Қорқыт Ата атындағы Қызылорда мемлекеттік университетінің хабаршысы:
Республикалық ғылыми-әдістемелік журнал№ 2 (32) 2011= Вестник Кызылординского
государственного университета им. Коркыт Ата: Республиканский научно-методический
журнал № 2 (32) 2011/ Бас ред. Бисенов Қ.А.- Қызылорда: Қорқыт Ата атындағы ҚМУ,
2011.- 244 б.: 60х84. (ҚР Білім және ғылым мин-гі; 1999 жылғы наурыздан бастап шыға
бастады); ISSN 1607-2782: 500 дана.
2. Шоқай, М. Шығармаларының толық жинағы [Мәтін]. Он екі томдық, 1- ші том.
Жинаққа кіріспе. Күреспен өткен ғұмыр / М. Шоқай; Құраст.: К.Есмағамбетов.- Алматы:
Дайк-Пресс, 2012.- 544 б.: 60х90. (ҚР Білім және ғылым мин-гі: Р.Б.Сүлейменов атынд.
Шығыстану ин-ты); ISBN 978-601-290-043-9: 1000 дана.
3. Шоқай, М. Шығармаларының толық жинағы [Мәтін]. Он екі томдық, 2- ші том /
М. Шоқай; Құраст.: К.Есмағамбетов.- Алматы: Дайк-Пресс, 2012.- 640 б.: 60х90.(ҚР Білім
және ғылым мин-гі: Р.Б.Сүлейменов атынд. Шығыстану ин-ты); ISBN 978-601-290-048-4:
4. Шоқай, М. Шығармаларының толық жинағы [Мәтін]. Он екі томдық, 3-ші том /
М. Шоқай; Құраст.: К.Есмағамбетов.- Алматы: Дайк-Пресс, 2012.- 664 б.: 60х90. (ҚР Білім
және ғылым мин-гі: Р.Б.Сүлейменов атынд. Шығыстану ин-ты); ISBN 978-601-290-054-5:1
5. Шоқай, М. Шығармаларының толық жинағы [Мәтін]. Он екі томдық, 4-ші том /
М. Шоқай; Құраст.: К.Есмағамбетов.- Алматы: Дайк-Пресс, 2012.- 532 б.: 60х90.:(ҚР Білім
және ғылым мин-гі: Р.Б.Сүлейменов атынд. Шығыстану ин-ты); ISBN 978-601-290-055-2:
6. Шоқай, М. Шығармаларының толық жинағы [Мәтін]. Он екі томдық, 5-ші том /
М. Шоқай; Құраст.: К.Есмағамбетов.- Алматы: Дайк-Пресс, 2013.- 540 б.: 60х90: (ҚР Білім
және ғылым мин-гі: Р.Б.Сүлейменов атынд. Шығыстану ин-ты); ISBN 978-601-290-059-0:
7. Шоқай, М. Шығармаларының толық жинағы [Мәтін]. Он екі томдық, 6-шы том /
М. Шоқай; Құраст.: К.Есмағамбетов.- Алматы: Дайк-Пресс, 2013.- 524 б.: 60х90: (ҚР Білім
және ғылым мин-гі: Р.Б.Сүлейменов атынд. Шығыстану ин-ты); ISBN 978-601-290-060-6:
1 000 дана.
8. Шоқай, М. Шығармаларының толық жинағы [Мәтін]. Он екі томдық, 7- ші том /
М. Шоқай; Құраст.: К.Есмағамбетов.- Алматы: Дайк-Пресс, 2013.- 572 б.: 60х90: (ҚР Білім
және ғылым мин-гі: Р.Б.Сүлейменов атынд. Шығыстану ин-ты); ISBN 978-601-290-069-9:
1 000 дана.
