Implementation of the «single window»
principle in Lithuania
less to ministries and to their subordinate bodies, a principal of district and his/her administration
and in very rare case to the Government, the President of Republic, or the Parliament and their
institutions and bodies. It is like that because it is obliged for municipalities by laws to ensure the
implementation of human rights and liberties for constantly residing inhabitants in their territories,
related with common public interests and needs when they apply for institutions in oral or written
way or do it through an authorized person
. Therefore especially municipalities should improve the
The principle of „single window” is applied in both centralized and decentralized service of
institution’s administrative unit – reception, office of individual service by the principle of “single
window” or just “single window” office, office of citizens’ service, etc. – delivers a service for an
individual – his/her acceptation and first contact touch, listening, introduction to his/her demand
or complaint and presented information or documents, presentation of information on problem
resolution, other tasks. It is declared in Rules on Examination of Demands and Individual Service
in Public Administration Institutions, bodies and other public administration subjects that a unit of
individual service “single window” or centralized service of individuals is created in institution for which
many individuals apply, where there are a lot of demands to deliver a service or many complaints
on violation of rights and when it becomes impossible to distribute tasks related to individual service
for employees not violating rights and legal interests and not affecting on quality regarding to duties.
The decentralized service of individuals is such form of service when civil servants and employees
together with other duties that are assigned by legal acts or the executive of institution accept
demands and complaints, manage them and examine them under the principle of “single window”.
Because of that it is false to think that the creation of a unit for centralized service of individuals
will realize unconsciously the principle of “single window”, and, conversely, in the presence of the
decentralized service of individuals the principle of “single window” won’t be implemented.
The implementation of the principle of “single window” doesn’t depend on the form of the individual
service: to get information and accord the draft of the decision in the absence of an individual (it is
exactly the essence of the application of the principle of “single window”) should be equally ensured
both by a special unit of individual service and each civil servant or employee who is charged to
examine a demand or a complaint and deliver a service under the assignment of the executive of
On October-November 2008 the Ministry of Interior carried out a survey of opinion of ministries,
Government bodies, bodies and ministries, district principal’s administrations, municipalities’
institutions, and bodies. The results of this survey demonstrated that the significance progress
was achieved implementing the principle of “single window”: there are no subjective reasons,
impeding the implementation of this principle, it was noticed endeavours to create the new more
effective models of individual service, in various way to accord advantages of forms of centralized
and decentralized individual service. Aside the results of the survey it was demonstrated that
there are still reasons, principally impeding the implementation of the principle of “single
window”: there are short of funds, it is necessary to modernize communication systems, acquire
computer-based and program equipment, there is no access to integrated databases, it is not
sufficiently regulated relations between public administration institutions and other organizations
exchanging information and servicing individuals, institutions and bodies lack methodical
knowledge and experience to implant the principle of “single window” for individual service
In order of Ministery of Internal Affairs in 2010 was performed one more study, which showed
institutions understand the essence of “single window” principle, the survey data in 2010 shows that
have already become the rule not to require a person to provide information and documents from
handle administrative departments or subordinate institutions. But it is still institutions, which ask
citizents to provide information or documents from other institutions, if it is provided by the law
Asmenų aptarnavimas ir jų prašymų ir skundų nagrinėjimas taikant „vieno langelio“ principą institucijose ir įstaigose (praktinis
vadovas). Vidaus reikalų ministerija, Vilnius, 2008, p. 67.
Ibidem p. 13.
Ibidem p. 14.
„Vieno langelio“ principo įgyvendinimo savivaldybėse metodinės rekomendacijos. Vidaus reikalų ministerija, Vilnius, 2009 p. 4–9
Asmenų aptarnavimas ir jų prašymų ir skundų nagrinėjimas taikant „vieno langelio“ principą institucijose ir įstaigose praktinis
vadovas (atnaujintas ir papildytas). Vidaus reikalų ministerija, Vilnius, 2010, p. 14.
Currently in many institutions servicing individuals the documents management systems
which introduce individual’s personal data, is in use, it is scanned his/her demand or complaint.
A specialist, accepting a demand from an individual, collects, and processes and introduces
information into the documents management system. Then information is transmitted to the
executive of an institution which directs to a specialist, and the latter applies for registers,
examines information and takes a decision.
Author of this article selected several Lithuanian municipalities for the analysis of implementation
of „single window“in practice. Reviewing the cases of such municipalities as of Kaunas, Panevėžys,
of regions of Jonava and Utena it was found out that the individual service in the municipalities
of Kaunas and Panevėžys was realized in conformity with the Resolution of the Prime Minister,
especially under the third form of implementation of the principle of “single window” – “creation of an
independent unit”, but in municipalities of regions of Jonava and Utena it acts under the second form
of the implementation of this principle – “creation of a supplement working place”.
