тұлғаны бейнелеп жеткізудегі ең ұтымды тҽсіл. Сондай-ақ мҽтінге
эмоционалдық реңк тудыратын, халық тілінде дүние танумен қалыптасқан
негізгі тілдік белгілер. Еркін тіркесті сҿз оралымдарына нақты
материалдар арқылы кҿз жеткізелік. Мысалы, Сол дәйектерді тағы бір
жаңғыртып ӛтсек, жаңа Қазақстанның жаңа тарихындағы жасампаз
тұлға жарқырап шыға келді («Егемен Қазақстан», 07.01.11). Ол – біздің
Қазақстан», 07.01.11). ЕХРО – 2017 кӛрмесін Қазақстанда ӛткізу туралы
(«Дат», 12.01.11). Ал біз оны іске асыра алдық, себебі біздің кӛшбасшымыз
Қоғам дамуындағы ҿзгерістер тілге ҽсер ететітні дҽлелденген аксиома.
Ҽрбір сҿз ҿз кезегінде актив қолданыста немесе керісінше болатыны
белгілі. Мҽтіндегі ақпараттың ҽсерлілігі, бейнелігігі ондағы сҿз қолдану
тҽсілдерімен тікелей байланысты. Кез келген ақпараттық мҽтіннің
энергетикалық сипаты сҿз ойнату, логоэпистемалар, антонимдік
конструкциялар т.б. интенсификаторлардың қасуымен ерекшеленді.
Логоэпистемалар реципиентке бұрыннан таныс мҽтіндерден алынып,
ҿзгеріссіз немесе трансформацияланған дҽйексҿздер мҽтінде белгілі бір
астарлы мҽн тудырып, онда баяндалатын оқиғаға қандай да бір баға береді
Ҽсіресе, ҽдеби шығармалардан алынған логоэпистемалар қазіргі қазақ
газеттерінде жиі қолданады деуге болады. Мысалы, Қабдеш, «қайда
кҿбіне тырнақшада беріліп, оқырманның назарын, пайымын жасырын
астарға мҽн беруге бағдар береді. Жоғарыда келтіріген мысал кҿркем
ҽдебиеттегі «Керей, қайда барасың?» деген толғаумен сҽйкестендіріліп,
трансформацияланған. Оқырманға бұрыннан таныс ұғымдардың күтпеген
жерден ҿзгеріп кетуі, газет мҽтінінің қабылдану қарқындылығын күшейте
Қазіргі таңда газет мҽтінінде «ҿзім» концептісін танытатын саяси
клишелерден бағамдауымызға болады. Саяси клише — мҽтінде саяси
құбылысты, оқиғаны немесе саяси тұлғаны танудан, бағалаудан туындаған
номинативті тіркестер. Саяси клише аз сҿзге кҿп мағынаны үстейді, яғни
ақпараттың қысқа да, нұсқа түрін береді. Саяси клишені ұғыну үшін
мҽтіндегі контекст мазмұнын бағамдау қажет. Кей тұста саяси клишелер
контексте қолданулыуына байланысты түрлі мағыналық қабаттарға ие.
«Ҿзім» концептісіндегі саяси клишелер кҿшбасшы, тұғыр, лидер т.б.
сҿздердің байланысы негізінде құралады. Мысалы, Тәуелсіздіктің
(«Егемен Қазақстан», 22.01.11). Қазақстан ұлттық және рухани лидер
(«Егемен Қазақстан», 05.01.12)
«Ҿзім» концептісін жинақтай келген мынадай қорытынды
тұжырымдар жасуға болады:
Газет мҽтініндегі «ҿзім» саяси концептісі ҿзіндік «менді» бағалау
арқылы беріліп, саяси ақпараттық ҽлемнің тілдік бейнесін анықтайды;
«Ҿзім» концептісі күрделі тілдік элемент болғандықтан, лексика-
Сондықтан оның семантикалық элемнеттері сҿйлемде, мҽтінде тұтас
немесе жекелік күйде анықталады.