9. Шоқай, М. Шығармаларының толық жинағы [Мәтін]. Он екі томдық, 8-ші том /
М. Шоқай; Құраст.: К.Есмағамбетов.- Алматы: Дайк-Пресс, 2013.- 560 б.: 60х90. (ҚР Білім
және ғылым мин-гі: Р.Б.Сүлейменов атынд. Шығыстану ин-ты); ISBN 978-601-290-070-5: ,
10. Шоқай, М. Шығармаларының толық жинағы [Мәтін]. Он екі томдық 9-шы том /
М. Шоқай; Құраст.: К.Есмағамбетов.- Алматы: Дайк-Пресс, 2014.- 568 б.: 60х90: (ҚР Білім
және ғылым мин-гі: Р.Б.Сүлейменов атынд. Шығыстану ин-ты); ISBN 978-601-290-042-2:
1 000 дана
11. Шоқай, М. Шығармаларының толық жинағы [Мәтін]. Он екі томдық, 10-шы том /
М. Шоқай; Құраст.: К.Есмағамбетов.- Алматы: Дайк-Пресс, 2014.- 612 б.: 60х90: (ҚР Білім
және ғылым мин-гі: Р.Б.Сүлейменов атынд. Шығыстану ин-ты); ISBN 978-601-290-077-4:
1 000 дана
12. Шоқай, М. Шығармаларының толық жинағы [Мәтін]. Он екі томдық, 11-ші том /
М. Шоқай; Құраст.: К.Есмағамбетов.- Алматы: Дайк-Пресс, 2014.- 544 б.: 60х90: (ҚР Білім
және ғылым мин-гі: Р.Б.Сүлейменов атынд. Шығыстану ин-ты); ISBN 978-601-290-042-2:
1 000 дана.
Шоқай, М. Шығармаларының толық жинағы [Мәтін]. Он екі томдық, 12- ші том /
М. Шоқай; Құраст.: К.Есмағамбетов.- Алматы: Дайк-Пресс, 2014.- 476 б.: 60х90: (ҚР Білім
және ғылым мин-гі: Р.Б.Сүлейменов атынд. Шығыстану ин-ты); ISBN 978-601-290-079-8:
1 000 дана.
JOURNALISM OF KAZAKH EMIGRATION HULIYA KASAOGLU, the professor of philological faculty of Gazi university,
Republic of Turkey
G.A.TUYAKBAYEV, candidate of philology science Korkyt Ata Kyzylorda State University,
the Republic of Kazakhstan
Annatation The article discusses the history of the formation of the Kazakh emigrant journalism.
author emphasizes the relevance of studying the history of the formation and development of the
Kazakh emigrant journalism in the framework of concepts a diaspora, emigrant and irredenta.
Analyzing the history of creation, the ideological direction of periodicals in the Kazakh
language that were manufactured and produced abroad, the author proposes to determine their
status, based on the concepts of "emigrant journalism" and "foreign editions in the Kazakh
The article notes the special role of prominent social and political Mustafa Shokay at the
base of the Kazakh emigrant journalism, his work as an editor and publicist is considered.
The author based on documentary sources shows that M.Shokay used informational
publications as the main resources of struggle for the unity and freedom of the Turkic people;
also by his initiative and with his active participation number of emigre publications were drawn
the first breath.
Key words: Journalism, radio, periodicals, emigrant, diaspora, irredenta, independence,
language, culture, tradition, freedom, struggle.
Аңдатпа Мақалады автор қазақ эмигранттық журналистикасының қалыптасуы мен тарихы
туралы сөз қозғайды. Эмигранттық журналистикаға тоқтала келе, автор диаспора,
эмигрант, ирредент ұғымдарына түсінік береді. Қоғам және саяси қайраткер Мұстафа
Шоқайдың редакторлық, шығармашылық еңбегіне қарай оның қазақ эмигранттық
журналистикасының негізін қалаушы ретінде көрсетеді. Шетелдерде жарық көрген және
шығатын қазақ тілді басылымдарды шығу тарихын, ұстанған бағыт-бағдарын саралай
отырып қазақ эмигранттық басылымның рөліне тоқталды.
Мақала авторы бірлік пен азаттық үшін күрес жолында мемлекетіміздің дамуына,
ұлттық санамыздың өсуіне эмигранттық журналистиканы саяси ақпарат құралы ретінде
Кілт сөздер: журналистика, радио, мерзімді басылымдар, газет, журнал, эмигрант,
диаспора, ирредент, азаттық, тәуелсіздік, тіл, мемлекет, салт, дәстүр, ақпарат құралдары,
ұлттық қозғалыс, түркі тілдес халық.
