this
regard in Ancient Khoresm cult the constructions, educational institutions, the craft centers everywhere built,
the cattle breeding, fishery, agriculture, construction of housing and irrigational constructions have due
Hypothesis 2. Every era reflects the periods during which in this district lived group of nomad tribes
talking on one dialect and physiologically similar to each other. Within 15-20 thousand years ago there lived
Dravidian tribes, 10-15 thousand years ago there lived Semitic tribes (archeological excavations in
Turkmenistan), lived 5-10 thousand years ago the Aryan people (excavation in Khoresm), 2-5 thousand years
ago Indo-European (stories of Bactria and Sogdiana) and till today live Turkic groups. In the Old Testament it
is spoken about 40-year movings of Semitic tribes from the countries Kangyyu to the Middle East.
Hypothesis 3: Civilization centers. In all eras the centers of nomad tribes there was the Korean
peninsula, Altai, Tibet, East Turkestan, Semirechye, the Urals and the Crimea. In these centers nomads created
the states (Khaganates). Khoresm always established trade relations with these centers and signed contracts on
joint actions against the empire.
Hypothesis 4. Merge law. Khoresm all times pursued policy of merge to nomad tribes. The settled way
of life in Khoresm suited nomads and the huge mass of nomads arrived for the boundaries of Khoresm.
Khoresm everywhere built cult constructions, academies taking up the problems merges, educational
institutions and the craft centers. The cattle breeding, fishery, navigation, construction and agriculture has due
development. The aristocratic nobility always kept on control a geopolitical situation in the nomadic world and
often invited leaders of nomad tribes to a throne of Khoresm.
Hypothesis 5. Synthesis law. New civilizations are formed as a result of synthesis of heritage, history,
culture passed civilizations with neogenic civilizations. For example Scythians created the religion on the
basis of ancient cult ceremonies of the priests, become in a consequence the Zoroastrism basis.
Hypothesis 6. Migration law. Migration is process of resettlement of huge mass of people of familiar
spots in other places. There is a variety of reasons of people inducing to resettlement: wars, ecological
cataclysms, climatic changes, political decisions, social problems and language and religious discrimination. In
the history the most powerful migration came from the Great steppe as a result of wars of nomads and the
Chinese diplomacy. The first wave of nomads moved from the southern areas of the Great steppe to the west,
the second wave from the Far East, the third wave from Altai, the fourth wave moved from East Turkestan and
the fourth wave moved from Semirechy.
Hypothesis 7. Assimilation law. Nomads moved on new residences assimilated with local population.
Talked on their dialect, accepted their customs and religion, culture and mentality. If local population was
competent, with high culture that nomads quickly assimilated were dissolved in their environment. Violent
elimination of migration and assimilation could lead to unpredictable consequences.
Hypothesis 8. Spiral law. Historical events, customs, ecological cataclysms, the natural phenomena
repeat in every era on a spiral. For example Khoresmshakhs were in every era, Khoresm conducted policy of
merge with nomadic the world in all eras, Amu Darya often changed the course, etc.
Hypothesis 9. Symmetry law. Each center of a civilization possesses the mentality, culture,
customs, processes of a social production. People of Khorezm every era were hospitable. Khoresm in all
eras created the empire and supervised the Great Silk road.
Hypothesis10. Continuity law. In a place of the left nomad tribes, new tribes precipitate and start
reviving the statehood, building the cult constructions and administrative constructions in a place of objects of
an old civilization.
Hypothesis 11. Empire law. On the basis of nomad tribes occurs associations of the states to the strong
empire. First of all the empire establishes control on a certain site Silk to a way. Such system can exist from
30 years to 2 century. It is the Kushan empire, Bactria, Samanids, Timur, etc.
Hypothesis 12. Recurrence law. Each group of the nomad tribes which has created the statehood from
the birth to death pass certain phases of development. The cycle of life covers 5 phases of development on a
historical spiral with repetition in 500-800 years.
Cyclic repetition on a spiral of historical events in Central Asia proves existence of regularity of a cycle
of life of each civilization and ethnic groups. The cycle of life of a civilization consists of several stages of
During a certain historical term the civilization passed phases of development of system: birth, growth,
prosperity, decline and death. During the fifth phase there were rough, catastrophic processes of jolting, fight,
death old and the birth of a new civilization. But revival of the people subjected to accident as a part of a
certain ethnic group on other site of a way in absolutely other structure of civilization system was allowed. The
analysis and chronological inspection let to establish approximate terms of time from the birth to death of
system, it equals from 2 to 5 century (without natural disasters, etc.).
Hypothesis13. Law of ecological disasters. Ecological cataclysms generate resettlement (migration) of
the people on more favorable residences. During a neolith era as a result of drying of Uzboy, Amu Darya
changed the course and I turned aside the Aral hollow. Fortified cities of Ancient Khoresm fell into decay and
the population through the Mervsky oasis migrated to India. During archeological excavations materials were
found in Mokhendzhdaro (India) similar to the materials found at excavation in ancient Khoresm.
Hypothesis 14. Law of solar activity. Solar activity leads to climatic changes on the earth, to process to
revival or agriculture falling. In spite of the fact that terrestrial climate and civilizations possess the relative
independence, own laws of development. In a type of it in phases of historical changes shifts are quite often
observed. A large number of solar spots coincides with the droughty period in terrestrial climate. In other
case - with rain, especially it occurs at rather short periods of climatic changes when inertia of proceeding
processes has an effect on climate, such as thawing of glaciers, change of currents in the World Ocean, drying
of the seas, a drought, etc.
Hypothesis 15. Law climatic changes. Establishment of interrelation of processes of change of solar
activity with climatic changes and with history of civilizations shows exclusively difficult communication of
public life with a set of factors of unsocial character. Opens external sources of the reason of emergence of
changes of civilizations having in life in a form of global problems. For the beginning of the new climatic
period it is required, about 100-150 years and more.
Still more this mismatch occurs in the ratio, space and climatic change on the one hand, and historical
processes of a civilization on the other hand.
At the same time, establishment of interrelation of processes of change of solar activity with climatic
changes and with history of civilizations shows exclusively difficult communication of public life with a set of
factors of unsocial character. Opens external sources of the reason of emergence of changing of civilizations
having in life in a form of global problems.
Hypothesis 16. Law public and economic technologies. On one of stages of a cycle of development of a
civilization immunity of a survival on the basis of public and economic technology is developed. The public
and economic technology creates the benefits, turns them into a product, carries out an equivalent metabolism,
energy between society and environment. The public and economic technology of a new civilization is based
on two principles: principle of the maximum isolation and circulation of substances. The maximum isolation
of public and economic technology from environment as natural and necessary basis of life of people. The
periods of formation and blossoming of a civilization fall on transitions from humidity and cold to dry and
warm climate and vice versa. At such moments if the civilization, is socially prepared, can develop the public
and economic technology which most corresponding is to the coming climatic period and to reach thanks to it