«Ҿзім» тілдік бірлігін концептуализациялау белгілі бір тілдік
ұстанымдарға сүйеніп жасалады, сондай-ақ, адамзат санасында
бейнеленген, ҿңделген саяси ақпараттардың тілдік кешенді жасауда
маңызды рол атқарады.
концептов и их особенности и использования в газетных статьях.
use are considered.
Уҽли Н. Қазақ тілінің орфоэпиялық анықтағышы. Алматы, 2004. — 198 б
4. Вольф Е. М. Функциональная семантика оценки. М, 2002. – 280 с.
5. Есенова Қ.Ҿ. Қазіргі қазақ медиа-мҽтінінің прагматикасы. Алматы, 2007.-
6.Қалиев Б. Қ, Жеребаева Л. Р Қазақ тіліндегі тілдік перифраздар. Алматы,
2011. – 138 б.
7.Қасым Б. Күрделі аталым жасалымы: когнитивтік-дискурстық ұстаным
(Зерттеулер) – Алматы, 2010. – 383 б.
8.Сыбанбаева А. С. Қазақ тіліндегі концептуалдық метафораның қызметі.
Ғылым магистрі, «Сырдария» университетінің
Words change their meaning and sometimes drop out of the language
altogether. New words spring up and replace the old ones. Some words stay in
the language a very long time and do not lose their faculty of gaining new
meanings and becoming richer and richer polysemantically.
Other words live but a short time and are like bubbles on the surface of
water — they disappear leaving no trace of their existence. In registering these
processes the role of dictionaries can hardly be over-estimated. Dictionaries
serve to retain this or that word in a language either as a relic of ancient times,
where it lived and circulated, or as a still living unit of the system, though it may
have lost some of its meanings. They may also preserve certain nonce-creations,
which were never intended for general use. In every period in the development
of a literary language one can find words which will show more or less apparent
changes in their meaning or usage, from full vigour, through a moribund state, to
death, i. e. complete disappearance of the unit from the language. Usually we do
not notice the change that takes place during our own time because it happens
quite slowly. But if we take a look back over a considerable span of time,
language change becomes more obvious
If we touch the problem of historical development we can not pass over in
silence peculiarities of early English language, and comparison between initial
and today‘s English. Such line of investigation considers diachronic approach to
the main question of this course work – archaisms in literature. It‘s very
important to reveal the notion of archaism, the sphere of usage, origin and many
other essential components that are comprised by the word ―Archaism‖.
Besides the direct investigation of archaisms I included information about
neologisms, as contrary notion, and also about retronyms. All the aspects stated
above will be carefully investigated in this work; moreover there will be
included olden text with and analysis of poetry. 1General information about
archaisms Archaisms are words which are no longer used in everyday speech,
which have been ousted by their synonyms. Archaisms remain in the language,
but they are used as stylistic devices to express solemnity. Most of these words
are lexical archaisms and they are stylistic synonyms of words which ousted
them from the neutral style. Some of them are: steed (horse), slay (kill), behold
phrase, or the use of spelling, letters, or syntax that have passed out of use.
Because they are both uncommon and dated, archaisms draw attention to
themselves when used in general communication. Writers of historical novels, as
well as historians and film makers, for example, do their best to represent time
and culture accurately and avoid unintentional archaisms. Creating a fictional
character from times past may require extensive research into and knowledge of
archaisms. An example of a fairly common archaism involving spelling and
letters is businesses that include Ye Olde in their name.