Аннотация В данной статье автор рассматривает некоторые вопросы истории казахской
эмигрантской журналистики. Говоря об эмигрантской журналистике, автор
разграничивает понятия диаспора, эмигранты, ирреденты.
Особое внимание в статье уделяется редакторской, издательской деятельности
видного казахского политического и общественного деятеля М. Шокай, которого считают
основателем казахской эмигрантской журналистики.
В статье анализируется ряд изданий, выпускавшихся и выпускаемых сегодня за
рубежом на казахском языке, - содержание публикуемых в них материалов, идейная
направленность этих средств информации, их роль в жизни казахской эмиграции.
Автор статьи оценивает эмигрантскую журналистику как средство,
вдохновляющее на борьбу за независмость, за построение свободного государства, за
рост национального сознания.
Ключевые слова: журналистика, радио, периодическое издание, газета, журнал,
эмигрант, диаспора, ирредент, свобода, независимость, язык, культура, обычаи, традиции,
информационные средства, национальная политика, тюркоязычные народы.
Nowadays in the opinion of the researchers about three and a half million Kazakhs live in
more than forty countries of the world.
Their departure out of limits of the historical Homeland was caused by the different
reasons and circumstances.
Political science, investigating the processes of departure of Kazakhs abroad, uses such
concepts as a diaspora, an irredenta and the emigrant.
The diaspora is a forced relocation of any part of the people to other country on economic,
geographical and political factors [1,239]. The emigrant was forced to leave the Homeland in
connection with political, economic, religious and other problems [2,162], irredentists call that
part of the people which lives on the historical homeland, but on certain political circumstances
this territory was a part of other state.
If to speak about these definitions in relation to the Kazakh people, then it is possible to
carry the Kazakhs living in the Astrakhan, Orenburg, Kurgan, Omsk regions in Altai region of
the Russian Federation to irredentists, in the Altai, Tarbagatai, Iliysky regions, the Kuldzhinsky
region of China, in the region Bayan Olgy of Mongolia, in the Syr Darya, Chirchiq, Kyzyl Kum,
Myrzashol regions of Uzbekistan. It would be more truer to call emigrants those Kazakhs who
for political, historical and other reasons from China, Mongolia were forced to move to the
The Russian scientists differentiate concepts the diaspora and the migration. Tishkov
considers: "The diaspora is the people who moved under political influence in migration social
motives" [3, 42-63].
A.Zelenin states the following point of view: "Left Russia till 1917 the same who left after
1917 are migrants, - emigrants. These people created the Russian diaspora of the beginning of
the 20th century" [4, 30].
For the last 20 years in connection with independence acquisition in the history, cultural
science, ethnography, philosophy, literary criticism, linguistics began works on a research of life,
ethnography, language, literature of our foreign compatriots.
We paid no attention to this important problem and to our national scientists who
investigated the history of journalism.
The important contribution to studying of this problem was made by works R.Sh.Nuriden
(The international radio journalism. Almaty.2012), R.Sharipkyzy (Foreign radio stations in
Kazakh. Almaty.1997), D.Baymolda (Radio "Azattyk". History and experience. Almaty.2009),
N.Omashev and Sh.Begimtayeva (Modern foreign journalism. Almaty.2000), devoted to foreign
information means in Kazakh. The number of master's thesis is protected on this problem.
But it is impossible to tell that the question of foreign Kazakh editions is studied
completely. In the history of journalism there are questions which demand further studying and
One of them is the question of the Kazakh emigrant journalism.
The first work on this problem is the monograph "The famous personality" (Almaty, 2008)
by the doctor of historical sciences, professor K.Esmagambetov.
The political science defines the status of our compatriots living abroad as a diaspora,
emigrants and irredenta; in modern science, namely in studying of history of journalism, there is
a need for definition and the status of the emigrant editions and editions which were issued in
We cannot carry all foreign editions to emigrant.