It is noticed that models of municipalities of Kaunas and Panevėžys can be identified for the level
of the complexity, integration of services as “the model of everyday needs shop” and for the extent
and specialization it can be put under “the specialized model”. Municipalities of regions of Utena and
Jonava for the complexity of services can be identified under “the model of the first step”, but for the
extent and specialization – also under “the specialized model”.
There are units acting under the principle of “single window” in all reviewed municipalities
as “front-office”, and their main task is to accept an individual demand or complaint, verify if all
necessary documents are added, and register a demand or a complaint, then to address to the
executive of the municipality or to the structural unit in conformity with attribution. All employees,
servicing individuals, belong to one and the same unit – to the Unit of General Affairs. It is used the
documents management system in all municipalities, but not all documents are scanned, there are
some documents in paper version and e-documents that move through the municipality. There are
e-services in all municipalities, and the level of services is the highest in the municipality of Kaunas,
and quite low in municipalities of region of Jonava and Utena. There are not serviced all individuals
in the individual service: separately it is accepted individuals for children protection, civic register and
The analysis of Implementation of the principle allows the formulation of some disadvantages of
the application of the principle of “single window” in municipalities:
It is problematic and not very reasonable to create an institution of “single window” at small
When there is no direct contact between a client and a hand, there is a probability that a demand,
a problem can be mistakenly understood and resolved;
The situation is more complicated if a client receives an answer and he/she is not satisfied for it,
or he/she wants some supplement information, etc. Sometimes it is difficult to find out responsible
legal acts, it was found out that the concept of „single window” has appeared in national legal
acts in 2000 as one of components of the governance modernization, and from 2006 when the
principle of “single window” was legitimized as one of eight public administration principles,
and there are more and more various measures to implement the mentioned principle. 1
base on it servicing individuals, examining their demands and complaints.
“Single window” principle is an instrument to achieve a higher level of service culture, to better
realize the institutions and their employee`s constitutional duty to serve the people, to ensure the
rights and freedoms of the citizens to apply to state institutions and agencies requesting a service or
defense of violated right. This instrument permanently supplement with methods, arising from along
with new technical capabilities and information technologies in public administration. Changing the
management of the technological environment enables public officials and employees to adopt and
apply in practice best management practices and standards in all areas and especially in serving
citizens and deal with requests and complaints and to provide the requested services.
principle in Lithuania
The main goal of the report is to analyse the measures for promotion of use of renewable energy sources
and the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuanian electricity sector. In the analysis of the application
of measures to promote the use of RES in the electricity sector, theoretical presumptions and experience of
use of such measures in Europe have been reviewed. Based on a thorough examination of using RES in the
electricity sector, wind and biomass energy seem to have the largest RES potential in the Lithuanian electricity
sector. Using hydro energy is bound by strict environmental norms that require an appropriate examination
in order to be improved. Setting a green electricity feed-in tariff is considered the main measure to promote
RES use in the Lithuanian electricity sector. The criteria of the feed-in tariff validity in Lithuania are not clearly
identified and justified.
Мақала мақсаты Литва Республикасының энергетика саласында парникті шығындардың төмендеуі
мен жаңартылатын энергия көздерін қолдану бойынша шараларын талдау болып табылады. Талдауда
Еуропада жаңартылатын энергия көздерін және оны Литвада қолданудың мүмкіндігін енгізу үшін
теориятикалық және практикалық алғышарттарына шолу жасалынды. Энергетика саласында
жаңартылатын энергия көздерін енгізу мәселелерін мұқият зерделеу негізінде желді энергетика мен
биомасса энергиясы елде жоғары әлеуетке ие деген тұжырымдама жасауға болады. Литвада су
энергетикасын пайдалану экологиялық нормалардың мәселелеріне тәуелді және егжей-тегжейлі
талдау жүргізуді талап етеді. Жасыл энергетиканы енгізу Литваның энергетика саласында ЖЭК енгізу
мәселесінің басты шарасы болып саналады. Литвада жеңілдік тарифтерінің өлшемдері әлі толықтай
анықталмаған және негізсіз.
Тірек сөздер: Энергияның жаңартылған дереккөздері (ВИЭ), электроэнергетикалық сектор,
тегін оттату тарифі, ЭЖД жылжыту, көшетхана газдар.
Целью доклада является анализ мер по использованию возобновляемых источников энергии и
снижение парниковых выбросов в сфере энергетики Литовской Республики. В анализе представлен
обзор теоретических и практических предпосылок для внедрения возобновляемых источников энергии в
Европе и возможные пути их применения в Литве. На основе тщательного изучения вопроса внедрения
возобновляемых источников энергии в сфере энергетики можно сделать вывод, что ветровая энергетика
и энергия биомассы в стране имеет большой потенциал. Использование гидроэнергетики в Литве под
вопросом из-за экологических норм и требует проведения подробного анализа. Внедрение зеленой
энергетики считается главной мерой в вопросе внедрения ВИЭ в Литовской энергетической сфере.