The word Ye does not actually start with a y, as it may appear; it begins
with the letter thorn which has passed out of use. Thorn was a letter used to spell
the sound we now spell with the consonant digraph th. Hence, Ye is pronounced
as and means the. Olde reflects a spelling from Middle English of the word we
now write as old. Businesses may use such archaisms to invoke a mood or
atmosphere — as in Ye Olde Tea Shoppe or The Publick Theare; or to convey
something about their product — as in Olde Musick and Cokery Books, an
Australian firm specializing in sheet music and recipes from the past. Certain
phrases are associated with rituals and traditions, and though they would not be
considered current if used in general speech or writing, they continue to be used
in the venues or situations in which they are meaningful. For example, phrases
such as ―thou shalt‖ and ―thou shalt not‖ are considered archaic in general use,
but being part of the common English translation of the Ten Commandments,
they continue to be repeated and used in that context without calling attention to
themselves. Syntax falls into this category as well. Legal writs characteristically
include lists of phrases beginning Whereas, followed by one beginning therefore
— an archaic style and structure not typically found elsewhere.
Archaisms can also be put to good use when they are carefully chosen to
create irony or humor. One could, for example, mock the triviality of an errand
run by saying, ―Alas, I must away on my journey betimes. I must traverse the
roads, journeying hither and yon in search of muffins.‖ Used seriously in general
discourse, however, archaisms can seem affected or be misunderstood.
Sometimes a lexical archaism begins a new life, getting a new meaning,
then the old meaning becomes a semantic archaism, e.g. ―fair‖ in the meaning
―beautiful‖ is a semantic archaism, but in the meaning ―blond‖ it belongs to the
neutral style. Sometimes the root of the word remains and the affix is changed,
then the old affix is considered to be a morphemic archaism, e.g. ―beauteous‖ -
ous was substituted by - ful, ―bepaint‖ - be- was dropped, ―darksome‖ -some
was dropped, ―oft‖ -en was added etc. In language, an archaism is the use of a
form of speech or writing that is no longer current.
This can either be done deliberately (to achieve a specific effect) or as part
of a specific jargon (for example in law) or formula (for example in religious
contexts). Many nursery rhymes contain archaisms. Archaic elements that only
occur in certain fixed expressions (for example ―be that as it may‖) are not
considered to be archaisms. Usage Archaisms are most frequently encountered
Their deliberate use can be subdivided into literary archaisms, which seeks
to evoke the style of older speech and writing; and lexical archaisms, the use of
words no longer in common use. Archaisms are kept alive by these ritual and
literary uses and by the study of older literature. Should they remain recognised,
they can be revived, as the word anent was in the past century. Some, such as
academic and amateur philologists, enjoy learning and using archaisms either in
speech or writing, though this may sometimes be misconstrued as pseudo-
intellectualism. Archaisms are frequently misunderstood, leading to changes in
usage. One example is the use of the archaic familiar second person singular
pronoun ―thou‖ to refer to God in English Christianity. Although originally a
familiar pronoun, it has been misinterpreted as a respectful one by many modern
Another example is found in the phrase ―the odd man out‖, which
originally came from the phrase ―to find the odd man out‖, where the verb ―to
find out‖ has been split by its object ―the odd man‖, meaning the item which
does not fit. The compound adverbs and prepositions found in the writing of
lawyers (e.g. heretofore, hereunto, thereof) are examples of archaisms as a form
of jargon. Some phraseologies, especially in religious contexts, retain archaic
elements that are not used in ordinary speech in any other context: "
With this ring I thee wed." Archaisms are also used in the dialogue of
historical novels in order to evoke the flavour of the period. Some may count as
inherently funny words and are used for humorous effect. The process of words
aging We shall distinguish three stages in the aging process of words: The
beginning of the aging process when the word becomes rarely used. Such words
are called obsolescent, i.e. they are in the stage of gradually passing out of
To this category first of all belong morphological forms belonging to the
earlier stages in the development of the language. In the English language these
are the pronouns thou and its forms thee, thy and thine, the corresponding verbal
ending -est and the verb-forms art, wilt (thou makest, thou wilt), the ending -
(e)th instead of -(e)s (he maketh) and the pronoun ye. To the category of
obsolescent words belong many French borrowings which have been kept in the
literary language as a means of preserving the spirit of earlier periods, e. g. a
pallet (a straw mattress); a palfrey (a small horse); garniture (furniture); to
peplume (to adorn with feathers or plumes). The second group of archaic words
are those that have already gone completely out of use but are still recognised by
the English-speaking community: e. g. methinks (it seems to me); nay (=no).