The history of the Kazakh emigrant periodicals is connected directly with a name of
Mustapha Shokay. Even before the emigration he realized an important role of newspapers and
magazines in political struggle therefore he took active part in release and definition of an
ideological orientation of the "The flag of unity" newspaper. Unfortunately, the called newspaper
issued in 1917 in Tashkent in April, 1918 ceased to be issued [5, 75].
Also Mustapha Shokay was a member of editorial board of the newspaper "Great
Turkestan", which was published since April, 1917 on the initiative of the National center of
Muslims of the Turkestan region, he took an active part in work of editorial board of the
The articles on the theme of the unity of Turkic people, colonial policy of again created
Soviet government, release of the land, national freedom were published in the newspaper.
Though the representative of the Kazan Tatars Fatih Kerimi was the editor-in-chief of the
newspaper, but to identify key positions critical edition was the opinion M.Shokaya. On the
example of the called two editions it is possible to judge journalistic, publicistic skill of
M.Shokay, its editorial and organizing abilities.
Having arrived in 1919 to Tbilisi, M.Shokay took an active part in the edition of the
newspaper "In abroad" in Russian and the newspapers "Shaffak" in Turkish languages. However
the both editions were closed after establishment of the Soviet power in the Caucasus.
Understanding the danger of further stay in the Caucasus, M.Shokay had been moving to Paris in
But apparently he could not decide where to settle: in one of the countries of Western
Europe or the United States. He visited Italy in 1922; he spent six months in Germany in 1923.
In the end he decides to stay in Paris, considered as the capital of political emigration [6,225].
While Turkey and Paris were the places of concentration of immigrants.
Immigrants from Central Asia, the emigrants from the Tatars, Bashkirs have established a
good relationship with Turkey. "In the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the
20th century, after the October Revolution of 1917, thousands of Tatars went to Turkey. The
Tatar intelligents such as Yu Aktchury, G.Iskhaki, S.Maksudi, G. Battala, A.Z. Validi, R.
Rahmati, Kh. Zubaira and others were forced to emigrate. Turkey has become their second
home, "- said the A.I. Galyamutdinov, one of the researchers Tatar emigre journalism .
M.Shokay chose Paris for the purpose of cooperation with emigrants like-minded persons
living here and in order to establish close ties with Turkey.
And it can be argued that he has reached the goal: he was able to establish contact with
representatives of the Tatar emigrants-intellectuals and representatives of other Turkic people.
"In the autumn of 1923 at the initiative of G.Iskhakidi, S.Maksudi, G. Battal, G.Teregulov,
F.Toktarov, I. Akchurin, A. Shafeev, Z. Validi, M. Bokeyhanov and other immigrants from the
Tatars, Bashkirs and Kazakhs held a meeting in Berlin and decided to publish the magazine
"Milli yul" in the Tatar language, "- these words confirm our assumptions. .
Apparently, the author of the article under "M. Bokeyhanov "meant Mustafa Shokai,
because of the history we know that among the Tatar, Bashkir, Kazakh intelligentsia was not a
man named M. Bokeyhanov. If we assume that we are talking about Alikhan Bokeikhanov, there
is no documentary evidence to support his life in emigration in Turkey, Berlin, Paris.
On the other hand, there is a sufficient amount of archival materials and memoirs,
supporting contacts and cooperation of M. Shokai with Tatar, Bashkir immigrants, namely G.
Ishaki, Maksudi S., I. Akchurin.
And the Russian emigration in Paris recognized the full talent, talent publicist and political
literacy of M. Shokai, so the door of an editorial office were open to him.
2-3 publications of Berlin invited him to work in 1922. This fact is confirmed in a letter
written by M.Shokay to NP Arkhangelsk on May 12, 1922: "I am engaged in editing and
production of the magazine in Russian, , publish two newspapers in Turkish, also I am the head
of the editorial staff of another newspaper in Russian" [6, 281].
Wherever M.Shokay was he was engaged in journalistic activities. He promoted his
national Turkic ideas through the "eyes and ears of the people.", He published his articles in
French in the magazine "Prometheus Orien e Oksidan", articles in English- in the journal"Asiatik
He published articles in Russian in the newspaper "Days", published by the Russian
emigrant, his classmate A.Kerensky, in the newspaper of Miliukov "Latest news".
