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ƏДЕБИЕТТЕР

1  Əуезов М. Абай жолы. – Алматы, 1961, 2-т., - 803 б.

2  Негимов С. Шешендік өнер. – Алматы, 1997.

3  Баласағұн  Ж. «Құтты  білік»  дастаны III тарау, 7-бап  /Көне  түркі  тілінен  аударған 

А.Егеубаев. 616 б. 

4 www.namys.kz/‎

5 www.kokozen.com/

6  


massaget.kz/blog/1006‎

«Көп сөйлеуден артық пайда көрмедім,

Жəне сөйлеп жəне ештеңе өнбеді!

Көп сөйлеме, аз айт бірер түйірін,

Бір сөзбен шеш түмен сөздің түйінін»

Ж.Баласағұн.


34

ҰЛТТЫҚ ТƏРБИЕ

ОƏЖ 373.013



D.M. Sovetkanova 

Master of Education,

A.E. Sadykova 

Master of Education

PSYCHO-PEDAGOGICAL BASIS OF THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF 

STUDENTS IN PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING

In this article we consider the theme of problem-based learning. Research in this fi eld has shown 

that problem-based learning arouses and generates interest in teaching students in the initiative 

develops knowledge, promotes understanding of the inner essence of phenomena and processes 

that shapes the ability to see the problem, etc.

The essence of problem-based learning is to create a master circuit problem situations and 

management of pupils on the independent decision of educational problems. Therefore the most 

important concepts in problem-based learning are problematic situation and educational problem.

The essence of the problem is that the contradiction between the information known to students 

and new facts, phenomena, for understanding and explaining that previous knowledge is not 

enough .

Actions of students when creating teacher problematic situation are the following logical 

sequence:

analysis of the problem situation;

- formulation (formulation) problems or awareness and acceptance of the wording of the teacher;

- solution: extension assumptions; justifi cation hypothesis, evidence of hypothesis (theoretical 

or experimental);

- check on the correctness of decision.



Keywords: problem-based learning, knowledge, logic, thinking, search, and education.

Бұл  мақалада,  проблемалық  оқытудың  ерекшеліктері  мен  бүгінгі  білім  берудегі 

маңыздылығы  ашып  көрсетілген.  Проблемалық  оқытудың  негізі  ерекшелігі – оқушының 

білетіні мен білмейтінінің арасында қайшылықтар пайда болады жəне проблемалары міндетті 

шешуге дайын тəсіл болмағандықтан, проблемалық ситуация пайда болады, осыған орай 

оқушының ізденушілік əрекетімен ынтасы күшейе түседі. Проблемалық оқытудың мақсаты 

- ғылыми таным нəтижелерін, білімдер жүйесін ғана меңгеріп қоймай, сонымен бірге бұл 

нəтижелерге  жету  жолының  өзін  де,  процессін  де  меңгеру,  оқушының  таным  дербестігін 

қалыптастырып,  оның  шығармашылық  қабілеттерін  дамыту.  Проблемалық  оқыту-ойлау 

операциялары  логикасы  (талдау,  қорытындылау  жəне  тағы  басқа)  мен  оқушылардың 

ізденіс əрекетінің заңдылықтарын (проблемалық ситуация, танымдық қызығушылығының, 

қажетсінуінің жəне тағы басқа) ескере отырып жасалған оқу мен оқытудың бұрыннан мəлім 

тілдерін  қолдану  ережелерінің  жаңа  жүйесі.  Сондықтан  да,  көбінесе  білім  алушылардың 

ойлау кабілеттерін дамытады жəне сенімдерін қалыптастыруды қамтамасыз етеді.



Түйін сөздер: проблемалық оқыту, таным, білім, ойлау логикасы, ізденіс.

В  данной  статье  мы  рассматриваем  тему  проблемного  обучения.  Исследования  в  этой 

области показали, что проблемное обучение будит и формирует интерес к учению, развивает 

инициативу учащихся в познании, способствует пониманию внутренней сущности явлений 

и процессов, формирует умение видеть проблему и т.д.


