In Kazakhstan, English was set as an important language for Kazakh students to gain profound knowledge at a
good university or college; hence, the language class is crucial for them to pass the unique national test in English.
Yet, this examination test focuses on grammar and reading ability. There is no part for checking the communicative
ability of the student. That is why most of the teachers at school are exploiting the Grammar Teaching method to
teach English, which focuses on the grammatical structure. Thereby, this present teaching situation directs students
to pay attention to grammar not to speaking. Students of our country are taught English from the second grade
at gymnasium and lyceum and from the ﬁ fth grade at public general schools; hence, students learn English for
seven or ten years. But, seven or ten years study cannot show good results, because they are unable to speak freely
or engage in real life situations without hesitation. Students have good grammar but weak speaking. Why do we
need perfect grammar if we cannot use it in speech? Communication is the most important aspect of our daily life
that needs language. The result is that the method of teaching must be changed partly by integrating new ways of
There are different methods to teach English, such as the Structural Approach, Grammar Teaching,
Communicative Language Teaching etc.. And Communicative Language Teaching is the most suitable approach to
teach and improve the speaking ability of students, because it is learner-centered and emphasizes communication
ability and real – life situations. So, the function of the teacher is just a facilitator to direct the student to reach
his/her target. In our traditional way of teaching a teacher has the main role and it is teacher – centered which
cannot give any possibility for the student to transmit his/her idea or be interested in everyday situations. However,
Communicative Language Teaching is a signiﬁ cant tool to practise and enhance the speaking ability of students.
With the development of the economy and the opportunities to study abroad, the traditional method of teaching
cannot meet innovations’ demands. Therefore, most of the teachers try to ﬁ nd a method to improve the students’
speaking ability. The purpose of this article is to explain Communicative Language Teaching through reviewing
different literatures and to show its effectiveness through some types of activities which can foster and enhance
students’ speaking skill.
in the university.They assess their speaking ability at the same level as the other three skills. Thus, it is difﬁ cult for
our country’s students to pass the exam, because we always use the grammar translation method which emphasises
grammar; hence, most of the students cannot talk to foreigners without hesitation. So it is an urgent problem and
students must improve their speaking ability, because they cannot speak freely, even though they have learnt the
language for seven or ten years.
and some of its techniques. Moreover, with the help of this approach to make students more conﬁ dent. It helps to
improve ﬂ uency and connect the lesson with real life situations.
What is speaking? Speaking is a key point for communicating, thinking, and learning. Oral language is a
considerably important learning tool. Oral language is the foundation of all language growth and, therefore, the
begin of all obtaining knowledge. Speaking is at the core of other language skills because it helps to perceive
them. Speaking and listening help students to learn concepts, understand the structure of the English language,
and enlarge vocabulary which are extremely important components of language learning. School achivements
are measured by the students’ ability to produce their ideas, to show intelligence in a pure and satisfactory type
in speaking as well as writing. If Students have a powerful spoken language, they possess a greater chance of
learning and use, writing and speaking are the other two productive skills necessary to be integrated in the
development of effective communication. Among the four English skills, speaking seems to be the most signiﬁ cant
skill which is demanded for communication . Zaremba produced a study indicating that speaking skills or
communication skills were usually placed ahead of work experience, motivation, and academic credentials as
criteria for new recruitment for employment [3, p. 32-34]. It is appropriate to say that in Kazakhstan we have the
same situation because in order to get a job in a good company or organization you have to be interviewed by the
employer to measure the level of your English. Students who study English as a foreign language usually have
restrained chances to speak English outside the classroom  and also limited exposure to English speakers or
members of the national community. This might be one reason for teachers to provide more situations and activities
for students to strengthen their speaking competence. If students are provided by deferent types of situations or
often used speaking tasks, it will be a magniﬁ cent role in the enhancement of students’ ﬂ uency.
Introduction and characteristics of Communicative Language Teaching.
