HYDROGENATION OF SUNFLOWER OIL OVER PT/BASO 4 CATALYST FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MARGARINES AND COOKING FATS
Kainaubek Toshtay 1 , 2* Aliy B. Auyezov 1 1 Scientific Technology Park, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University. Al-Farabi av., Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2 School of chemical engineering, Kazakh-British Technical University. Almaty, Kazakhstan E-mail: email@example.com 1 Introduction
The catalytic Hydrogenation of vegetable oils are many practical applications as the fat and oil industry.
The most common forms are margarines, spread, cooking fats and shortening. These fats are desirable for its
melting point and oxidative stability.
All the double bond in natural liquid oils (sunflower, canola, soybean, safflower oil, etc.) have mainly
cis configuration. During the partial hydrogenation process,the cis configuration may isomerizes into a trans configuration. As a result, up to 60% of trans isomer formed in the hydrogenated fats . However, the
appearance of trans isomers in food is not desirable from the point view of the modern nutrition science
requirements. High intake of trans fatty acids has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart
disease, weaken the immune system, an
ТЧМЫОКЬОН ЫКЭТШ ЛОЭаООЧ LӛL (ЛКН) МСШХОЬЭОЫШХ КЧН HӛL (―РШШН‖)
cholesterol, promotes inflammation, the occurrence of diabetes and the risk of cancer [2,3].
The main challenge is now to develop more active and selective catalysts for the hydrogenation of
vegetable oils and to reduce the trans content of hydrogenated fat products that conform to international
standards. The present work concerns the synthesis, characterization and the activity of platinum supported
. The catalytic property was investigated in selective hydrogenation of sunflower oil.
catalysts was prepared by the colloid adsorption method. An aqueous solution of
platinum nanoparticles stabilized by PVA, freshly prepared reducing agent sodium borohydride, then, Pt
colloids were adsorbed on BaSO
, Finally, the mixture was dried in an oven at 120
C for 12h. Hydrogenation
of sunflower oil was carried out in a Parr Reactor Model 4560 (Parr Instrument Co., Moline, IL, USA) at
various temperature 90,110,130
C respectively, under 5 atm hydrogen pressure and 800 rpm of agitation
speed, using 0.060g catalyst per 60ml oil were loaded into the reactor. Prior to the experiment, the reactor
was purged with hydrogen gas three times. The oil samples taken regularly were filtered to remove catalyst,
analyzed for its iodine value (IV) according to ISO 3961 method.
The rate of hydrogenation shall be calculated by the following formula (1):
V and Vo is the initial and the final amount of absorbed hydrogen volume, respectively (ml), K- is the
coefficient that depends on the pressure in the system,
t - period of time, (min).
Analysis fatty acid composition and trans-isomer were determined by using a capillary gas
chromatograph (Chromos GC-1000, Russia) equipped with an flame ionization detector according to the ISO
52677 standard method. Melting point was determined using a open capillary tube, to the ISO 52179-2003
3 Results and discussion
The commercially refined, bleached and deodorized sunflower oil used in this work. The hydrogenation
activity was controlled by the decay of iodine value (IV) which indicates the level of saturation of double bonds.
All the experiments, under conditions of partial hydrogenation of oil IV~133.0 downs to ~ 72-81.2.
The catalytic performances of the platinum catalysts were evaluated at different temperatures (90, 110,
C) and 0.5MPa hydrogen pressure for their activities in sunflower oil hydrogenation. Fig. 1 kinetic curve
hydrogenation of sunflower oil over 1.0wt.% Pt/BaSO
. As can be seen in Figure 1, increasing the tempe-
rature increase the rate of hydrogenation and the platinum catalyst significantly in the hydrogenation activity.
The iodine value for oil samples was determined by the refractive index. The fatty acid compositions
of hydrogenated fat and initial sunflower oil at different temperatures were listed in table 1.
Table 1. Fatty acid compositions of the initial and hydrogenated sunflower oil
Fatty acids (wt%)
C14:0 - Myristic acid
C16:0 - Palmitic acid
C18:0 - Stearic acid
C18:1c - Oleic acid
C18:1t - Oleic acid
C18:2c - Linoleic acid
C18:2t - Linoleic acid
C20:0 - Arachidic acid
C22:0 - Behenic acid
Total trans% 1.04
Melting point (
5 - 90 °C 5 - 110 °C 5 - 130 °C
Table 1 showed that hydrogenation of sunflower oil over 1.0wt.% Pt/BaSO
catalyst high activity and
selectivity lower temperature. The use of platinum catalyst allows sharply reduced (5-6 times) the content of
trans-isomers in the hydrogenation product. Obtained hydrogenated fat to comply with the requirements of
the Customs Union of technological regulations for oil and fat products (TR CU 024/2011). Conclusion
1.0 wt% Pt/BaSO
showed the best performance in activity and selectivity during the selective
hydrogenation of sunflower oil. The formation of trans isomer was dramatically reduced in the hydrogenated
sunflower oil. At an iodine value 81.2 the platinum catalyst formed 5.25% trans, at temperature 90
trans isomer content of hydrogenated products is found to be 9.89%, at temperature 130
The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan
for grant No.4229 /GF4.
1) List Gary R., King Jerry W. / Hydrogenation of fats and oils: theory and practice. AOCS Press,
– p. 420 2)Dariush Mozaffarian, et al. Trans fatty Acids and cardiovascular disease, N Engl J Med
2006;354:1601-13. 3)World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) / American institute for cancer research (AICR) (2007).
Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington DC. USA.