35

ҰЛТТЫҚ ТАҒЫЛЫМ

Сущность  проблемного  обучения  состоит  в  создании  учителем  цепи  проблемных 

ситуаций и управлении деятельностью учащихся по самостоятельному решению учебных 

проблем.  Следовательно  важнейшими  понятиями  в  проблемном  обучении  являются 

проблемная ситуация и учебная проблема

Сущность  проблемной  ситуации  заключается  в  противоречии  между  известными 

учащимся сведениями и новыми фактами, явлениями, для понимания и объяснения которых 

прежних знаний недостаточно.

Действия учащихся при создании учителем проблемной ситуации проходят в следующей 

логической последовательности:

-анализ проблемной ситуации;

-формулировка (постановка) проблемы или осознание и принятие формулировки учителя;

-решение проблемы: выдвижение предположений; обоснование гипотезы; доказательство 

гипотезы (теоретическое или экспериментальное); 

-проверка правильности решения.

Ключевые слова: проблемное обучение, познание, логика мышления, поиск, образование. 

One of the factors the research of the 

intel 

lectual sphere is the phenomenon of 



students problem-based learning. Problem-

based learning - is an organization of training 

sessions, which involves the creation of 

teacher-led problem situations and active and 

independent activity of students to solve them, 

with the result that occurs creative mastery of 

professional knowledge, skills and abilities and 

the development of thinking skills.

Depending on the purpose of the task 

training school can be problematic and non 

problematic If the before school seeks to develop 

students’ thinking, their creative abilities, the 

pedagogically well-organized learning can not 

be problematic.

Problem- development teaching - a 

modern level of development of didactics 

and pedagogical practices. It is effective way 

overall development of students. «Problem» it 

is not called because the entire course material, 

students learn only through self-help and the 

«discovery» of new concepts. There is also the 

teacher’s explanation, and reproductive activities 

of students, and setting goals and doing the 

exercises. But the organization of the learning 

process based on the principle of problematical 

and systematic solution of educational problems 

- a characteristic feature of this type of training. 

Because the whole system with methods aimed 

at the overall development of the student, his 

individual skills, problem-based learning is a 

truly developmental education [1, 105].

Problem training includes in itself the 

following principles:

• logic of the educational process and the 

educational-cognitive activity of pupils;

• methods of organization and management;

• recovery of teacher  the content of the 

studied material;

• Teacher control over the process and results 

of operations of students;

The main conditions for successful 

application problem-based learning as follows:

• problematic situations should be consistent 

formation of knowledge systems;

• be accessible to students and meet their 

cognitive abilities;

• should call their own cognitive activity and 

activity;

What is the essence of the problem-based 

learning? The learning process is that in a 

problem-based learning - the job should be for 

an independent analysis of the problem and 

fi nding the unknown. And this in turn leads to 

the intellectual development of students .

Because intellectual development - the 

 

mo st important aspect of training the youn-



ger generations. Proved that intellectual deve-

lopment - continuous process, commit to tea-

ching, work, games, life situations, and that 

it  occurs most intensively during the active 



36

ҰЛТТЫҚ ТƏРБИЕ

learning and creative application of knowledge, 

ie in acts that contain particularly valuable for 

the development of intelligence.

You can highlight the typical features of 

a developed intellect, knowledge of which is 

important for understanding the intellectual 

upbringing.

Developed intelligence differs systematically, 

providing internal communication between 

the task and the means necessary for its most 

effi cient solutions, which leads to action 

sequences and searches.

Due to the above question of substantive 

criteria (signs, indicators) mental development. 

List of the most common criteria gives 

N.D.Levitov. According to him, mental 

development is characterized by the following 

indicators:

1) independence of thinking,

2) the speed and strength of Learning,

3) the speed of mental orientation 

(resourcefulness) for solving non-standard 

problems,

4) deep penetration into the essence of a 

phenomenon (the ability to distinguish the 

essential from the nonessential)

5) criticality of mind, lack of inclination to 

biased, unfounded judgments [2, 89].

DB Elkonin main criterion for mental 

development is the presence of well-organized 

structure of learning activities (training activities 

formed) with its components - the problem 

statement, a choice of funds, self-control and 

self-examination, as well as the right balance of 

substantive and symbolic plans training activities 

[3].

NA Menchinskaya consider in this connection 



mental activity such features as:

1) fast (or, respectively, slowness) assimilation;

2) Flexibility of thought process (ie the ease 

or respectively, the diffi culty of restructuring 

work, adaptation to changing conditions tasks);

3) a close relationship (or, respectively, 

fragmentation) of visual and abstract components 

of thinking;

4) different levels of analytic-synthetic 

activity [4, 65].

