2nd Edition. New York: Longman.
Cohen, L, Manion, L, Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education – 6th Edition. London: Routledge.
№ 2 (6), Часть 2, 2017 г.
Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of disjunctive rendered in Armenian and the syntactic and pragmatic
functions they perform in both languages. Disjunctive questions can be rendered into Armenian in a myriad of ways the
characteristics of which have been studied in the following article.
“Tag questions are syntactically, prosodically and
Armagost as cited in Imad Al-Nabtiti ) [2, p. 1] in the
English language inasmuch as the meanings they con-
vey are rather diverse and only analyzing tag questions
based on aforementioned aspects of language is it possi-
ble to understand the meaning of a tag question. Louis
Alexander propounds the idea that “tags are the essence
of conversational style and are very important in spoken
English.” [1, p. 258]. Hence, tag questions are consid-
ered to be an integral part of spoken English whence
comes the multifunctionality and diversity of meaning.
A great deal of usage of tag questions is found in
fiction. According to Nässlin, “historically they ap-
peared primarily in fiction, replacing declarative ques-
tions”.[5, p. 20]. There exists another function that tag
questions possess in fiction with the help of which au-
thors “signal that an activity is shared or participated in
by both the speaker and the interlocutor (by turning to
the interlocutor for agreement it is revealed that the in-
terlocutor has or is expected to have knowledge about
the proposition) [5, p. 20].
Tag questions can be rendered into Armenian in a
myriad of ways with the help of particles, interjections,
and clauses. The diversity and multifunctionlity of tag
questions pervade in the Armenian language as well
thus expressing various meanings and attitudes on the
part of the speaker. Therefore, there cannot be a single
counterpart but a wide range of equivalents of tag ques-
The following article aims at showcasing how dif-
an and the syntactic functions they perform.
Tag Questions can be rendered as «այնպես չէ՞» or
«այդպես չէ՞». It’s important to note that the rule of
reverse polarity is not usually reflected in Armenian.
1. “It's not a bad scene, is it?” (W. S. Maugham,
“Theatre”, p. 19)
Վատ տեսարան չէր, այնպես չԷ՞: (Ս. Մոեմ
2. “You did meet Charles Strickland, didn’t you?”
(W. S. Maugham, “The Moon
and Sixpence, p. 23)
Դուք ծանոթ եք Չարլզ Ստրիքլենդին, այնպես
», էջ 33)
In the translation of former disjunctive question a
negative statement is followed by a negative tag which
is not possible in English. When it comes to the latter, it
is translated in a way so that the rule of reverse polarity
is not broken.
However, these Armenian counterparts of tag ques-
tions are mainly used in formal conversations and in
colloquial speech they are hardly encountered. With the
help of interjections, certain words and clauses the psy-
chological effects of tag questions will be achieved. For
instance the use of “հա՞” or “չէ՞” substitutes for the tag
question. The rule of reverse polarity does not work in
this respect, that is to say, the English tag may be af-
firmative but it may be translated as “չէ՞” and vice ver-
3. “Well, you must be most starved, ain’t you?”
Դու այդպես սովամահ կարող էիր լինել, չէ՞:
“My Heart’s in the Highlands”, p. 39)
Նա չի կարող ներս մտնել, չէ՞, պա: (Վիլյամ
translated as “չէ՞”, whereas in the second example the
positive tag “can he” is translated as “չէ՞” as well.
We can add that «չէ՞» mainly substitutes for such
tags which follow declarative sentences and «հա՞» can
also substitute for tags which are used after imperative
sentences. The equivalents «հա՞» and «չէ՞» also ex-
press request and demand. Tag questions can also be
rendered as “ այո” which is used for confirmation.
5. “Come and tell me right away, will you?”
(W.S.Maugham “Rain”,p. 26)
Եկեք ինձ միանգամիցասեք, հա՞: (Ս. Մոեմ
6. “You talk like an Englishman, don’t you? (Mark
Twain “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”, p. 142)
Դուք խոսում եք այնպես, կարծես անգլիացի
», Էջ 414)
English tags can also be translated as «ճի՞շտ է» or
«ճիշտ չէ՞». Again the use of «ճի՞շտ է» or «ճիշտ չէ՞»
doesn’t necessarily depend on the polarity of the tag.
7. “She is so immeasurably superior to them, to eve-
rybody on earth, is she not, Nelly?” (Emily Bronte
“Wuthering Heights”, p. 46)
«Քեթին անսահմանորեն շատ բարձր է
նրանից, բարձր է աշխարհում բոլորից, ճիշտչէ՞,
Նելլի»: (Էմիլի Բրենտե «Մոլեգին Հողմերի
Դարավանդը», էջ 62)
8. “You’d expect some member of the Arian race
to help you out a little, wouldn’t you, Mr. Kosak?”