But after a while M.Shokay realized that the Russian democracy can not be a reliable ally
of the Turkestan National Movement [6,229]. The question on creation of the periodical, which
will objectively highlight the idea of a united Turkestan, had been ripened.
Together with representatives of the Tatar intelligentsia, his ideological companion-in-
arms A Z.Validi Shokai raised the need to establish an independent publication of the National
Council of Turkestan. It was decided to publish a newspaper, on its working language program
at a meeting of the organization of the National Unity of Turkestan on May, 6, in 1925.
In October of the same year, this issue was discussed in a detailed form, and according to
the decision of the National Unity of Turkestan A.Z. Validi was requested to address the issues
of publication of the newspaper, its funding . As a result, in Istanbul the first issue of "Yeni
Turkistan"was published in June 1927. A.Z. Validi wrote about M.Shokay’s role in the
publication of the magazine: "M.Shokay played an important role in the issue of" Yeni Turkistan
", he was the first person who found the funds, he first had the idea of creating this magazine,"
The magazine served as a means of uniting languages, ideas, thoughts of the peoples of
Turkestan and the Turkish people. First of all, the material published in the journal, introduced
representatives of Turkic people to life, goals, aspirations of the compatriots living abroad;
immigrants; reading a magazine they received information about the national liberation
movement in Turkestan, about the socio-economic and political situation, they got acquainted
with Turkic culture [6.282].
The magazine "Yeni Turkistan" played an important role in promoting the idea of national
freedom and the spread of ideas and views about the spiritual unity of the Turkic people.
M.Shokay published in this magazine a number of articles, for example:
«The ideological and practical aspects of the national policies of the Bolsheviks in Turkestan
», Soviet policy famine in Turkestan, Hunger spread Turkestan, «About a national problem»,
«About a state “Turan”».
The value of these items was the fact that is telling the truth about the Soviet ideology.
The growth of political activity of the representatives of the Turkic people, the increased
demand for periodicals spawned the need to issue a new edition of the magazine along with
M.Shokay did a great deal of preparatory work for the production of a new edition, at his
own expense to send a representative to Turkestan, has established communication with the
people who living in Afghanistan and Iran. In order to collect funds for two weeks remained
outside France. 
December 2, 1926, he wrote in a letter to his counterparts in Warsaw on the preparatory
work for a new edition: "The issue of the magazine requires a lot of time. I attach great
importance to this matter ... We are only now looking for a practical way to the national
struggle. We do not expect instant results and do not give such a promise ... But if we proceed
from the state goals, calculate the long term, our work in this direction is useful and today ".
The result of this hard work was the release in December 1929, the first issue of the
magazine "Yash Turkistan" ( "Uas Turkistan") in Berlin.
The magazine was published in the Turkish-Chagatai languages, its publication was
funded by the Foundation "Prometheus".
The magazine issued a volume of about 40 villages and at first had only 2-3 columns, but each
column disclose the content of the publication. For example, in the first issue of the magazine in
the category "Politics" has published an article by the editor M. Shokai "Bіzdің Zhol" (Our way)
on the editorial board of the journal "Yash Turkestan" in the category "Literature" published
poems Magzhan Zhumabaev, a heading "News" acquainted readers with news, obtained from
M. Shokai in an editorial "Bіzdің Zhol" (Our way) wrote that, on what positions should
this edition. Also in this article, he overtly wrote that the Bolsheviks talk about their goal to build
in Central Asia and Kazakhstan "in form- national, in content - socialist" republic; but in reality
they are just hiding behind various slogans, continuing colonial policy, the tsarist policy of
chauvinism. This fact testifies to the political foresight M.Shokay.
In the article devoted to the fifth anniversary of the founding of the magazine "Yash
Turkestan" (1934), M. Shokay writes: "Now no one Turkic-speaking immigrant families, which
would not have read" Yash Turkestan ". Letters from Arab countries, Turkey, Persia, India,
Afghanistan, China, the Far East and some other countries show, with some respected readers to
the magazine, ".
In the archival materials saved information that the Turkish Ambassador in France noted a
great interest to the journal in the capital of Turkey and asked to send from M. Shokai the next
issue to the embassy. 
