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аударманың кейбір мәселелері. Мақалалар жинағы. – Алматы: Қазақ көркем әдебиет баспасы, 1957.
– 172 б.
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перевода. – Л., 1962. – С. 9.
Сатыбалдиев Ә. Рухани қазына: көркем аударма мәселелері. – Алматы, 1987. – 128 б.
Әбілов А. Көркем проза тәржімәсі және ырғақ // Қазақ әдебиеті. – 2007. – 30 наурыз.
Соболев Л. О переводе // Собрание сочинений. – М.: Советская Россия, 1989. – Т. 5. – 571 с.
Қазыбек Г.К. Аударматануға кіріспе. – Алматы: Қазақ университеті, 2004. – 215 б.
Тастемирова Г.А. Обучение студентов произведений Азиза Несина в казахской литературе В статье рассматриваются способы перевода произведений Әзиза Несина на казахский язык и
обучения. В материале рассматривает актуальные проблемы и перевода данного произведения на
Ключевые слова: обучение, казахская литература, произведения, сатира, перевод, Азиз Несин.
Tastemirova G.А. Training students the works of Aziz Nesin in Kazakh literature The article considered methods of translation and training of the product Aziz Nesin in the Kazakh
language. This material allows us to trace all the successful reproduction and incorrecting translation into that
Kaywords: training, Kazakh literature, work, satire, translation, Aziz Nesin.
Karibayeva B.E. – PhD student Kazakh Ablai Khan university
of International Relations and World Languages
(Almaty city, Kazakhstan), E- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
BUSINESS DISCOURSE IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION: CULTURAL IDENTITIES AND COMMUNICATION FAILURE Abstract. The article deals with modern business discourse in the lights of intercultural communication.
The importance of cultural and ethnic characteristics of participants in business communication is proved by
research evidence. There have been covered causes of communication failures and errors in following different
strategies by the representatives of different cultures.
Keywords: business discourse, intercultural communication, communication strategy, communication
Communication issues have become extremely topical due to general globalization processes in the
world. This process is vividly illustrated in the interaction between linguistic and cultural factors in the
construction of discourse. The analysis of these phenomena is a source of valuable evidence as to the
General use of spoken English is always going through adaptation and modification due to its
international usage. So, if several years ago we used to learn English as a language of English people, now
it is a trend to learn it as a lingua franca, a global language which actually does not belong to any specific
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ethnics. Though English is already on the international level, the influence of culture identity cannot be
omitted. The same situation is in Kazakh language, which in the recent years has rapidly become a
language of business in Kazakhstan.
While a large amount of linguistic theory and research on the relationship between culture and
discourse exists, most of investigations in the business context are not focused on the linguistic features of
discourse [1, p. 420]. That is going to be an object of attention in our paper.
To view the matter of cultural peculiarities of English, Kazakh and other cultures, we are going to
understand deeply the nature of communication and namely, the peculiarities in business discourse. If we
consider business discourse as
interaction which takes place between individuals whose main activities are
located within business and whose contact is motivated by matters relating to their respective businesses [2,
p. 29], interaction here can be interpreted as communication, because in the paper we deal with considering
business negotiations as an object of study.
Communication is a complicated social and psychological process of mutual understanding which is
realized by the following channels: verbal and non-verbal. The term “verbal” (from the Latin “verbalis” –
oral) in psychology is used to refer to information expressed by sign, verbal or linguistic system. The
relationship between verbal and non-verbal components of communication is of great interest and
importance. Firstly, any form of verbal communication element contains emotional values. It is expressed
in the subtext, the additional semantic meaning of verbal communication or speech modality. Secondly, in
the direct contact nonverbal elements also play an important part, i.e. utterances communication partners.
According to D. Gudkov, though expressive means of non-verbal behavior of the person depend on
language, they are still relatively independent [3, p. 39-41]. The latter is especially evident in the case of a
mismatch (for various reasons) between the communicative functions of speech and its meaning. Verbal
communication is used as a sign of human speech, natural sound language, i.e. a system of phonetic
symbols, including two principles: the lexical and syntactic. It is the most universal means of
communication as the transmission of information through speech the meaning of the message has a chance
not to be lost.
Speech as a means of communication also acts as a source of information, and as a way to impact on
the interlocutor. The following ancient saying is worth of mentioning in this case: "Whether you are clever
or foolish, great or small, we do not know until you say anything." An important role is also played by the
accuracy of the use of the word, its expressiveness and accessibility, correct phrasing and clarity, the
correct pronunciation of sounds, words, expression and meaning of intonation. Expressive voice quality
(paralinguistic system) increase the semantically meaningful information, but not by means of additional
voice switching and special techniques:
- the rate of speech (fast, medium, slow), i.e. the speed of implementation of the verbal action;
- modulation of the pitch of the voice (smooth, sharp);
- the tone of voice (high, low);
- rhythm (steady, intermittent);
- voice (rumbling, hoarse, raspy);
- the articulation of speech, i.e. clarity, clarity of pronunciation of sounds.
