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Rubinstein wrote, «A lot of work has been devoted to the study of giftedness. However, the results did not
appropriate the amount of time spent for that work”.
This is due to erroneous initial details of many of the studies and the inadequacy of the techniques which they
used for the most part. “Over the years there have been several theories developed on this topical issue in our lives.
The question of talent cannot be taken without viewing topic abilities, as these concepts are very closely related
to each other: “... the following classiﬁ cation ability levels are most often occurs: the ability, talent, talent, genius.”
 “... The category of abilities is among the most important psychological concepts. Consequently, there is a need
in their psychological understanding. “ 
Mr. Averin has very precisely deﬁ ned the problem in the psychology of giftedness: “Among the
most interesting and mysterious phenomena of nature are given to the gifted children and they take
leading places. The problems of diagnosis and the development of the issue concern the teachers for
many centuries. There exists a very high interest which can easily be explained by social needs. “
The overall endowment - an integral level of development of special abilities, which is associated with their
development, but quite enough independent of them. (F. Galton)
The overall endowment - the level of general ability, which determines the range of activities in which people
can achieve great success. The overall endowment is the foundation for the development of special abilities, but
by itself, it is independent of these factors.
The ﬁ rst assumption of the existence of a common genius was put forward by an English scholar. F. Galton in
the middle of the XIX century .
Talent - this is a common ability, revealed in the higher results in performing tasks, as well as the ability in
various ﬁ elds whereby a
special talent - high quality unique combination of abilities, creating the possibility of success in the work,
and the overall endowment - a talent to a wide range of activities or qualitatively unique combination of abilities
which depend on the success of various activities.
Determination of gifted children - a difﬁ cult task, the solution is to use the results of a comprehensive
psychological examination, as well as information about the school and extracurricular achievements of the child,
obtained from parents, teachers and peers. Only this kind of comprehensive approach to diagnosis is recognized
by all scientiﬁ c concepts with the continuing controversial issues on the structure and giftedness development
factors. Numerous psychological studies have changed the original concept of high IQ (intelligence quotient) as
the sole criteria for outstanding achievement and have demonstrated the importance of creativity, personal sphere,
interests and special abilities, and social conditions in the development of talent. Most scientiﬁ c concepts deﬁ ne
creativity as a talent and background to its development associated with creativity and abilities of the child. Gifted
children reveal a strong craving for studies of the activities to which they are capable of. They can literally spend
hours engaged in an issue of interest without getting tired. It’s work and play for them simultaneously. All of their
experiences, interests, searches, questions revolve around these activities. It is easy to understand how much a
child can learn from these incessant activities and how much it would take for a teacher to speciﬁ cally teach them
There is a certain age sequence for a talent. Especially some may open talent for music, then - for drawing.
In general, the gift for art comes earlier than the one for the sciences. Average intellectual gift may evolve at
an unusually high level of mental development (ceteris paribus) as well as quality of mental activity. typical
manifestations of enthusiasm for lessons and creative moments in the activity is a characteristic feature of the
Gift and its individual capacity do not happen by itself. Congenital abilities are the conditions of a very complex
process of formation of individual psychological characteristics and are largely dependent on the environment, the
nature of the activity.
Selected types of gifts include the following:
This kind of talent is supported and developed in special schools, clubs, studios. It implies high achievements
in art and performance skills in music, painting, sculpture, actor’s ability. One of the major problems is that these
abilities should be recognized and respected in a secondary school. These children are devoting a lot of time,
energy, and exercise trying to achieving excellence in their ﬁ eld. They have little opportunity to be successful in
subjects at schools and often need individual programs and the teachers’ and peers’ understanding.
The overall intellectual and academic giftedness
The key point is that children with this kind of talent quickly master the basic concepts, easily memorize and
retain information. Highly developed information-processing abilities allow them to succeed in many ﬁ elds of
Academic talent has a different character, which is manifested in the success of learning speciﬁ c academic
subjects and is more frequent and more selective one.
These children may show good results for the ease and speed of progress in math or foreign language, physics
or biology, and sometimes have poor grades in other subjects which are difﬁ cult for them to learn. Expressed
aspiration in a relatively narrow ﬁ eld creates problems at school and at home. Parents and teachers are sometimes
unhappy with the fact that the child does not learn equally well in all subjects, refuse to recognize his talent and do
not try to ﬁ nd ways to support and develop special talents.
First of all, the debate in appropriateness of this kind of talent is still on. Some experts disagree and
believe that creativity is an essential element of all kinds of gifts that cannot be presented separately from
the creative component. Thus, Mr. Matyushkin insists that there is only one kind of talent - the creative one,
if there is no creativity, no sense talking about the talent. Other researchers support the legitimacy of the
existence of creative talent as a separate, independent type. One of the views is that the talent generates, or
pushes to produce, to introduce new ideas, invent, or to perfect something which has already been created.
However, the researchers show that children with a creative orientation often have a number of behavioral
characteristics that distinguish them, and which is not positively accepted by teachers and the surrounding people:
the lack of attention to the conventions and authority, greater independence of judgment, a subtle sense of humor,
lack of attention for order and organization of work, bright temperament.
Social talent is an exceptional ability to establish mature and constructive relationship with other people.
There are other structural elements of social giftedness as social perception, pro-social behavior, moral judgment,
organizational skills, etc.
Social giftedness serves as a prerequisite for high success in several areas. It involves the ability to understand,
love, empathy, getting along with others, which allows you to be a good teacher, psychologist, social worker.
Thus, ironically, the concept of social endowment covers a wide area of the manifestations associated with
establishing communications easily and the high quality of interpersonal relations. These features allow you to
be a leader, you have to show leadership talent, which can be regarded as a manifestation of social gifts. There
are many deﬁ nitions of leadership talent, which can, however, highlight the general features:
• above-average intelligence;
• Ability to make decisions;
• Ability to deal with abstract concepts, to plan the future, time constraints;
• a sense of purpose, direction;
• Flexibility, adaptability;
• A sense of responsibility;
• Self-conﬁ dence and self-knowledge;
• Ability to clearly express thoughts;
These types of gifts are manifested in different ways and meet the speciﬁ c barriers to their development,
depending on individual characteristics and identity of the child’s environment.