According aforecited criteria mental 

development school should come to basic 

methods of problem-learning .

There are various options for formulating 

and solving problems in the classroom:

1. Teacher solves the problem

The teacher poses the problem or problems 

and he solves them, presenting lecture material. 

In this form of activity, students outwardly 

passive, but within each of them pass processes 

of understanding, acceptance and memorization.

This approach can be used when teaching 

students to language creativity. Teacher sets the 

task to compose a tale (story, history, and the 

like) and write it in the moment of the lesson. 

Students learn by the example of the teacher 

language creativity. The teacher sets the task to 

compose a tale (story, history, and so on) and 

writes it in the moment of the lesson. Students 

learn by the example of the teacher in this 

process.

2. Lecture - talk

Teacher confronts students problems and 

offers to solve them together. Asking new 

questions, clarifying and supplementing the 

answers (but not with bad criticism), teacher 

structures, organizes and leads to expressions 

general conclusions on individual sections of the 

lecture. It is like leading the conversation, and 

the classical notion of lecturer here disappears.

Conducting problem lecture - talk requires 

the teacher in-depth knowledge of the topic. 

He should be able to put questions clear 

and understandable, quickly orientate the 

statements of students and develop them and 

guide additional  precise questions to solve the 

problem [5, 78].

3. «Brainstorm»

Majority vote, students choose nine members 

of the group. They are located at the fi rst tables. 

Participants, «assault». The teacher introduces 

students with the problem. for representatives 

of the group handing out cards on which they 

are within fi ve minutes they write your opinion. 

After it the cards are passed to each other and 

get acquainted with all the views of others. 

After that, for three minutes, participants 


37

ҰЛТТЫҚ ТАҒЫЛЫМ

«brainstorming» are fi lling new cards. Better to 

put in the corner of the name of the card to the 

teacher could compare the change in the views 

[5, 96].

4. The method of «CASE STUDY»

The method is specifi c situations simulation: 

using this method in training precedes the 

development or use of a specifi c example of 

fi nished materials describing the real situation. 

This may be a statement of any events, a 

description of a confl ict or problem, emotional-

behavioral aspects of interaction - modeled 

corresponding to the content of learning 

process in real conditions. Key questions of the 

teacher in analyzing the situation: «What have 

you done?», «What aspects of the action you 

think is right?», «What could have been done 

better?», «How can you solve this problem?». 

These questions help the student develop the 

ability to take a new look at the world: for a 

particular job, for organization, own activities 

and views. It is oriented to the future, aimed at 

re-evaluating its activities, to development of 

new approaches, «What could we do?», «What 

is the problem?», «What are the possible ways 

to approach the problem?», «What can happen 

and what can result if...?» [6].

Problem-based learning is the problem of 

teaching and teaching problem. Problem - 

based teaching learning activities in the design, 

systems cognitive situations, as well as psycho 

- pedagogical management of their resolution 

by the students. Problem teaching can be 

considered as a complete structure of training 

activities on the assimilation of knowledge and 

modes of action, which presents the analysis 

of the problem - situation from the perspective 

of information, objectives and modalities 

for addressing ending wording problems, 

hypotheses and justifi cation, «decision-making 

and working action programs, performances 

and analysis of the results. Characteristic of 

the problem situation YN Kulyutkin said: 

objectively mismatch occurs (contradiction) 

between the target corresponding to a currently 

valid practical needs and the means to achieve 

it, the emergence of the cognitive relation 

to the actual situation, the emergence of the 

subject orienting reaction occurrence needs to 

understand the situation, the formation position 

of the subject [7].

Thus, the student’s subjective position, 

located before the problem situation, comprises 

of the two conditions, which undoubtedly plays 

a fundamental role in the decision:

1) a subjective understanding of the 

objectives, the relationship to the object of 

study;

2) vision uncertainty prevailing explicitly or 



covertly, in the situation existing gap between 

what is known and what is unknown. Only under 

these conditions can act aimed at the elimination 

of contradictions solution. Consequently, the 

problem situation must be entity the subject.

According to this logic, any problematic 

situation is considered from the perspective of 

the subject. This applies to both teacher and 

student. Psychological nature of the perception 

of the problem situation for them is tantamount. 