The meaning of information precedes the encoding process (statement) for the communicator as a
speaker first has a definite plan, and then represents it in a system of signs. To "listen" to the meaning of
the received message is revealed at the same time decoding. Accuracy in understanding of a listener of the
utterance may become apparent to the interlocutor only when they swap the "communicative roles", i.e.
when the recipient becomes a communicator and how his statement will reveal the meaning of the
information. Dialogue as a specific kind of conversation is a sequential shift of communicative roles,
during which the meaning of the voice message is revealed. In this case the phenomenon of "enrichment
and development of information" happens.
Pragmatic aspect influences the pattern of selection of linguistic signs, systematizes, places a certain
body of knowledge of the speaker in the whole system. Selection of appropriate linguistic units can be
called successful if they fully reflect, clarify and concretize the position of the speaker, achieve the desired
effect . Intentions of motivational and emotional evaluation have a wide array of linguistic resources for
the expression of latent assessment, transfer of emotional state of the sender and to encourage the
interlocutor to act. Contact intention, which occupies a special position within the framework of the
classification, determines the possibility of its linguistic description from the viewpoint of the use of
linguistic signs in realizing intentions.
Due to its diverse situational variation the language of business communication is divided into a
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number of registers of business communication:
1) business conversations aimed at establishing relations and creating an atmosphere for a business
2) business documents, business correspondence;
3 ) presentation;
5) contracts, agreements;
Negotiations are divided into a number of stages and considered to be subregisters. According to
Bakhtin, the choice of a strategy in business communication is determined by practical purposes, social and
economic status, the position of the communicants, behavioral characteristics, as well as the cultural and
national identity of communicative behavior .
For example, it is revealed that English-speaking business partners are characterized by restrained,
formal, neutral statements, both positive and negative facts. Spanish-speaking partners often use
connotatively marked words, dramatic exaggeration of the situation, showing a desire to put the interests
for themselves in critical situations.
Markers of strategies are the units of verbal strategies (lexical and grammatical formula, vocabulary
realizing positive tone of communication, empathy and accuracy of statements) and non-verbal behavior
(corresponding kinesthetic means, proxemics, prosody). Each situation is inherent in business interaction,
defines a set of tactics, interactive signals and strategies. The main principle of business negotiations, i.e.
cooperation is carried out. And as it has been shown by observation, it is realized through a cooperative
strategy of three types:
- organizational strategies;
- logical construction of discourse and communicative variation: discussion on the talks,
performances regulation, interruption of a partner, change of themes, promotion of alternatives;
- Rhetorical strategies, i.e. verbal impact on partner: opinionating threat (overt and covert),
persuasion, inducement, humiliation of partner’s response proposals;
- Compensatory strategies, i.e. correction of language errors and failures: clarification of positions of
a partner, discussion topics, summarizing points of view, the search for compromise, call for help. In
organizational strategies communicative in business communication is traditionally expressed by the
pronoun "we" (including Kazakh culture), and in English culture is realized through cooperative empathic
strategy - "you, your interests".
Successful negotiations go through six main stages:
establishment of a contact;
preparatory phase that precedes the start of negotiations;
the initial phase of the negotiations;
the first half of the negotiations;
conclusion of the transaction and bargaining;
conclusion of the agreement,
Each stage is characterized by its own rhetorical strategies (communicative features)
1. At the initial stage of negotiations language means are static, informative, emotional, and it lacks
judgments. The style is official, impersonal, lacks empathy.
2. In the further stages of negotiations when proposing, accepting or rejecting proposals, messages
about the achievements of the company are characterized by relativity, emotions, use of qualitative
adjectives to describe a collective effort, communication. The degree of expressiveness depends on the
individuality of a recipient.
3. If the stages of bargaining, concessions, negotiations end up with misunderstanding and failure,
different types of clauses and complex sentences, passive constructions are often used in explaining the issue.
In negotiations we can distinguish the following speech situations: greetings, introduction, creation
of positive atmosphere, defining the purpose of the negotiations, agree on an agenda, an expression of
interest and the description of the expected results, change of topics, check of partner’s understanding and
explanation in case of misunderstanding, an explanation of errors or omissions in partner’s affirmations,
proposing, the answer to the nomination proposal or counter-proposal, rejection of the proposal, agreement,
to propose to the conditions, the elucidation of the reaction of the partner in the concession, giving and
receiving concessions, soft bargaining, hard bargaining and principled bargaining, an agreement, to discuss
arrangements for the next meeting and the conclusion of negotiations. Impact on the partner in business
communication is done not through the creation of original creative language units, but globally, through
communicative behavior, verbal and nonverbal communication, through a variety of statements: shape,
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style, tone, alternating statements, the order of transmission of speech, ways of providing feedback and
combining the frontal and lateral communication. In these situations, different grammatical means of
communicative variation are used: expressions of modality and category of mood, voice, aspect (in
English) etc. But they are not functionally determined and didactically organized in accordance with the
specific language of business communication. Speaking of Kazakh discourse peculiarities, we may
emphasize high register switching in negotiations from formal to informal which is not so obvious in
English business discourse.
