Keywords: glass ceiling, women manager, career barriers, perception of glass ceiling
Both men and women manage different activities in their professional and social lives. Despite the
fact that women constitute more than a half of the population on the plant, they lack the equal percentage
in work labor. Women face various prejudices related to their sex, role and duties the society enforced on
them. The unseen obstacles created by others to prevent women from being promoted to higher managerial
posts is called “glass ceiling”. Women managers sometimes do their best to overcome these obstacles, but
sometimes they have to put up with these obstacles.
Women gain various economical, public and social advantages along with various difficulties.
Sometimes being a mother and family issues make women’s work life more difficult.
In the very beginning of their professional life women come across a lot of problems when they apply
for a job, get salary, being promoted or take part in different professional development courses.
Because of the problems occurred during promotion, there are fewer women in higher managerial
positions than men.
“Glass ceiling” is a term coined in the USA in 1970s. This concept defines the invisible and artificial
obstacles created by organizational prejudices and models in order to prevent women from being promoted
to higher managerial positions. (Wirth 2001:1)
“Glass ceiling” is the obstacles women face in state organizations, educational institutions or non-
profit institutes during the process of being promoted to higher levels. The glass ceiling is used to show
the uncertainness of the problem.
We can classify the general aspects which cause “glass ceiling” into main three categories:
Individual aspects: These are the aspects made from individual choices and perceptions related to the
fact that women try to escape from the responsibilities caused by their promotion which may lead to
misbalance in their family lives. Women tend to think that their family life can be affected by promotion
and this idea stop them struggling and lead to lack of self-confidence, thus making them see the other
women as their rivals and all these aspects build “glass ceiling”.
Organizational aspects: The fact that high managerial posts are occupied mostly by men builds a glass
ceiling for women trying to reach higher levels. The managers tend to think that men are able to perform
much better than women; therefore they send more men to professional development courses. The next
glass ceiling is build by the prejudices of men thinking that women are not able to perform their
responsibilities successfully if they are promoted to higher levels. At the same time men make various
barriers for women in order to be promoted for higher positions by giving them less work and fewer
responsibilities because of their roles in the family instead of supporting them.
The next barrier is the queen bee syndrome, where women start changing their attitudes and
resembling men and treat other female workers like men do. Moreover it is considered to be a big success
if there is an only woman in higher level posts.
Social aspects: These are the aspects which lead to the fact that in society the responsibilities are
divided as those unique for men and unique for women. For instance the professions related to
engineering, management and administrations considered to be male professions, whereas professions like
secretary, teacher and nurse considered being professions which are appropriate for women. Moreover the
idea that management should be strong and women should be weak is widely spread.
The Strategies To Break Glass Ceiling: In order to break glass first of all women should realize their personal aims by applying different
objectives. At the same time organizations also apply various strategies in order to benefit from women’s
Individual strategies: In order to possess a successful career people should get a good education. At
the same time improving social relationships in workplace will accommodate women in men’s world.
In order to break glass ceiling barrier it is expected that women should work more than they used to
work and perform extraordinary skills and abilities.
Female managers tend to sacrifice personal their personal lives in order to keep balance between their
work and family and succeed in their professional career.
1) refuse to have a family,
2) have fewer children,
3) when children are older they start working again,
4) while they bring up their children they get help from senior members of the family or refer to
support of professional consultants.
Organizational strategies: The existence of specific workplace culture may break the glass ceiling for
female managers who wish to develop further. Appropriate strategies should be implemented in order to
help women to have balance between work and family. Therefore in many countries there are day care
centers at workplaces and maternity and family leaves are legalized and flexible working hours are
There should be special career programmes for women who want to succeed in their career and have
potential to do that.
If in the country there is no equal status at workplace for both men and women this country is not
considered to be civilized. If the amount of women is not increased on administrative posts in companies
and governmental institutions, the welfare level in society will not increase.