The difference lies in the content side and 

the extent of uncertainty. For a student with a 

problem situation has training function. The 

level of uncertainty included in it, constituting a 

didactic sense who knowingly laid teacher, and 

limited to a certain extent defi ned, calculated on 

the possibility of the student, so its estimate pupil 

visible and predictable. For student is perceived 

as problematic situation arises naturally in the 

learning process.

Key aspects of the implementation of 

problem-based learning as an educational 

technology in the classroom, we can draw the 

following conclusions:

1. Problem learning - this training, in which 

the teacher poses the problem to students and 

organizes the process of solving it.

2. Problem-based learning is one of the most 

effective means to enhance students’ thinking.

3. Problem situation and learning problem are 

the basic concepts of problem-based learning .

4. Educational problem - it is a form of the 

problematical principle in learning.

5. Decision educational problem is the result 

of active thinking process.


38

ҰЛТТЫҚ ТƏРБИЕ

6. Problematic is the fi rst lessons in any 

subject.

7. Problem-based learning available almost 

for all students.

The ultimate goal of the teacher - the 

formation of intellectual personality. Means is 

a learning activity, content - information about 

the person, about nature, substance, noosphere. 

Its structure and composition dictate learning 

activities,during what constitutes student 

conduct system, develop its cognitive action, 

activity, motivation, is forming goals and 

values are. Problematic situation is didactic 

condition for nomination and formulation of 

educational issues and is the result of a certain 

stage of professional educator structuring of 

educational material. Pedagogical modeling is 

the educational problems in the learning process 

associated with a number of preliminary actions.

Modern studies in the fi eld of pedagogy, 

convinced of the necessity and the possibility of 

using problem-based learning methods in order 

to ensure the overall development of students, 

forming a theoretical way of thinking, based 

on specifi c. Through knowledge of students 

of special structures content of educational 

material, refl ecting the determinism of the 

phenomena studied, events, facts, we can show 

their interrelationship and interdependence.



REFERENCES

1  Kudryavtsev T.V. Problem-based learning: the origins, nature, and prospects. – M: 3nanie, 

1991.

2  Levites N.D. Essays on educational psychology. – Moscow, 1946.



3  El’konin D.B. Formation of mental action of sound analysis of words in preschool children 

/ / Reports APN RSFSR. 1957. Number 1.

4  Menchinskaya N.A. Problems of teaching and development / / Problems of general, 

developmental and educational psychology. – M., 1978.

Mahmutov M.I. Problem-based learning . The main problems in the theory. - M: Education, 



1975.

6 www.mental-skills.ru/dict/detail.php?ID=8239

7  Kulyutkin Y.N. Psychological knowledge and the teacher / / Questions of psychology. 

1983, № 3, p. 45-57.

8  Sadykova A.E, Kurmangali A.K. The role of family education in the formation of student 

potential. / / «National Education». Number 3, 2012.



39

ҰЛТТЫҚ ТАҒЫЛЫМ

ƏОЖ 37.018.11-055.25



Г.М. Əбжан

Абай атындағы Қазақ ұлттық педагогикалық университеті

Ұлттық тəрбие жəне өзін-өзі тану кафедрасының магистр-оқытушысы

ҰРПАҚТЫ ТƏРБИЕЛЕУ ҮДЕРІСІНДЕ ЕР-АЗАМАТТЫ ТƏРБИЕЛЕУДІҢ 

АЛАТЫН ОРНЫ

Отбасы – болашақ  ұрпақ  бойына  адамзаттық  құндылықтарды  жəне  ұлттық  рухани 

байлықты сіңіретін тəрбие ошағы. Жеке адамның бойындағы ар-ұяты, ой-өрісі, əдептілігі 

мен  мəдениеттілігі  отбасынан  бастау  алады.  Бала  тəрбиесі – отбасының  жүйелі  түрде 

жүргізген  жұмысының  нəтижесі.  Өйткені,  баланың  уақытын  дұрыс  ұйымдастыра  білу, 

оның мектепте алған тəлім-тəрбиесінің қалыптасып, отбасында жалғасын табуы бəрі де ата-

ананың басшылығы арқылы жүзеге асырылады. Ата-ананың бала тəрбиесіне ықпал ете білу 

шартының бірі - олардың баламен əділ сөйлесіп, ашық пікірлес болуы. Осылай өзара қарым-

қатынас  баланы  еріксіз  ата-анаға  жақындатып,  олардың  айтқандарын  шын  ықыласпен 

қабылдауға мəжбүр етеді. Балаларды ізеттілікке, адамгершілікке, еңбекқорлыққа жəне т.б. 