(William Saroyan “Eight Plays”, p. 26)
Դուք հավանորեն կռահեցիք, թե արիական
ցեղի որևէ ներկայացուցիչ անպայման կօգնի ձեզ,
ճիշտ է՞, միստր Կոզակ: ( Վիլյամ Սարոյան
«Պիեսներ» , Էջ 100)
In the former example the negative tag “is she not”
is translated as “
՞” but in the latter example the
The modal words «մի
lish tag, too.
Huckleberry Finn”, p. 64)
», Էջ 414)
10 “I don’t suppose you ever get up that far north,
in summer, do you?” she asked with an air and smiled.
(Th. Dreiser “The Titan”, p. 287)
Դրայզեր «Տիտանը», էջ 381)
Abrahamyan states that «միթե», «չլինի», «չլինի
թե» express unexpectedness and surprise. What’s more,
in certain sentences «միթե» contains a negative force.
[6, p. 73].
American novelist, playwright, poet, literary critic,
and psychotherapist Paul Goodman once said that “To
translate, one must have a style of his own, for other-
wise the translation will have no rhythm or nuance,
which come from the process of artistically thinking
through and molding the sentences; they cannot be re-
constituted by piecemeal imitation.” Hence, authors
showcase their unique and individual style while trans-
lating. For instance, the above mentioned disjunctive
questions could be translated in another way by another
There exists another type of tag question called
echo tags. Louis Alexander defines this type as “a re-
sponse, in tag form, to an affirmative or negative state-
ment by which we may or may not request further in-
formation depending on the intonation we use”.[1, p.
259]. When it comes to rendering this tag form there are
several ways of doing so. An echo tag can be translated
as «իսկապե՞ս» which expresses interest in what has
Echo tags can also be rendered as «միթե՞» or
12 "Michael's going to America.
"Is he?" (W. S. Maugham, “Theatre”, p. 27)
Մայլքը գնում է Ամերիկա:
Միթե՞: (Ս. Մոեմ «Թատրոն», էջ 43)
13. "No, I'm busy."
"Oh, are you? Well, what about tomorrow?" (W. S.
Maugham, “Theatre”, p. 107)
Ո՜չ, զբաղված եմ:
Ա՛հ, իրո՞ք: Իսկ ի՞նչ կասես վաղվա համար:
Ս. Մոեմ «Թատրոն», էջ 163)
into Armenian in a myriad of ways with the help of par-
ticles, interjections and clauses performing various syn-
tactic functions and expressing different meanings and
attitudes. The rule of reverse polarity is not usually re-
flected in Armenian. When it comes to analyzing ways
of rendering questions tags in Armenian the translator’s
individual style should also be taken account of.
English. Carleton University.
Reese B. & Asher N. (n. d.) . Prosody and the Interpretation of Tag Questions. Universitat Pompeu Fabra. 448-462.
Tottie, G., & Hoffman, S. (2006). Tag Questions in British and American English.Journal of English Linguis-
Գիտությունների Ակադեմիայի Տեղեկագիր.
Lending is one of the main banking services. The
bank lending [1, p. 60]. Since 2000 the volumes of con-
sumer crediting of Russia increase. Some reduction oc-
curs only during the appearance of crisis situations in
the economy, the existence of economic instability, the
imposition of economic sanctions.
In most sources of economic literature devoted to
banking theory and practice, mainly discusses only the
economic aspects that arise in the operation of commer-
cial banks. At the same time, the functions of banks (for
example, mediation function) manifest themselves in
impact on certain social processes. The possibility of
regulation of social processes lies in the historically
conditioned ability and the ability of banks to influence
the needs of society in the possession of money, provi-
sion of banking calculations, accumulation of tempo-
rarily free funds etc. But the activities of the bank are
affected not only economic aspects, realized in the final
financial result of activity, but also affect social pro-
cesses . From our point of view, the consideration of
such processes must be associated with the formation of
credit behavior [3, C. 136].
One of the main functions of consumer credit – the
welfare of the population, the acquisition of new goods,
services, the solution to urgent financial problems.
Therefore, the actual credit behavior of the population is
a condition for market expansion of credit services and
operations in the banking segment. However, in the
various literary sources had already suggested that cred-
it human behavior can affect not only economic but also
other factors (e.g. social, such as reference groups, so-
cial networks, the opinions of others).