In the 1970s, there was conducted an observation by some educators and revealed that students could make
accurate sentences in the classroom, but these are not used appropriately in real communication outdoors. Some
other educators noticed that mastering linguistic structure is not enough for being able to communicate, due to the
fact that language was fundamentally social . These points of views are agreed by the majority of our English
language teachers. They also support our foreign educators opinion and in the result of some research we came to
the conclusion that students who are good at grammar and vocabulary not good enough at speaking because they
lack of practice. Moreover, they cannot choose appropriate utterance or functions to the context. Within a social
context, language users needed to perform certain functions, such as inviting, welcoming, and refusing. Students
may be acquainted with the rules of linguistic usage, but be unable to make a practice of the language. In brief,
being able to communicate required more than linguistic competence; it required communicative competence
knowing when and how to say what to whom. Such observations fostered a shift in the ﬁ eld in the late 1970s and
early 1980s from a linguistic structure- centered approach to a Communicative Approach .
Emphasizing today’s changing English Language Teaching context and the trend toward Communicative
Language Teaching, Brown pays attention to the signiﬁ cance of real – life communication, producing unpracticed
language performance out of the classroom, growing linguistic ﬂ uency and fostering lifelong language learning.
Brown also lists some of the key features of Communicative Language Teaching as follows: “1. Classroom goals
are focused on in all the components of communicative competence; they are not restricted to grammatical or
linguistic competence. 2. Language teaching techniques are designed to engage learners in the pragmatic, authentic
and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. Linguistic structures do not represent the central focus but
rather aspects of language which enable the learner to accomplish those purposes. 3. Fluency and accuracy are seen
as complementary principles underlying communicative techniques. At times, ﬂ uency may have to take on more
importance than accuracy in order to keep learners meaningfully engaged in language use. 4. In the communicative
classroom, students ultimately have to use the language, productively and receptively, in unrehearsed contexts”
Luoma stated that “the ability to speak in a foreign language is at the very heart of what it means to be able to
use a foreign language.” [7, p. 9]
Implementing Communicative Language Teaching by different activities
Role play and simulation. Patricia K. Tompkins states that role playing and simulation are important method
for second language learners, because, thinking , creativity, motivation, development and practice of new language
are encouraged . In order to experiment this technique I have been using one role play at each lesson depending
on the topic. First time it was inefﬁ cient but day by day students tried to imagine and acted out differently than
previous day and it made my students more creative and motivated. They memorized new vocabulary without
learning it by heart, because they practised them at each lesson. Below you can see examples of role situations
which I used at my lessons.
Roleplay 1: calling in sick
You are calling in sick from home. You’ve got a sore throat, a bad cough and a temperature. You feel guilty
about phoning in sick because it means you’ll miss an important meeting. You spent most of last night preparing
documents for the meeting. Offer to send your work by mail.
You are the customer. You’ve been bitten by an insect of some sort. The bite is red, swollen and painful. Show
it to the chemist and ask for their advice.
Role play 3: at the doctor’s
You are the doctor. You think that there is probably nothing seriously wrong with your patient. You do not want
to prescribe any medicine if possible. Suggest simple home remedies instead.
You are the boss. There is a very important meeting this morning. It’s essential that all members of staff attend.
You suspect that some of your staff are taking time off sick when they don’t really need to.
Roleplay 2: at the chemist
You are the chemist. There has been a plague of tiger mosquitoes in your area. The local health authorities have
asked chemists to report any unusual insect bites. You need to take the name, age and nationality of the patient and
details about where and when they were bitten as well as a contact address or phone number.
Ladousse describes simulation as complicated, durable, and inﬂ exible, but role–playing as elementary, ordinary,
short and ﬂ exible.  Role–playing pretends the participant is acting out and experiencing the hero image in
everyday life, while simulation simulates real life situation. Some aspects of role playing are always included in
simulation. Conducting such lessons I think that role play is an activity which provides fantasy or imagination to
act someone or to be ourselves on a speciﬁ c occasion, creating dialogue and improvising a real world scenario.
Moreover, it increases motivation, develops ﬂ uency and interaction in the target language. Donn Byrne grouped
the role–play into scripted and unscripted. Scripted role play is when students are given ready made dialogue
or text and act it, but unscripted, on the contrary needs the students’ imagination or fantasy to create their own
Simulation is identiﬁ ed as a way of producing an appropriate communicative environment which represents the
reality and students become part of it. The essential advantages of simulation include: (a) meeting students’ need
for realism, a desire to “relate to life ‘out there’ beyond the classroom’s box-like walls”; (b) increasing students’
motivation; (c) getting rid of the normal teacher-student relationship in order to take control of their own destiny
within the simulation, leading towards “declassrooming” the classroom; (d) facilitating the learner to deﬁ ne and
deal with the target culture; (e) cutting concern levels which are innate to developing language.