These words are called obsolete. The third group, which may be called archaic
proper, are words which
are no longer recognizable in modern English, words that were in use in Old
English and which have either dropped out of the language entirely or have
changed in their appearance so much that they have become unrecognizable, e.
g. troth (=faith); a losel (=a worthless, lazy fellow).It will be noted that on the
diagram the small circles denoting archaic and poetic words overlap and both
This indicates that some of the words in these layers do not belong to the
present-day English vocabulary. The borderlines between the groups are not
distinct In fact they interpenetrate. It is especially difficult to distinguish
between obsolete and obsolescent words. But the difference is important when
we come to deal with the stylistic aspect of an utterance in which the given word
serves a certain stylistic purpose.
Obsolete and obsolescent words have separate functions, as we shall point
oirt later. There is still another class of words, which is erroneously classed as
archaic, viz. historical words. By-gone periods in the life of any society are
marked by historical events, and by institutions, customs, material objects, etc.
which are no longer in use, for example: -Thane, yeoman, goblet, baldric, mace.
Words of this typeriever disappear from the language.
They are historical terms and remain as terms referring to definite stages
in the development of society and cannot therefore be dispensed with though the
things and phenomena to which they refer have long passed into oblivion. This,
the main function of archaisms, finds different interpretation in- different novels
.by different writers. Some writers overdo things in this respect, the result being
that the reader finds all kinds of obstacles in his way. Others under-estimate the
necessity of introducing obsolete or obsolescent elements into their narration
and thus fail to convey what is called "local colour". Alternative meanings In
anthropological studies of culture, archaism is defined as the absence of writing
and subsistence economy. In history, archaism is used to connote a superior,
albeit mythical, "golden age." Neologisms New words and expressions or
neologisms are created for new things irrespective of their scale of importance.
They may be all-important and concern some social relationships, such as a new
form of state, e. g. People's Republic, or something threatening the very
existence of humanity, like nuclear war. Or again they may be quite insignificant
and short-lived, like fashions in dancing, clothing, hair-do or footwear, as the
already outdated jitterbug and pony-tail. In every case either the old words are
appropriately changed in meaning or new words are borrowed, or more often
coined out of the existing language material according to the patterns and ways
productive in the language at a given stage of its development. Retronym A
retronym is a type of neologism coined for an old object or concept whose
original name has come to be used for something else, is no longer unique, or is
otherwise inappropriate or misleading. The term was coined by Frank
Mankiewicz and popularized by William Safire in 1980 in the New York Times.
Many of these are created by advances in technology.
However, a retronym itself is a neological word coinage consisting of the
original noun with a different adjective added, which emphasises the distinction
to be made from the original form. In 2000, the American Heritage Dictionary,
4th edition was the first major dictionary to include the word retronym.
Examples of retronyms are acoustic guitar (coined when electric guitars
appeared), or Parallel ATA (necessitated by the introduction of Serial ATA) as
a term for the original Advanced Technology Attachment. World War I was
prompted the term terrestrial radio. Posthumous names awarded in East Asian
cultures to royalty after their death can be considered retronyms too, although
their birth names will remain unambiguous.
Careless use of retronyms in historical fiction can cause anachronisms. For
example, referring to the "First World War" in a piece set in 1935 would be
incorrect — "The Great War" and "14-18 War" were commonly employed
descriptions. Anachronistic use of a retronym could also betray a modern
document forgery (such as a description of the First Battle of Bull Run before
the second had taken place).