If the women are offered opportunities even the ones who do not have proper education and skills are
able to achieve impossible. By creating barriers for women man in fact create glass ceiling for their future.
References: 1.Taskın E.,Cetin A. Kadın Yoneticilerin Cam Tavan Algısının Cam Tavanı Asma Stratejilerine
Etkisi - Dumlupınar Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi Sayı 33, Agustos 2012
2.Yonetim ve Ekonomi 2007 Cilt 14 Sayı 2 Celal Bayar Universitesi Manisa
3. Ogut A. Selcuk Universitesi Isletme Bolumu
4. Wirth L.(2001).Breaking Through The Glass Ceiling Women In Management, International Labour
ИНЖЕНЕР ФАКУЛЬТЕТІ «АҚПАРАТТЫҚ ЖҮЙЕЛЕР» ЖӘНЕ «КОМПЬЮТЕРЛІК ИНЖЕНЕРИЯ» КАФЕДРАЛАРЫ “ЕСЕПТЕУ ЖҮЙЕЛЕРІН ҚҰРЫЛҒЫМЕН ҚАМТАМАСЫЗ ЕТУ ” СЕКЦИЯСЫ УДК 62-501
Bayekeyeva A Supervisior: MULTI-FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMABLE LED CUBE (WITH ARDUINO)
Abstract In 2011, in his message to the nation, the head of state Nursultan Nazarbayev, said that it is necessary
to introduce new technologies in the educational process and to give a more time-consuming for the further
development of the latest technologies in Kazakhstan. So,Arduino is one of them
If I’m not mistaken, Arduino microcontroller is used in KZ, only the second year. Arduino -an
electronic designer, with an open architecture for easy prototyping devices and programs for them. It is
designed for professionals, inventors, hobbyists, and for anyone who wants to create an electronic device.
Introduction: Nowadays, a lot of time is spent for creating and using new technologies. One of them is the Arduino
microcontroller .This microcontroller designed to make the process of using electronics in projects more
accessible. One of the advantages of this microcontroller, that it is not expensive and can be easily
Before taking this kind of diploma thesis, I have read many articles about projects Led Cube, many
of them controlled by Arduino, the rest of them not. There is no a big differences between them. The main
difference is of course – Arduino. And also some differences in component list.
Materials and methods: - The main material is Arduino Uno microcontroller.
- resisters, many leds
- Integrated Circuit
- PCB or breadboard
Firstly, I replaced microcontroller to Arduino, mainly to Arduino Uno
Second, I decided to use bread board instead of PCB board. Because, it is more comfortable to work
Conclusions: As I said before, our country starting to use new technologies in creating new products. Last year, in
our university, in SDU, some students taked Arduino, to make their diploma thesis. But this year, number
of students increased. This shows that, students are interested on it. It is good.
For me with Arduino we can gain more skills that will be useful in the future date. I think that in the
future , there will be developed Arduino based controllers. Arduino and this is only the beginning, and
every engineer should try to learn it.
Literature cited: 1. http://www.arduinobook.com/
3. Joe Hudy. 3x3x3 Led Cube Arduino Shield. April 10, 2012 year. Available on:
4. Mike Szczys. 7x7x7 LED cube driven by Arduino mega. January 31, 2013.
Available on: http://hackaday.com/2013/01/31/7x7x7-led-cube-driven-by-arduino-mega/
Electronic educational board for learning Kazakh alphabet Aminova Zhanargul Abstract Everyone knows that in order to speak any language fluently and express own thoughts, we must learn
the alphabet firstly. Consequently, everybody tries to learn it from kinder garden ages. My project
generally devoted to children and purpose of Interactive talking poster "Әліппе" - to allow the children to
learn the Kazakh alphabet faster. Kazakh language consists of 42 letters. And my project consists of many
songs and different patters which can make interest the children. It can be also helpful for kids to
distinguish the colors and pictures.