Критерии льготных тарифов в Литве пока до конца четко не определены и не обоснованы.
Under the increasing spread of the concept of sustainable development, which is conditioned by
globalization, special attention is given to the environmental aspects of the activities of the electricity
sector. One should emphasize the reduction of the effects of gas, which has a negative effect on
climate change and the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES). Obviously, the role of the
authorities in the promotion of energy markets and ensuring fair competition must change and
more attention should be given to the development of an accountable energy system by introducing
new tools of regulation of electricity sector activities. Hence, a new tendency is becoming more
and more obvious in Western countries – the requirements of governance of the electricity sector
include not only ensuring the market, but also ensuring the energy safety conditions, promotion of
‘green energy’, and introduction of the measures for reduction of emission of greenhouse gases
(GHG). Respectively, this requires a new revision of the functions of institutions responsible for the
governance of the electricity sector.
The main goal of the report is to analyse the measures for promotion of use of renewable energy
sources and the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuanian electricity sector.
Research methods. For the analysis of the theoretical issues concerning governance of the
electricity sector, common research methods are used in the thesis, the following of which are to
be specified: systematic, comparative and logical analysis of academic literature and legal acts;
case analysis, classification, comparative historical method, prognosis, theoretical modeling,
interpretation, and theoretical conclusions.
In this research, an empirical qualitative analysis has been carried out, which allows a more
comprehensive and detailed structuring of the depiction of the subject under analysis, and a better
understanding the phenomenon. Experts of the electricity sector were surveyed for the qualitative
analysis. The selected respondents include the experts who have had direct experience of governance
of the Lithuanian electricity sector and the scientists who have analyzed the object of this thesis. A
semi-structured interview was employed in the survey of experts.
Survey respondents were selected by (a) stratified; (b) criterion; and (c) snowball sampling. The
selection criteria: (a) knowledge; (b) work experience; and (c) relation to governance of the electricity
energy’, but its price significantly exceeds the prices of traditional energy, and buying of such electricity
increases end user prices. These costs may be treated as the present generation’s investment into
the future, which should be well founded.
In the analysis of the application of measures to promote reduction of GHG emission and the use
of RES in the electricity sector, theoretical presumptions and experience of use of such measures in
Europe have been reviewed [1; 10; 11]. To be focused upon are methods of direct control that would
be based on the administrative regulation measures (e.g., environmental quality standards, bans,
permissions) and on the economic instruments (i.e., economic regulation) that allow the polluter to
decide what level of pollutants to emit and to pay for by distributing one’s resources according to the
aims to be achieved. One of the prevailing instruments for reducing emission of pollutants into the
The analyses of promotion of renewable energy
sources and the measures to reduce emission
of greenhouse gases in Lithuania
environment is the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) (the European Union has introduced the ETS
The literary analysis [2; 4; 8; 9], allows one to state that the main issues obstructing the development
of RES use in electricity generation are associated with a relatively high costs of such energy in
the paying-off period (except for large hydro power stations), which is the case due to huge initial
capital investment. Present technologies do not allow production of ‘green’ electricity in competitive
conditions; therefore the authorities of the EU countries, when taking care of the common benefits of
RES use (e.g., solution of ecological problems and their prevention, economic and political safety)
give a great deal of attention to the promotion of generation of this type of energy. The analysis of
countries’ experience allows one to state that feed-in tariff is a more advantageous mechanism for
the promotion of RES use, whereas the market based on the green certificates does not serve the
lithuanian electricity sector case Analyses
The analysis of reduction of GHG emissions and the analysis of RES promotion in the Lithuanian
electricity sector lead to the view that promoting the use of RES and the gas emission trading scheme
(ETS) are the major means of reduction of GHG emissions [3; 7]. Because of its geographical location
and technical infeasibility, applying methods of capturing CO
in Lithuania would be ineffective .
to reduce GHG emissions are feasible and the existing measures comply with the fundamental
Based on a thorough examination of using RES in the electricity sector, wind and biomass
energy seem to have the largest RES potential in the Lithuanian electricity sector [5; 6]. Using hydro
energy is bound by strict environmental norms that require an appropriate examination in order to
Setting a green electricity feed-in tariff is considered the main measure to promote RES use in
the Lithuanian electricity sector. The criteria of the feed-in tariff validity in Lithuania are not clearly
Exploring the development of RES use, four key groups of obstacles have been identified. The
review of various sources of information shows that the development in RES use in Lithuania‘s
electricity sector is more oriented toward large corporate businesses than toward welfare of small
businesses and household communities. It is important to note that full-function policy concerning
RES use in households in general is not established.