List of archaic English words and their modern equivalents This is a list
of archaic English words and their modern equivalents. These words and
spellings are now considered archaic or obsolescent within the current status of
the English language. Given both the rapidity of change in modern English and
the number of versions used by nations and cultures, it should be borne in mind
that dates are approximate and that the information here may not apply to all
versions of English.
The evolution of the English language is characterised by three phases.
The first period dates from approximately 450 (the settlement of the Angles,
Saxons and Jutes in England) to 1066 AD (the Norman Conquest). At this time
the language made use of almost full inflexion, and is called Anglo-Saxon, or
more exactly Old English. The second period dates from the Norman Conquest
to probably c.1400 (though some books differ on when this period ends) and is
called Middle English. During this time the majority of the inflections
disappeared, and many Norman and French words joined the language because
of the profound influence of the Anglo-Norman ruling class. The third period
dates from about 1400 to today (2006), and is known as Modern English, though
until recently it was called New English. During the Modern English period,
thousands of words have been derived by scholars from the Classical languages.
The impact of dictionaries in the definition of obsolescent or archaic forms has
caused the standardisation of spelling, hence many variant forms have been
consigned to the dustbin of history.
List of archaic English words and their modern equivalents Original word
Origin Meaning Example Comments art form of the verb 'to be from Old
English eart present second-person singular form of the verb be. …Who may
Biblical/Shakespearian/poetical language astonied past participle of 'astony'
from Middle English astonien < Old French estoner < Vulgar Latin *extonare =
'to thunder' to stun, amaze, or astonish; astound or bewilder …and I sat astonied
unitl the evening sacrifice used in Biblical/Shakespearian/poetical language
betwixt from Old English betweohs or dative betweoxum (between) between
Biblical/Shakespearian/poetical language, also used in some Southern and
Appalachian dialects of the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries.
bilbo From Bilbao, Spain, the best known place of manufacture an obscure and
Baggins is a fictional character.) bobbish from bob move up and down, dance,
rebound + -ish brisk, well Used in 1860s Bouncable unknown by smelliness a
swaggering boaster Used in 1860s Bridewell from the London prison of that
name a prison Used in 1860s (and in common current use in Nottingham where
the police station attached to the Magistrates' Court is called The Bridewell)
caddish from the noun cad wicked the noun 'cad' is dying out cag-mag unknown
decaying meat Used in 1860s chalk scores unknown a reference to accounts of
debt, recorded with chalk marks Used in 1860s coddleshell unknown codicil; a
modification to one's legal will Used in 1860s Coiner unknown a counterfeiter
Used in 1860s connexion From French "Connexion" variant spelling of
connection Imagination could conceive almost anything in connexion with this
place. (At the Mountains of Madness, by H.P. Lovecraft) Used in the 19th
century costermonger coster comes from Costard, a type of cooking apple,
monger means trader or seller a greengrocer, seller of fruit and vegetables
fishmonger, ironmonger and warmonger are among the surviving words ending
in -monger cove unknown a fellow or chap It's what a cove knows that counts,
ain't it, Sybil? (The Difference Engine, by Bruce Sterling and William Gibson)
Used in 1860s craze Old Norse, through Old French to shatter Used in 14th
Century. A remnant survives in the phrase "cracked and crazed", also in
ceramics where a glaze that has fine lines like cracks is called a craze.
Бұл мақала ағылшын тіліндегі архаизмдер жҽне ағылшын тіліндегі үш кезеңдегі
тілдің ҿзгерулері жайында жазылған.
В этой статье рассматриваются архаизмы в английском языке и три периода
изменения английского языка.
1.Позднякова Н. « История английской и американской литературы»,
2.―English literary‖ Klimenko E., Egunova N., 1999
3.―Readings in English Classics‖ Golitsynskiy U., M., 2002
4.―Wonderful adventures‖ Home reading, S-Pt, 1999
5.―Daniel Defoe‖ Anicst A., M.,2000
6.―English poetry in Russian translations‖ M.,2006