Data from various statistical sources show that
about 40% of the citizens in the country use consumer
credits in 2003-2004. Among the remaining 60% of the
population who did not use the credits in these years,
18% are people who would like to do it, but did not dare
because of fear not to return the money on time or be-
cause of distrust in banks and the banking sector. Cur-
rently, consumers of credit resources are more than a
third of Russians, according to forecasts of potential
consumers of this service can become about 50% of the
population. Allow use of consumer loans for the pur-
chase of goods and services approximately 54% of the
respondents; exclude it – 42% of Russians. 2/3 of the
citizens who permit this, 68% had experience of taking
out bank loans, while 32% are those who have not tried
to enter into a credit relationship with the bank. Thus,
the analysis showed that there is a fairly large propor-
tion of people who are willing or at least not exclude the
possibility to use credit to solve their financial prob-
lems, but still for various reasons not applied to the
A portrait of a potential borrower of the bank in
of borrower behavior. The authors describe such charac-
teristics as age, gender, financial status, etc. However,
for a more complete and systematic analysis of borrow-
er behavior it is necessary to know not only the demo-
graphic characteristics of the potential borrower, but
also social characteristics: entourage, social networks,
reference groups [4, p. 186].
To improve the practical work of banks in consum-
er lending, it is necessary to create a description of a
potential borrower, which may help banks to develop
new credit programs tailored to the needs of these po-
tential borrowers. Commercial banks, in our view,
should more purposefully and effectively work with
social networks, spreading the needed information about
new credit products and their benefits.
One of the elements of the portrait of a potential
borrower is credit behavior. It is a subspecies of the
financial behavior, which, in turn, also includes invest-
ment, savings and debt behavior. Under the credit be-
havior we mean activity of the potential borrower of the
Bank, which is receiving funds in the form of consumer
credit in bank on conditions of maturity, repayment and
Based on the analysis of various literary sources it
is possible to identify six types of credit behavior:
strong borrowers, forced borrowers, indifferent borrow-
ers, potential borrowers, anti – borrowers and problem-
atic borrowers [5, p. 283].
Strong borrowers are those people who already
have experience in credit behavior, they repeatedly took
a variety of consumer loans at banks, had no problems
with the banks, promptly return the amount of the prin-
cipal debt and interest thereon and have a positive atti-
tude toward the procedure of lending.
Forced borrowers are those who have the negative
experience of lending processes and the relationship
with the bank. However, this type of borrowers will
always exist, as a loan for them would be forced to act,
Indifferent borrowers include persons with little ex-
perience in lending (who addressed to the bank only
once) and a neutral attitude towards the credit. This kind
of borrowers occurs more rarely in banking practice, but
also has the right to exist: perhaps the decision about
getting a loan and applying to the bank were not re-
ceived by the borrower but the members of his family,
so clearly expressed positive or negative attitudes to
credit behavior had not been formed.
Potential borrowers have positive attitude to credit
behavior, but do not have credit experience. They are
called the potential borrowers because under certain
conditions, in the future they can become potential bor-
rowers and customers of the commercial bank.
Anti – borrower is a person with a negative attitude
towards the loan on the basis of the impact of media,
social networks, but do not have credit experience. This
species, as well as "strong borrowers" seems to be the
The problematic borrowers are closed by their cred-
it behavior to anti – borrowers, but unlike them, also not
having credit experience, they do not have negative atti-
tudes towards loans and commercial banks.
Credit behavior of borrowers is often in practice as-
sociated with the social network. By social network we
mean the system of relations and relationships of people
with their immediate environment: family, relatives,
friends, acquaintances and work colleagues, etc.
Members of the network have the following charac-
the credit experience of network members (fami-
sons working in commercial banks, who can tell about
credit products and credit services (so-called "credit
the presence of a certain relationship of network
ly: family members, relatives; friends; colleagues;
the opinion of a particular person about the credit
ence can be both positive and negative)
the discussion of the lending and credit products,
form an important task in the formation of borrower
behavior, so, to be disseminators of information on
credit products and credit services. In this case a par-
ticular person constantly receives through the social
network using members of the network necessary credit
information. Consequently, the man under the influence
of this information in real life situations can carry out
the active credit behavior.
The more often a particular person enters into
communion with those members of the network who
have credit experience, and the more he receives from
these individuals information, more than he trusts the
members of the network, the more he manifests his
credit behavior. Therefore, this person will carry the
same credit behavior like other members of the social
network. Then the individuals, the members of which
social network do not carry out credit behavior are more
likely to be inclined not to use lending practices, and
conversely, individuals whose social network members
carry out active credit behavior will also be prone to it.
Thus, the analysis of credit behavior of prospective
borrowers of the Bank showed that it is directly linked with
the social network surrounding the present borrower.
We present six types of credit behavior which al-
lows draw concrete conclusions about their actions in
the relationship with a commercial bank.