Typology of failure is largely determined by pragmatic terms. Successful communication can be
defined as the achievement of strategic objectives speaking in a conflict-free speech interaction.
Unsuccessful, ineffective verbal communication leads to a phenomenon called communicative conflict,
communicative failures and communicative discomfort .
B.Yu.Gorodetsky gives the following definition of communicative failure: "Communicative failure
in a broad sense is any communicative failure when any case when the speech act does not achieve its
practical purpose. In a narrow sense, communicative failure is not only the failure when practical purposes
have not been achieved, but communicative ones as well. B.Yu.Gorodetsky summarized the basic
principles of their typology . According to the number of sources and consequences communication
failure can be simple or complex.
Language errors in communication practice can be classified in the following way:
phonetic and phonological (мел – мель, қатер – катер, тұр – түр, did – deed, etc), intonation
spelling (eg, Russian advertising into English or in Chinese instruction translated into Russian)
lexical (old - senior, in the Spanish language, the word Americano means a citizen of any
country in North, South or Central America, not just the United States).
grammar. Different languages have their own peculiarities in grammar which can also lead to
Discursive errors are not caused by lack of knowledge of the language and its system, they happen
as a result of incorrect use of linguistic resources in specific situations, a violation of cultural norms and
Ethic errors (ignorance of the rules of speech etiquette, wrong treatment to persons with titles,
ranks, in formal and informal settings)
Ignorance of mental stereotypes, differences in usage of zoomorphic characteristics of the
person. For example, the Japanese pig is associated with mess and dirty, not with the fat person; badger is
associated with cunning and greed, a cat for the British - freedom-loving animal, swan for Kazakh people is
Ethnic stereotypes. Here we can refer ethnonyms which are actively used to describe the person
in one culture, and may have no value in another.
Encyclopaediс mistakes which mean lack of background knowledge known to almost all other
cultures (King Arthur, Beowulf, Chauser, the Canterbury Tales for British people; Timujin, Queen Tomiris
for Kazakh culture; Ilya Muromets, Ivan the Fool for Russian people, etc.).
Therefore, in order to avoid communication failures and successfully master a foreign language it is
important to pass acculturation which means acquiring the national culture, material facts, norms and
values of another culture . Though it is practically impossible to cover all these facts in business
communication, national and cultural identity must be taken into account as thoroughly as possible, there
must be shown high respect for other cultures and tolerance.
The constant components of any process of intercultural business discourse are the features of the
participants, especially the communicative situation, stereotypes and cultural values, constants or variables that
are basis of activities of communicants. Basic cultural concepts are transmitted in the form of statements
containing a cultural component. According to Bakhtin, each type of cultural differences in thinking and
behavior corresponds to a particular type of communicative message. The main ways to solve the problems
caused by cultural differences are the following: to suggest both verbal and non-verbal strategies such as
persistent, uncompromising behavior, adaptive behavior, avoiding a collision and ignoring cultural differences,
frontal and lateral communications, cross and individual performances in the distribution of roles (turn-taking),
interrupting at imposing speech cues to encourage a dialogue, statements and responses, as well as a variety of
strategies to respond to statements such as cooperative, individualistic strategy partner support within the team
and the strategy of introducing a new theme using the front and lateral cues .
The variety of speech situations in business discourse makes it very inhomogeneous in stylistic
terms. All linguistic situations can be analyzed by three parameters: 1) the event; 2) participants; 3) the role
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language. These three variables define the register of verbal communication, so the classification of speech
situations depends on the purpose of negotiations. The stage of negotiations affects the speech forms,
speech etiquette and communicative behavior in intercultural communication. In order to achieve mutual
understanding it is very important to use proper language elements that contribute to the successful
implementation of verbal communication, such as metacommunicative statements, which initiate, maintain,
interrupt or close the contact. From the point of view of the availability of information content, they
sometimes seem to be redundant, but their presence in the communicative structure of the dialogue is
necessary to facilitate contact between the interlocutors, especially, in case of intercultural negotiations.
Thus, as we see, representatives of different cultures can be under the strong influence of their own
background in business negotiations, no matter how advanced and tolerant they are. Even English is a
language that can be misunderstood in intercultural business society, although it has gained a steady status
of a global language. Kazakh has become a language of business recently, so here the situation is even
much more complicated and needs thorough investigations and the ways of avoiding cross-ethnical
conflicts and controversial points.
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жағдаятта мәдени және этникалық өзгешеліктерді ескеру қажеттігі дәлелденген. Сонымен қатар, әртүрлі
ұлттардың іскерлік дискурстағы коммуникативті сәтсіздіктері мен стратегия таңдауындағы қателердің