қасиеттерге тəрбиелеуде отбасының мүмкіндіктері ерекше. Бұл мақалада ұрпақ тəрбиелеуде 

ер азаматты тəрбиелеудің орны ерекше екендігін атап көрсеткен.



Түйін сөздеротбасы, отбасылық қатынастар, отбасы институты, ата-ана, отбасы 

мүшелері, ұл бала тəрбиесі.

Семья является одним из главных институтов воспитания. Это объясняется тем, что в ней 

ребенок находится в течение значительной части своей жизни, и по длительности своего 

воздействия на личность ни один из других институтов воспитания не может сравниться с 

семьей. В семье закладываются основы личности ребенка, и к моменту поступления в школу 

он в значительной степени сформирован как личность. Проблема воспитания и обучения 

ребенка  в  соответствии  с  его  полом  является  актуальной  задачей  педагогической  работы 

с  детьми  дошкольного  возраста.  В  этой  статье  рассматривается  вопросы  особенности 

воспитание мальчиков.  Большое значение в воспитании детей традиционно играло старшее 

поколение – бабушка и дедушка со стороны отца. Именно старики являлись хранителями 

традиций семьи, они старались передать их молодому поколению. 

Ключевые  слова:  семья,  семейные  отношения,  институт  семьи,  родители,  члены 

семьи, воспитание мальчика.

Family is one of the main institutes of education. This is explained by the fact that it is a child 

for much of his life, and the duration of its impact on the individual, none of the other institutes 

of education can not be compared with the family. The family foundations child’s personality, 

and by the time they start school, he formed largely as a person. The problem of education and 

training of the child in accordance with its fl oor is a challenge pedagogical work with children of 

preschool age. This article discusses the issues especially education of boys. Great importance in 

the education of children has traditionally played the older generation - the grandparents from his 

father. It is the custodian of old family traditions, they tried to pass them to the younger generation.

Keywords: family, family relationships, family institution, parents, family members, the boy’s 

upbringing.


40

ҰЛТТЫҚ ТƏРБИЕ

Отбасында ішкі отбасылық қатынастарға 

байланысты,  əке  мен  ананың  тəрбиелік 

ықпалы  анықталады,  балаларға  жақсы 

ықпал  етуге  жағдай  жасалады.  Тəрбиенің 

біртұтас  өзіндік  жүйесінің  қазақ  отбасында 

қалыптасуына ықпал етуші түрткі-қазақ хал-

қының  балажандығы,  балаға  деген  ерекше 

махаббаты, ілтипаты болса керек. Бабам қа-

зақ бала тəрбиесіне қашан да бей-жай қа ра-

маған. Баланы ертеңгі ел қорғайтын ер, ұлт-

тың намысты азаматы ретінде əділдікке, қай-

сар лыққа, кеңдікке тəрбиелейтін болған. Бір 

ға на «баланы жастан» деген сөздің астарынан 

қа зақтың бала тəрбиесіне қаншалықты көңіл 

бөл генін аңғаруға болады. Баласы есейіп 14-

15 жасқа келгенде атқа мінгізіп алыстағы ау-

зы дуалы ақсақал қарттарға сəлем беріп кел 

деп  жіберетін  болған,  ондағы  мақсат:  көп ті 

көрген көне көз қазыналы қарттардан тарих-

та болған жайларды, бабалар ерлігін тыңдап, 

кең  байтақ  жерімізді  батыр  бабаларымыз 

ерлікпен  қорғағанын,  дархан  даламыздың 

бүгінгі  жəне  кейінгі  ұрпаққа  аманат  екенін 

саналы түрде санасына сіңіріп отырған. Мі-

не,   бұл  ер тəрбиесі.

Отбасы  жəне  отбасылық  қатынастар  өте 

күр делі үдеріс. Ол халықтық махаббат, от ба-

сы, ата-аналар туралы түсінігі негізінде сан  

ғасырлық  өмір  тəжірибесі  негізінде  қалып-

тасты.  Қазақ  отбасында  ұлды  тəрбиелеуші 

институттар қалыптасқан. Олар:




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