Introduction What is Alphabetic Knowledge? •Letter shape recognition
• Letter name knowledge
• Letter sound knowledge
• Ability to print letters
• Rapid letter naming
Why is the alphabet important? • Letter-name knowledge before formal reading instruction is one of the strongest predictors of
children’s reading ability.
Interactive talking poster "Әліппе" will helps your kids to learn letters, numbers, colors, new
words, 3 patters and cheerful song. Features: 1. clicking the button "Үйрену", it allows child to learn the
alphabet and says its entire letters in order and they can call the each figure by clicking them. When you
press the button “number”, you can see the different numbers which are represented by colors. 2. Next
feature named "Сынақ" will allows for kids pass the exam to check how they revise it. If child gives a
correct answer "Әліппе" will praise them, otherwise, gives second chance for try again. Finally if they
didn’t give right answer, they will automatically be transmitted to the next question. Third feature "Ойын"
helps to recognize the different images. In case they answer correctly, "Әліппе" will praise your child,
otherwise, asks them to try once more. 4. When you press the button"Ән айтайық", "Әліппе" suggest
child sing cheerful songs. But when they press the "Жаңылтпаштар", it proposes for child to learn three
funny patters. Poster can be placed on a table or on the wall. There have other buttons like a volume
control, which you can turn it off to save the battery.
I will do this project using Arduino. Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based
on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. It's intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone
who is interested in
creating interactive objects or environments .
Conclusion I think this “Interactive talking poster” will be useful for all parents who want to teach their children.
Since, it is a poster which you can drag around and stick on the wall easily.
This thesis discusses a drawing robot. I had used Arduino microcontroller and other
microelectronic staffs to developing my mobile platform robot which code name is “van Gogh”. The
main aim of this robot is to draw figures and pictures by itself. Van Gogh explores the relationship
between technology and creativity.
15. INTRODUCTION 16.
Although the science of robotics only came about in the 20th century, the history of human-
invented automation has a much lengthier past. In fact, the ancient Greek engineer Hero of Alexandria,
produced two texts, Pneumatica and Automata, that testify to the existence of hundreds of different
kinds of “wonder” machines capable of automated movement. Of course, robotics in the 20th and
21stcenturies has advanced radically to include machines capable of assembling other machines and even
robots that can be mistaken for human beings.
To start take a look at what is a robot. This automatic device used for production and other
operations normally performed by man.  Today, robotics is gaining momentum. More and more
money charges for the development of new and advanced robots. Just want to add that robotics has found
its application in various fields, like medicine, education, services and even public safety.
18. 19. METHODS 20.
I am using the qualitative method to collect information from the Internet. Literature review
will be based on the practical use of parts to build the robot.
To make a successful drawing, the marker must stay in contract with the drawing surface
while robot draws. Force sensors at attached to the gripper are used to sense the force applied by the
marker on the drawing surface. Force control must be ensure that the marker neither presses too hard nor
leaves the surface when a line is being drawn. This section will detail the force control used by robot to
ensure proper drawing surface contact.
The free space trajectory control of robots has been performed successfully with industrial
and research robots for many years. The rubbertuator-based robots designed by Bridgestone were
intended to perform industrial painting tasks where the robot would follow a trajectory in free space.
Force control presents a much more challenging task. The challenge is to achieve both a desired force
and a desired trajectory while the end-effector is contracting a rigid surface. Recently, much research has
been dedicated to the problem of achieving a desired force and trajectory simultaneously. There are two
main techniques implemented to solve the force/position problem. The first approach is hybrid
force/position control. In this technique, only position or force is controlled at any instance of time. The
second approach is impedance control, in which both force and position are controlled simultaneously.
25. RESULTS 26.
I successfully create the robot drawing simple shapes. The robot was able to estimate the
positions in order to reproduce the drawing pictures and figures. Force sensors were used to keep a
constant pressure as robot drew an image. Entertainment robots are an interesting application. As
technology continues to improve, robots will become more flexible.