Role-playing and simulation are appropriate from beginner level to intermediate level. The content of activities
can vary according to the level without changing the purposes such as developing ﬂ uency, encouraging interaction,
constructing communicative competence and making students familiar with real life.
Communicative Language Teaching classroom. It is fundamentally based on everyday life situations where
students communicate in order to get information which they do not have [11, p.41]. Information gap is a type of
activity which facilitates students to make suitable questions to get appropriate answer. It helps them to practise
various types of questions in order to be ready to use them in the real life. Students have to work in pairs and one
student has the information but the other does not. That is why they have to share their information in order to be
informed. The goal of this activity is solving a problem by collecting information. In this activity the role of each
partner is crucial, because if one of them cannot provide his partner with sufﬁ cient information the task will not be
completed. The effectiveness of these activities derives from talking extensively in the target language .
Some researchers and specialists deﬁ ned the beneﬁ ts of using information gap activity in the classes of English
language. They state that information gap activities provide students with a chance to use English inside and
outside the lesson and that activities have real communicative value. Furthermore, from my experience I can say
that it increases conﬁ dence in speaking and it is fun and makes them happy. Also, it is really prepare them to the
Information gap activity is effective from a pre-intermediate level to an upper intermediate level and activities
can be complicated relative to the level. This activity can foster students’ conﬁ dence in real life.
share ideas about some issues or ﬁ nd solutions. She thinks that the purpose of the discussion should be set by the
teacher to be relevant to the topic of the lesson. For effective group discussion Hayriye Kayi suggests not forming
large groups, because, some shy students cannot participate in discussion and always changing the members of
the group in order to give them the opportunity to share their ideas with everybody. However, in my practice this
activity sometimes makes my students be angry. That is why, at the lesson we created some rules as to be polite,
to respect other classmates answers, to listen to the end, to keep time management, to solve or discuss some issues
without offending student’s personal qualities.
Discussion is appropriate at levels such as intermediate, upper intermediate and advanced. It can improve
students ﬂ uency and thinking in the target language.
way to teach students. Yet, it cannot answer today’s demands and I have researched this area in order to replace it
with the Communicative Language Teaching method.
This article is intended to solve current problems such as improving speaking in order to be competitive and to
meet the demands of innovation. Having reviewed different books, journals, and websites and implementing them
in my lessons I came to the conclusion that Communicative Language Teaching is the most appropriate method
to solve these problems. The activities of this method can make students more conﬁ dent, improve their spoken
ﬂ uency and prepare them for any situation in real life. So, covering all these qualities students of our country can
pass any exams which test speaking. Being able to speak English contributes to being successful in school and later
in every phase of life. Therefore, it is essential to pay great attention to teaching speaking.
1. Hayriye, Kayi. (2006). Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language.
University of Nevada, USA. The Internet TESOL Journal, Vol. XII.(November 2006) Retrieved from http://iteslj.
3. Zhang,Y.(2009). Reading to speak: Integrating oral communication skills. English Teaching Forum, 47 (1),
32-34. Retrieved from http://exchanges.state.gov/englishteaching/forum/archives/2009 /09-47-1.html
4. Halliday, M.A.K. (1973). Explorations in the functions of language. London: Edward Arnold.
5. Widdowson, H.G. (1978). Teaching Language as Communication. Oxford: oxford university press. Savignon,
S. (1997). Communicative Competence: theory and Classroom Practice (2
edn.). New York: Mc-Graw-Hill
Jersey. Prentice Hall.
7. Luoma, S. (2004). Assessing speaking (p. 9), Cambridge, Cambridge University press.
8. Patricia, K. Tompkins (1998),Role playing/simulation. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IV, No. 8, August
1998. Retrieved from http://iteslj.org/
9. Ladousse, G. P. (1987). Role play. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
10. Byrne, Donn, Teaching oral English: Longman Handbooks for English Teacher. Singapore: Longman
11. Ozsevik, Z. (2010). The Use of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT): Turkish EFL Teacher’s
Perspective in Implementing CLT in Turkey (p.41). MA Thesis, Graduate College of the University of Illionois at