These facts we have from archival sources confirm that the magazine is distributed in a
number of States, and that he had numerous readers.
So, we can say that “Yash Turkistan” magazine was the most visible result of the activities
M.Shokay, which fully revealed his talent as a journalist, editor, manifested organizational skills.
Scientist Shokay-researcher K. Esmagambetov based on data from archives materials, he
says that in addition to the magazine "Yash Turkestan" M. Shokai produced "Turkestan"
magazine. This magazine, which earlier in the history of journalism was not known, was
published in Germany. The magazine introduces readers to the life emigration- representatives of
the Turkic people, political, social-economical situation in the republics of Central Asia; it
published articles about the unity of the Turkic people, the views and positions of Soviet power
in relation to national outskirts.
The novelty was the magazine that it published materials showing how the history and
culture of Turkestan is illuminated in the French, German literature. The magazine differed and
its critical political review "Colony of the Soviets", "Conference on the Rights of Turkestan in
Unfortunately, the fate of the title of the magazine was short-lived. Issued magazines from
October 1934 until February 1935 only 5 numbers, ceased to exist. Unfortunately, we do not
have documented information about the reason why the magazine was closed. It is known only
that Turkey had no right to distribute the magazine in its territory. This is evidenced by a
document signed by the president of the state. It says: "In connection with the publication in the
journal" Turkestan "materials containing negative comments about our country, compatible with
Article 51 of the Law" On the periodicals "prohibit its importation into Turkey. Approved by a
delegation of artists 20.12.1934, on the proposal of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, set out in the
letter №805 of 11.12.1934 ".
This was the period of the establishment and strengthening of ties between Turkey and the
Kazakh SSR, and therefore the Turkish government to manifest caution in relation to the facts of
the spread in the emigrant press statements against the Soviet power.
Having started the journalist and publicist in the publications of "Birlik Tuy", "Uli
Turkistan" M.Shokay made a significant contribution to the formation and development based in
its participation "Yeni Turkestan", "Yash Turkestan» magazines, and "Turkestan".
These magazines were distributed in a number of Turkic-speaking and Muslim states. I
would like to pay attention to the fact that the names of all these logs are associated with the
This fact is reflected the main purpose of publicist-editor M.Shokay - building a unified for
all the Turkic people of the state, unity and the unity of the Turkic people, the growth of national
consciousness of the people.
M. Shokay may be called the founder of the Kazakh emigrant journalism.
Speaking about the Kazakh emigrant journalism, it is impossible not to dwell on the
activities of the radio "Azzatyk". Founding radio corporations "Azattyk" in 1951 in New York is
directly connected with the establishment of American Committee for the liberation of the
peoples of Russia.
The purpose of the organization - the protection of freedom of the world and Russian
The first president of the Committee was сorrespodent of UPI in Moscow, and later editor
in chief of "Reader's Digest" Eugene Lyons [16,42]. In November 7th 1951 the Committee
signed an agreement with 11 organizations of immigrants from the Soviet Union, including
Kazakhstan, Central Asia on joint activities to overthrow the Soviet government.
First of all it was necessary to organize the work of the radio station.
For this work, the committee members began in June 1952. In 1953, the first time broadcasting
came out on the radio "Free them from Bolshevism." Since then, the program "Turkestan"
worked for students of Central Asia and Kazakhstan.
Since 1970 there has been broadcasting "Turkestan-1" program, "Turkestan-2", "3-
Turkestan" and "Kazakh branch."
The first Kazakh who worked on this radio, was Karys Kanatbayev.
The leaders of the plans was to combine the Committee to work on the radio of the people who
went to the West from the Soviet Union.
In accordance with this plan, the Americans have established a link with Karys Kanatbayev,
Acting Secretary of the organization "Union Committee of Milli Turkistan" (Unity Committee
Turkistan Milli) and to cooperate in the war years in Berlin with Hitler (16.13).
Karys Kanatbayev starts in uniting all the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Turkmen, Tajiks
living abroad, adhering to the position "One way of Turkestan" M.Shokay.