28. DISCUSSION 29.
Doodle bot is a project with very similar purposes, but not using arduino microcontroller. It
controlling with universal TV remote. Also Hector project is a portable Spray-paint Output
Device for laptop computers. Hektor’s light and fragile installation consists only of two
motors, toothed belts and a can holder that handles regular spray cans. The can is
moved along drawing pa ths just as the human hand or old plotters would.
30. 31. LITERATURE CITED 32.
As the problem of urban traffic congestion spreads, there is a pressing need for the introduction of
advanced technology and equipment to improve the state-of-the-art of traffic control. Traffic problems
nowadays are increasing because of the growing number of vehicles and the limited resources provided
by current infrastructures. The simplest way for controlling a traffic light uses timer for each phase.
Another way is to use electronic sensors in order to detect vehicles, and produce signal that cycles. We
propose a system for controlling the traffic light by image processing. The system will detect vehicles
through images instead of using electronic sensors embedded in the pavement. A camera will be
installed alongside the traffic light. It will capture image sequences. The image sequence will then be
analyzed using digital image processing for vehicle detection, and according to traffic conditions on the
road traffic light can be controlled..
Automatic traffic monitoring and surveillance are important for road usage and management.
Traffic parameter estimation has been an active research area for the development of intelligent
Transportation systems (ITS). For ITS applications traffic- information needs to be collected and
distributed. Various sensors have been employed to estimate traffic parameters for updating traffic
information. Magnetic loop detectors have been the most used technologies, but their installation
and maintenance are inconvenient and might become incompatible with future ITS infrastructure.
It is well recognized that vision-based camera system are more versatile for traffic parameter
estimation [l,4]. In addition to qualitative description of road congestion, image measurement can
provide quantitative description of traffic status including speeds, vehicle counts, etc. Moreover,
quantitative traffic parameters can give us complete traffic flow information, which fulfills the
requirement of traffic management theory. Image tracking of moving vehicles can give us
quantitative description of traffic flow.
In the present work the designed system aims to achieve the following.
Distinguish the presence and absence of vehicles in road images;
Signal the traffic light to go red if the road is empty;
Signal the traffic light to go red if the maximum time for the green light has elapsed even if
there are still vehicles present on the road.
Components of the current project
Image sensors: In this project a USB based web camera has been used.
Computer: A general purpose PC as a central unit for various image processing tasks has been
used. Platform: consisting of a few toy vehicles and LEDs (prototype of the real world traffic light
control system). Software Module
MATLAB version 7.8 as image processing software comprising of specialized modules that
perform specific tasks has been used. Interfacing
The interfacing between the hardware prototype and software module is done using parallel port
of the personal computer. Parallel port driver has been installed in the PC for this purpose.
Following are the steps involved
RGB to gray conversion
Image matching using edge detection
Initially image acquisition is done with the help of web camera
First image of the road is captured, when there is no traffic on the road
This empty road’s image is saved as reference image at a particular location specified in the
RGB to gray conversion is done on the reference image
Now gamma correction is done on the reference gray image to achieve image enhancement
Edge detection of this reference image is done thereafter with the help of Prewitt edge
Images of the road are captured.
RGB to gray conversion is done on the sequence of captured images
Now gamma correction is done on each of the captured gray image to achieve image
Edge detection of these real time images of the road is now done with the help of prewitt edge
detection operator Phase3:
After edge detection procedure both reference and real time images are matched and
traffic lights can be controlled based on percentage of matching.
If the matching is between 0 to 10% - green light is on for 90 seconds. If the matching is
between 10 to 50% - green light is on for 60 seconds. If the matching is between 50 to 70% - green
light is on for 30 seconds. If the matching is between 70 to 90% - green light is on for 20 seconds. If
the matching is between 90 to 100% - red light is on for 60 seconds.