On the radio "Azattyk" worked and other Kazakh immigrants; most of them were those
who during the Great Patriotic War were captured and, fearing prosecution authorities, remained
The Soviet government made every effort to radio broadcasts
"Azattyk" which did not get broadcasting: appliances were invented, silencing radio. The
population of the republics of the Soviet Union could not listen to the radio transmission of the
title in full, but special thanks to the installation of radio transmission equipment "Azzatyk"
gradually reached his listeners.
The aspiration of our foreign compatriots is to preserve national traditions, language,
culture, love for their native land did not disappear, though replaced by several generations.
After the December 1986 events in Turkey in Kazakhstan by Kazakh living there, it was created
"Vakif" cultural and educational society. The founders of the company are the representatives of
the Kazakh Diaspora in Turkey.
By the initiative of the society called "Vakif" came out "Bulletin of the Kazakh Turkish
society in March 1988. We saw the light only two issues of this edition, in which the articles
were published about the history and ethnography of the Kazakhs, about life of the Kazakh
Diaspora in Turkey and Western Europe, interviews with prominent representatives of the
In 1990, the Federal Republic of Germany in the cities of Munich and Cologne was
organized by the Society for the organization of cultural and religious activities among the
Kazakh youth. By the initiative of this Society came out in 1993 in Munich, in the light of
"Bulletin of the European Turkish Kazakhs." The first issue was published in Turkish, the
second - in Kazakh. But life, and this edition was short-lived. The reason for that was the
organizational shortcomings and, most importantly, not enough quantity of employees owning
the Kazakh language.
It should be noted that the "Bulletin of the European Turkish Kazakhs", released in Germany,
probably the legal continuation of the "Bulletin of the Society of Turkish Kazakhs" Vakif ",
published in 1986 in Turkey.
Of course, the emigre periodicals are not limited to the above contact information means,
but the history of these publications, their positions reflect the characteristics of the emigre
journalism: first all of the above publishing (starting with magazines, produced M.Shokay and to
ballots) were created on the initiative of immigrants and their own financial resources; secondly,
in whatever state they were not published, they were not propagated the ideology of the State:
their main goal was to promote the Kazakh national or Pan-Turkic ideology; thirdly, emigrant
editions came out, not only in the Kazakh language, but whatever language they are not
published, they covered national problems: extolled national values, language, religion, customs
and traditions; condemned the policy of colonialism and chauvinism of the Soviet government
towards other nationalities; fourth, these publications were aimed at awakening national
consciousness, called for the struggle for freedom and independence.
If we compare with the emigre publications, media, produced in the Kazakh language in
Mongolia and China, countries where there are many Kazakhs, it is possible to see the
For example, one of the most densely populated area of the Kazakhs Mongolii- it is Bai olke
region. In this area schools and kindergartens, libraries run in the Kazakh language, newspapers,
magazines and broadcast radio and television programs were available in the Kazakh language.
Since 1941, since the formation of the region, issued the first newspaper in the Kazakh language
- "Orkendeu". The paper consisted of two pages, printed in Latin script, some of the material
published in the Mongolian language [17,66]. The newspaper published under the title "Zhana
Omir" (New Life) and already contained four pages since 1956. Also, Mongolia's radio
broadcasted in Russian, Chinese and Kazakh languages since 1956. The duration of the transfer
in the Kazakh language was 15 minutes. And in 1965, the radio version was translated from
Ulaanbaatar to Bai olke and broadcast transmission in the Kazakh language.
Although these programs spoke the Kazakh language of national customs and traditions,
etc., their main theme was the promotion of the Kazakh language policy and ideology of the
Mongolian state. All these information tools were produced with the support of the state, funded
by the state.
On the same conditions and positions are established and published the newspaper
"Tonkerys tany" in Ili district of the Republic of China since 1935, the newspaper "Shinzhiyang
Altai" in Tarbagatay and the magazine "Tan Sholpan", existing since 1948.
So, we can say that not all media published abroad, affect and discuss issues relating to the
Soviet government, the national politics.
Emigre journalism we can evaluate as a means of inspiring the struggle for nezavismoy,
for the building of a free State, with the growth of national consciousness.